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The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 
















Pd;li.= — Town in Jodhpur State, Rajputana; situated in lat. 25° 46' n., 
and long. 73° 25' 15" e., on the route from Nasirabad (Nusseerabad) 
to Disa (Deesa), 108 miles south-west of the former cantonment. An 
ancient place, acquired by the Rahtors of Kanauj in 1 156 a.d. It is the 
chief mart of Western Rajputana, being placed at the intersection of the 
great commercial road from Mandavi in Cutch to the Northern States, 
and from Mahva to Bahawalpur and Sind. It was formerly surrounded 
by a wall ; 'and in consequence,' whites Thornton, 'its possession was 
frequently contested by conflicting parties during the civil wars of 
Jodhpur, until, at the desire of the inhabitants, the defences were 
demolished ; and their ruins now give the place an air of desolation, 
at variance with its actual prosperity.' Pali was visited and described 
by Colonel James Tod {A?inals of Rdjasthdii) in 1819, by whom its 
commercial revenues were computed at ^^7500 per annum ; they now 
amount to about ^10,000. In 1836, Pali was visited by a disease 
locally known as the Pali plague, which closely resembled the Levan- 
tine plague. In June 1882, Pali was connected by a branch line 
with the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway, starting from Bitiira station. 
Water-supply abundant. 

Pali. — Pargand in Shahabdd iahsil, Hardoi District, Oudh. Bounded 
/n the north by pargn?id Pachhoha ; on the east by the Garra river, 
separating it from pargands Shahabad and Saromannagar ; on the 
south by Barwan ; and on the west and south-west by the Sendha river. 
The villages skirting the Garra, though light of soil, are the best in the 
pargand. In some of them the lands remain moist, by percolation 
from the river, till IsLarch or April, so that irrigation is scarcely required. 



In others, where the river runs between higher banks and with a 
narrower flood-basin, fine crops of opium, tobacco, and vegetables are 
raised along the river bank, owing to the ease with which a never- 
faiUng supply of water is drawn from it. West of these villages, a 
belt of high, dry, uneven, unproductive bhiir, with an average breadth 
of about 3 miles, runs parallel with the Garra. All the villages in this 
tract have been rated in the third or fourth class. Here rents are low 
and wells are few. In some of the villages there is no irrigation at all. 
To the west of this tract, and up to the boundary stream of the Sendha, 
breadths of d/idk jungle intersected by narrow marshy Jhils^ along 
whose edges cultivation is gradually extending, alternate with treeless 
ridges of thinly cropped bhur. Many of the jungle villages are fairly 
productive, with average soil and good water-supply ; but in some the 
soil is cold, stiff, and unproductive, and in almost all, cultivators are 
still few, rents are low, and much mischief is done by wild animals. 
In the extreme west of the pargand, as in the east along the Garra, a 
narrow strip of moderately good land fringes the Sendha. There is 
not a mile of metalled road in the pargand. Cart-tracks wind deviously 
from village to village. Area, 73 square miles, of which 46 are under 
cultivation. Population (1881) 25,962, naniely, 24,100 Hindus and 1862 
^Muhammadans. The staple products are bajfa and barley, which 
occupy three-fifths of the cultivated area. Wheat, arhar, rice, and 
gram, make up the greater portion of the remainder. Government 
land revenue, ^3704, falhng at the rate of 2s. 6d. per cultivated acre, 
or IS. 7d. per acre of total area. Of the 92 villages comprising the 
pargand, 50 are held by Sombansi Rajputs, and 22 by Brahmans 
Tdlukddri tenure prevails in 19 villages, 56 are za/ninddri, and 17 
imperfect pattiddri. 

Pali. — Town in Shahabad tahsil, Hardoi District, Oudh, and head- 
quarters of V 2X1 pargand ; situated on the right bank of the Garra, 20 
miles north-west of Hardoi town. Lat. 27^ 31' 45" x., long. 79° 53' 20" 
E. A flourishing town under native rule, but somewhat decayed of 
late years, especially in the Muhammadan quarters. Population (1881) 
3562. Two mosques and a Hindu temple; Government school. 
Market twice a week. Manufacture of coarse cotton cloth. 

Palia. — Pargand in Lakhimpur tahsil, Kheri District, Oudh ; lying 
between the Suhel and Sarda rivers, which respectively border it on the 
north and south ; the eastern boundary is formed by Shihjahanpur 
District of the North - Western Provinces; and the western by 
Nighasan pargand. Area, 139 square miles, of which 37 are under 
cultivation, the remainder being chiefly taken up by Government forest- 
reserves. A jungle pargajid of the same character as Khairigarh, 
the Raja of which is also its proprietor. Population (1881) 18,277, 
namely, 15,770 Hindus, 2495 Muhammadans, and 12 'others.' 


Land revenue, ^^1052. Game abounds in the forests. The pargand 
is unhealthy, malarious fevers being very prevalent. Principal products, 
rice and turmeric. 

Palia. — Town in Lakhimpur talisil, Kheri District, Oudh, and head- 
quarters of Palia pargand ; situated 2 miles north of the Chauka river, 
in lat. 28° 26' N., and long. 80° 37' e. Population (1881) 3802, namely, 
Hindus 2984, and Muhammadans 818. Two Hindu temples; bi- 
weekly market. 

Paliganj.— Small town in Patna District, Bengal ; situated near the 
Son (Soane) river, and about 25 miles from Bankipur. Police station. 

Palitana. — Native State in the Gohelwar division of Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency; lying between 21° 23' 30" and 21° 42' 30" n. lat., 
and between 71° 31' and 72° o' 30" e. long. Area, 288 square miles. 
Population (1872) 51,476; (1881) 49,271, namely, 25,702 males and 
23J569 females, dwelling in i town and 86 villages, and occupying 
10,483 houses. Hindus number 4*2.955 ; Muhammadans, 3581 ; and 
'others,' 2735. Except in the hills, where the air is pleasant, the 
climate is hot ; and fever is prevalent. The principal agricultural pro- 
ducts are grain, sugar-cane, and cotton. 

Palitana ranks as a ' second-class ' State in Kathiawar ; the ruler 
executed the usual engagements in 1807. The present (1881-82) chief, 
Thakur Sahib Sursinghji, is thirty-nine years old. He is descended 
from Sarangji, second son of Sejakji, as the Bhaunagar Thakur is from 
the eldest son, and Lathi from the third. 

The present chief of Palitana has been engaged in a long contest 
to reassert his rights over his own Bhayad or brethren on the one 
hand, and over the Sarawaks or Jain traders who are interested in 
the holy mountain of Satrunjaya on the other. This hill, which rises 
above the town of Palitana, is covered with Jain temples, and is the 
resort of innumerable pilgrims. Centuries before the Gohel chiefs 
established themselves in Surashtra, the Jains worshipped in Satrunjaya. 
They produce an imposing array of deeds from Mughal emperors and 
viceroys, ending with one from Prince Murad Baksh (1650), which 
confers the whole District of Palitana on Santi Das, the jeweller, and 
his heirs. The firm of Santi Das supplied Murad Baksh with money 
for the war when he went with Aurangzeb (1658) to fight Dara at 
Agra and assume the throne. But the Mughal power has long passed 
away from Kathiawar, and, on its downfall, the jurisdiction of Palitana 
fell into the hands of the Gohel chief, a tributary of the Gaekwar. 
While, therefore, the whole mountain is rightly regarded as a religious 
trust, it is under the jurisdiction of the chief, for whose protection the 
Sarawaks have long paid a yearly subsidy. Lender a decision of ^Lajor 
Keatinge in 1863, the representatives of the Jain community had to 
pay a lump sum of Rs. 10,000 (^1000) per annum for ten years to 


the chief, in Heii of his levying a direct tax of 4s. a head on all pilgrims 
visiting the shrines, with the proviso that a scrutiny lasting two years, or 
longer if necessary, might be demanded by either side at the termina- 
tion of that period, with a view of ascertaining whether the yearly sum 
of Rs. 10,000 was more or less than the right amount. The chief 
demanded such a scrutiny in 1879, and due arrangements having been 
made, the count of pilgrims commenced on the 23rd April 1880. The 
result of the collections derived from the pilgrims during the year 
1882-83 showed that the sum formerly paid by the Jain community to 
the chief in lieu of all demands was not sufficient, and justified the 
procedure ordered by the Government. No final decision, however, 
to the future amount to be paid by the Jain priests to the Palitana chief 
had been arrived at up to 1883, A decision of the British Government, 
given in March 1877, while it upholds the chiefs legitimate authority, 
secures to the sect its long-established possessions, and maintains the 
sacred isolation of the hill. 

The chief does not hold a satiad authorizing adoption ; in matters of 
succession the rule of primogeniture is followed. The chief is a 
Hindu of the Gohel clan of Rajputs ; he administers the affairs of his 
State in person, and has power to try his own subjects only. He 
enjoys an estimated gross yearly revenue of ;£"2o,ooo ; pays tribute 
of ^1036, 8s. jointly to the Gaekwar of Baroda and the Nawab of 
Junagarh ; and maintains a military force of 455 men. There are 
(1882-83) 16 schools, with 579 pupils. Xo transit dues are levied in 
the State. 

Palitana. — Chief town of Palitana State, Kathiawar, Bombay Pre- 
sidency ; situated in lat. 21° 31' 10" N., and long. 71° 53' 20" e., at the 
eastern base of the famous Satrunjaya Hill ; distant from Ahmadabad 
120 miles south-west; from Baroda 105 south-west; from Surat 70 
north-west; and from Bombay 190 north-west. Population (1881) 7659, 
namely, 4436 Hindus, 1627 Muhammadans, and 1596 Jains. Formerly 
the chief town of a lsing\\di\ pargand. School, dispensary, and post-office. 
Connected by a good road with Songarh, the head-quarters of the 
Gohel war division, 14 miles to the north. 

Satrunjaya Hill, to which reference has been made in the foregoing 
article, is sacred to Adinath, the deified priest of the Jains. It is 1977 
feet above sea-level. The summit is divided into two peaks, but the 
valley between has been partly built over by a wealthy Jain mer- 
chant. The entire summit is covered with temples, among which the 
most famous are those of Adinath, Kumar Pal, Vimalasah, Sampriti 
Raja, and the Chaumukh. This last is the most lofty, and can be clearly 
distinguished at a distance of 25 miles. Satrunjaya is the most sacred 
of the five sacred hills of the Jains. Mr. Kinloch Forbes in the Rds 
Mala describes it as the ' first of all places of pilgrimages, the bridal hall 


of those who would win everlasting rest.' And adds, 'There is hardly a 
city in India, through its length and breadth, from the river of Sind to 
the sacred Ganges, from Himala's diadem of ice-peaks to the throne of 
his virgin daughter, Rudra's destined bride, that has not supplied at one 
time or other contributions of wealth to the edifices which crown the 
hill of Palitana. Street after street, square after square, extend these 
shrines of the Jain faith with their stately enclosures, half-palace, half- 
fortress, raised in marble magnificence, upon the lonely and majestic 
mountain, and like the mansions of another world, far removed in upper 
air from the ordinary tread of mortals.' Owing to the special sanctity 
of Satrunjaya, Jains from all parts of India are anxious to construct 
temples on the hill ; and all members of the Jain faith feel it a duty to 
perform, if possible, one pilgrimage here during their life. 

The following description of this wonderful temple-hill is condensed 
from an account by Mr. Burgess : — 

' At the foot of the ascent there are some steps with many little 
canopies or cells, a foot and a half to three feet square, open only in 
front, and each having in its floor a marble slab carved with the repre- 
sentation of the soles of two feet {charan), very flat ones, and generally 
with the toes all of one length. A little behind, where the ball of the 
great toe ought to be, there is a diamond-shaped mark divided into 
four smaller figures by two cross lines, from the end of one of which a 
waved line is drawn to the front of the foot. Round the edges of the 
slab there is usually an inscription in Deva-nagari characters, and 
between the foot-marks an elongated figure like a head of Indian corn 
with the point slightly turned over. These cells are numerous all the 
way up the hill, and a large group of them is found on the south-west 
corner of it behind the temple of Adiswar Bhagwan. They are the 
temples erected by poorer Sarawaks or Jains, who, unable to afford the 
expense of a complete temple, with its hall and sanctuary enshrining a 
marble viiirti or image, manifest their devotion to their creed by 
erecting these miniature temples over the charana of their Jainas or 

' The path is paved with rough stones all the way up, only interrupted 
here and there by regular flights of steps. At frequent intervals also 
there are rest-houses, more pretty at a distance than convenient for 
actual use, but still deserving of attention. High up, we come to a 
small temple of the Hindu monkey -god, Hanuman, the image 
bedaubed with vermilion in ultra-barbaric style ; at this point the path 
bifurcates — to the right leading to the northern peak, and to the left to 
the valley between, and through it to the southern summit. A little 
higher up, on the former route, is the shrine of Hengar, a Musalman //r, 
so that Hindu and Moslem alike contend for the representation of their 
creeds on this sacred hill of the Jains. 


' On reaching the summit of the mountain, the view that presents 
itself from the top of the walls is magnificent in extent ; a splendid 
setting for the unique picture — this work of human toil we have 
reached. To the east, the prospect extends to the Gulf of Cambay near 
Gogo and Bhaunagar; to the north, it is bounded by the granite range 
of Sihor (Sehore) and the Chamardi peak ; to the north-west and west, 
the plain extends as far as the eye can reach, except where broken 
due west by the summits of Mount Girnar — revered alike by Hindu, 
Buddhist, and Jain, the latter of whom claim it as sacred to Neminath 
their twenty-second Tirthankar. From west to east, like a silver 
ribbon across the foreground to the south, winds the Satrunjaya river, 
which the eye follows until it is lost between the Talaja and Khokara 
Hills in the south-west. But after this digression, let us return to the 
scene beside us. How shall I describe it ? It is truly a city of temples 
— for, except a few tanks, there is nothing else within the gates, and 
there is a cleanliness, withal, about every square and passage, porch and 
hall, that is itself no mean source of pleasure. The silence, too, is 
striking. Now and then in the mornings you hear a bell for a few 
seconds, or the beating of a drum for as short a time, and on holidays 
chants from the larger temples meet your ear ; but generally during the 
after-part of the day the only sounds are those of vast flocks of pigeons 
that rush about spasmodically from the roof of one temple to that of 
another, apparently as an exercise in fluttering and just to keep their 
wings in use. Parroquets and squirrels, doves and ringdoves abound, 
and peacocks are occasionally met with on the outer walls. The top 
of the hill consists of two ridges, each about 350 yards long, with a 
valley between ; the southern ridge is higher at the western end than 
the northern, but this in turn is higher at the eastern extremity. Each 
of these ridges, and the two large enclosures that fill the valley, are 
surrounded by massive battlemented walls fitted for defence. The 
buildings on both ridges, again, are divided into separate enclosures, 
called tuks^ generally containing one principal temple, with varying 
numbers of smaller ones. Each of these enclosures is protected by 
strong gates and walls, and all gates are carefully closed at sundown.' 

A description of one of these tiiks must suffice here, but the reader 
who wishes to pursue the subject will find an account of the other 
temples in Mr. Burgess' Notes of a Visit to Satrunjaya Hill, published 
at Bombay. The tiik now to be described is that of Khartarvasi, of 
which the principal temple is that of the Chaumukh or ' four-faced ' 
Jaina occupying the centre. ' It is,' says Mr. Burgess {op. cit.), 'a fine 
pile of the sort, and may be considered a type of its class. It stands 
on a platform raised fully 2 feet above the level of the court, and 57 
feet wide by about 67 in length, but the front of the building extends 
some distance beyond the end of this. The body of the temple consists 


of two square apartments, with a square porch or niandap to the east, 
from which a few steps ascend to the door of the antardla or hall, 31 
feet square inside, with a vaulted roof rising from twelve pillars. Pass- 
ing through this, we enter by a large door into the shrine or garbha 
griha, 23 feet square, with four columns at the corners of the altar or 
throne of the image. Over this rises the tower or vi?nana to a height 
of 96 feet from the level of the pavement. The shrine in Hindu 
temples is always dark, and entered only by the single door in front ; 
Jain temples, on the contrary, have very frequently several entrances. 
In this instance, as in that of most of the larger temples, besides the 
door from the antardla, three other large doors open out into porticoes 
on the platform — a verandah being carried round this part of the 
building from one door to another. The front temple has also two 
side doors opening upon the platform. The w^alls of the shrine, having 
to support the tower, are very thick, and contain cells or chapels opening 
from the verandah ; thus the doors into the shrine stand back into the 
wall. There are ten cells, and some of them contain little images of 
Tirthankars ; those at the corners open to two sides. The pillars that 
support the verandah deserve notice. They are of the general form 
everywhere prevalent here — square columns, to the sides of which we 
might suppose very thin pilasters of about half the breadth had been 
applied. They have high bases, the shafts carved with flower patterns 
each different from its fellow, the usual bracket capitals slanting down- 
wards on each side and supporting gopis^ on whose heads rest the 
abacus — or rather these figures, with a sort of canopy over the head of 
each, form second and larger brackets. The floors of the larger temples 
are of beautifully tesselated marble — black, white, and yellowish brown. 
The patterns are very much alike, except in details, and consist chiefly 
of varieties and combinations of the figure called by the Jains Natida- 
varta — a sort of complicated square fret — the cognizance of the 
eighteenth Jaina. The shrine contains a sinhdsan or pedestal for the 
image ; in this temple it is of the purest white marble, fully 2 feet high 
and 1 2 square. Each face has a centre panel, elaborately carved, and 
three of less breadth on each side, the one nearer the centre always a 
little in advance of that outside it. 

' On the throne sit four large white marble figures of Adinath, not 
specially well proportioned, each facing one of the doors of the shrine. 
These are large figures, perhaps as large as any on the hill ; they sit 
with their feet crossed in front, after the true Buddha style, the outer 
side of each thigh joining that of his fellow, and their heads rising 
about 10 feet above the pedestal. The marble is from Mokhrano in 
Marwar, and the carriage is said to have cost an almost incredible sum. 
The aspect of these, and of all the images, is peculiar ; frequendy on 
the brow and middle of the breast there is a brilliant, set in silver or 


gold, and almost always the breasts are mounted with one of the 
precious metals, whilst there are occasionally gold plates on the 
shoulders, elbow, and knee-joints, and a crown on the head — that on 
the principal one in the Motisah being a very elegant and massive gold 
one. But the peculiar feature is the eyes, which seem to peer at you 
from every chapel like those of so many cats. They appear to be made 
of silver overlaid with pieces of glass, very clumsily cemented on, and 
in every case projecting so far, and of such a form, as to give one the 
idea of their all wearing spectacles wath lenticular glasses over very 
watery eyes in diseased sockets. 

' The original temple in this tuk is said to date back to a king 
Vikrama ; but whether he of the Samvat era, 57 B.C., or Harsha Vikram- 
aditya, about 500 a.d., or some other, is not told. It appears to have 
been rebuilt in its present form about 1619 a.d., by Seva Somji of 
Ahmadabad, for we read thus: — "Samvat 1675, in the time of Sultan 
Nur-ud-din Jahdngir, Sawai Vijaya Raja, and the princes Sultan Khushru 
and Khurma, on Saturday, Baisakh Sudi 13th, Devraj and his family, 
of which were Somji and his wife, Rdjaldevi, erected the temple of the 
four-faced Adindth," etc. A stair on the north side leads to the upper 
storey of the tower. This temple is said to contain a hundred and 
twenty-five images.' 

Fergusson, in his History of Indian and Eastern Architecture^ has the 
following remarks on the Jain temple-cities, with special reference to this, 
the greatest of them all : — ' The grouping together of their temples into 
what may be called " cities of temples," is a peculiarity which the Jains 
practised to a greater extent than the followers of any other religion in 
India. The Buddhists grouped their stiipas and vihdras near and around 
sacred spots, as at Sanchi, Manikyala, or in Peshawar, and elsewhere ; 
but they w-ere scattered, and each was supposed to have a special meaning, 
or to mark some sacred spot. The Hindus also grouped their temples, 
as at Bhuvaneswar or Benares, in great numbers ; but in all cases, so 
far as we know, because these were the centres of a population who 
believed in the gods to whom the temples were dedicated, and wanted 
them for the purposes of their worship. Neither of these religions, 
however, possesses such a group of temples, for instance, as that at 
Satrunjaya, or Palitana as it is usually called, in Gujarat. No survey 
has yet been made of it, nor have its temples been counted ; but it 
covers a large space of ground, and its shrines are scattered by hundreds 
over the summits of two extensive hills and the valley between them. 
The larger ones are situated in tuks^ or separate enclosures, surrounded 
by high fortified walls ; the smaller ones line the silent streets. A few 
yatis or priests sleep in the temples and perform the daily services, and 
a few attendants are constantly there to keep the place clean, which they 
do with the most assiduous attention, or to feed the sacred pigeons, who 


are the sole denizens of the spot ; but there are no human hal)itatiGns, 
properly so called, within the walls. The pilgrim or the stranger 
ascends in the morning, and returns when he has performed his 
devotions or satisfied his curiosity. He must not eat, or at least must 
not cook his food, on the sacred hill, and he must not sleep there. It 
is a city of the gods, and meant for them only, and not intended for the 
use of mortals. 

'Jaina temples and shrines are, of course, to be found in cities, 
where there are a sufficient number of votaries to support a temple, as 
in other religions ; but beyond this, the Jains seem, almost more than 
any other sect, to have realized the idea that to build a temple, and 
to place an image in it, was in itself a highly meritorious act, wholly 
irrespective of its use to any of their co-religionists. Building a temple 
is with them a prayer in stone, which they conceive to be eminently 
acceptable to the deity, and likely to secure them benefits both here 
and hereafter. 

' It is in consequence of the Jains believing to a greater extent than 
the other Indian sects in the efficacy of temple-building as a means of 
salvation, that their architectural performances bear so much larger a 
proportion to their numbers than those of other religions. It may also 
be owing to the fact that nine out of ten, or ninety-nine in a hundred, 
of the Jain temples are the gifts of single wealthy individuals of the 
middle classes, that these buildings generally are small and deficient in 
that grandeur of proportion that marks the buildings undertaken by 
royal command or belonging to important organized communities. It 
may, however, be also owing to this that their buildings are more 
elaborately finished than those of more national importance. When a 
wealthy individual of the class who build these temples desires to spend 
his money on such an object, he is much more likely to feel pleasure 
in elaborate detail and exquisite finish than on great purity or grandeur 
of conception. 

' All these peculiarities are found in a more marked degree at Palitana 
than at almost any other known place, and, fortunately for the student 
of the style, extending through all the ages during which it flourished. 
Some of the temples are as old as the nth century, and they are spread 
pretty evenly over all the intervening period down to the present 

' But the largest number, and some of the most important, are now 
erecting, or were erected in the present century, or in the memory of 
living men. Fortunately, too, these modern examj^les by no means 
disgrace the age in which they are built. Their sculptures are inferior, 
and some of their details are deficient in meaning and expression ; but, 
on the whole, they are equal, or nearly so, to the average examples of 
earlier ages. It is this that makes Pahtdna one of the most interesting 


places that can be named for the philosophical student of architectural 
art, inasmuch as he can there see the various processes by which 
cathedrals were produced in the Middle Ages, carried on on a larger 
scale than almost anywhere else, and in a more natural manner. It is 
by watching the methods still followed in designing buildings in that 
remote locality, that we become aware how it is that the uncultivated 
Hindu can rise in architecture to a degree of originality and perfection 
which has not been attained in Europe since the Middle Ages, but which 
might easily be recovered by following the same processes.' 

Palivela (/^/////r^/.v).— Town in Amalapur taluk, Godavari District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. i6° 41' n., long. 81° 55' e. Population (1871) 
5315, inhabiting 1156 houses; and (1881) 5561, inhabiting 1005 
houses. Hindus number 5300 ; Muhammadans, 253 ; and Christians, 8. 
Palivela lies on the bank of the Amalapur Canal, which connects 
Rajamahendri (Rajahmundry) with Amalapur. Kottapetta, the head- 
quarters of the deputy-/^//i-f/^ir, is a hamlet of Palivela. 

Paliyad.— Petty State in the Jhalawar division of Kathiawar, Bombay 
Presidency. Area, 227 square miles, containing 17 villages, with 7 
separate shareholders. Population (1881) 9662. Estimated revenue in 
1881, ^4000; tribute of ^90, 14s. is paid to the British Government, 
and £zo, 12s. to the Nawab of Junagarh. Formerly (1809) the head- 
quarters of a Kathiawar Political officer. A flourishing village called 
after the estate lies 8 miles west of KundU railway station. It exports 
grain and cotton to Botad (10 miles) and Ranpur (11 miles)— 
both stations on the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway. Population of Pahyad 
village (1881) 3368. 

Paliyaverkadu.— Town in Chengalpat (Chingleput) District, Madras 

Presidency. — See Pulicat. 

YdiS^^xk. — Zam'Diddn estate in Warora tahsil, Bhandara Dis- 
trict, Central Provinces ; traversed by the main road from Kamtha to 
Sakoli, and comprising 21 villages. Area, 39 square miles, one-fourth 
of which is cultivated. Population (1881) 7364. A good deal of sugar- 
cane is grown, and the forests supply ^^Vand bijesal timber. Until 1856, 
the estate was a dependency of Kamtha. The chief and most of the 
population are Kunbis. 

Palkole. — Town in Godavari District, Madras Presidency.— 5f^ 


Palkonda (or Sesdchalam: Pal, 'milk;' Konda, 'a hill').— Range 
of mountains in Cuddapah District, Madras Presidency; lying between 
13° 43' 30" and 14" 27' N. lat., and between 78° 56' and 79° 28' 30'' e. 
long. ; average elevation above the sea, about 2000 feet; highest point, 
Buthaid, 3060 feet. Starting from the sacred Tirupati (Tripati) Hill, 
and running north-west for 45 miles, the range then turns nearly due 
west, running across the District to the frontier of Bellary. To the 


first portion the name Palkonda is generally reserved, the part which 
crosses the District being called Seshachalam. Mr. Gribble, writing of 
the entire chain, says : — 'This is not only the largest and most extensive 
of all the Cuddapah ranges, but it also presents very marked features, 
and differs in appearance from the others. The Tirupati hill is 2500 
feet above the sea, and the Palkonda range continues at about the same 
uniform height very nearly throughout the whole of its extent. There 
are very few prominent peaks ; and at a distance of a few miles, it 
presents the appearance, to any one standing on the inside portion, of a 
wall of unvarying height, shutting the covmtry in as far as the eye can 
reach. The top of this range is more or less flat, forming a table-land 
of some extent. On both sides the slopes are well clothed with forests, 
which, near the railway, are especially valuable, and form the important 
Balapalli, Yerraguntakota, and Kodur reserves. A noticeable feature 
in this range, and especially on its south-western slopes, is the manner 
in which the quartzite rocks crop out at the summit. The rock suddenly 
rises perpendicularly out of the slope, and is wrested and contorted into 
various fantastic shapes, which not unfrequently give the appearance 
of an old ruined castle or fort. These hills were in former days a 
favourite resort of dakdits or gang-robbers, probably because they are 
not so feverish as the other hills of the main division. They are now 
nearly free from these pests of society. Wild beasts, however, are still 
to be found. Tigers are becoming annually more scarce; of leopards 
there are a large number, which are also very destructive ; a few sdmbhar 
deer are to be found, and a i^"^ bears, but the hills have been too much 
marked to afford a good field for sportsmen.' 

The area of Balapalli (East and West), Yerraguntakota, and Kodiir 
forest reserves in 1883-84 was 18,965 acres. The chief trees were — 
red Sanders (Pterocarpus santalinus), yeppi (Hardwickia binata), tainba 
(Shorea Tumbuggaia),y«/(7>/ (Shorea Talura), and teak of small size. 

Palkonda. — Town and Agency Tract in Vizagapatam District, 
Madras Presidency. — See Palakonda. 

Palk's Bay and Straits. — Gulf and channel between the mainland 
of India and the north part of Ceylon, named by the Dutch after 
Governor Palk. The gulf is bounded by Calimere Point and the coast 
of Tanjore to the northward and westward ; by Adam's Bridge and its 
contiguous islands to the south ; and by the north part of Ceylon, 
with its islands, to the east. The Dutch describe three channels 
between Calimere Point and the north end of Ceylon, which lead into 
Palk's Bay ; but the southern channel, called Palk's Strait, is probably 
the only one that may be considered safe for large ships. 

Horsburgh, from whose account in the Sailijig Directions this 
article is condensed, supplies the following details : — 

' Palk's Bay having been surveyed by the officers of the East India 


Company, the following directions for its navigition are given by Mr. 
Franklin: — "There are two good entrances into Palk's Bay from the 
eastward — one between Point Calimere and the northern end of the 
middle banks, having 19 to 24 feet; the other between the southern end 
of the same banks and the north coast of Ceylon, with 5 J to 6 fathoms. 
Sailing directions were published some years back for the northern 
passage, but I would strongly recommend all commanders with a vessel 
drawing 12 feet to make use of that to the southward, except with a 

leading wind, or with the aid of steam The following are the 

dangers in Palk's Bay : — 

" ist. The middle banks — described by Horsburgh (pp. 553, 554). 

" 2nd. A long sandy spit, with from i to 2 fathoms over it, stretching 
east by south 13 miles from a low point above Kotepatnam, on the 
coast of India. It has generally a heavy swash of sea over it, and 
should not be approached from the eastward nearer than 6 fathom?^. 
Captain Powell places its eastern extremity in 10° 2' 30" n. lat., and 
79° 19' 30" E. long., allowing Galle to be in 80° 16' e. Its bearing 
from Pambam (Paumbem) is n.n.e. 45 miles, and from Point Calimere 
s.w.lw. 29 miles. 

" 3rd. The foul ground off the north-west end of Ceylon to the east- 
ward of the opening between that and Karativu, where the coast ought 
not to be approached nearer than 2 miles; for although at present 
there are 1 2 to 1 5 feet over the knolls, the depth may decrease, as they 
are composed of coral. 

" 4th. A detached rock, about the size of a ship's boat, with only 2 
feet water over it, between Purlitivu and the Devil's Point, having the 
following bearings : — Devil's Point, south 3 miles ; south end of Purli- 
tivu, E.s.E. 2 J miles. 

"Lastly. Some rocks aw\ish, which lie about i\ mile off the north- 
east end of Rameswaram Island, where the soundings ought not to be 
shoaled to less than 5 fathoms. Care should be taken in the north- 
east monsoon not to get into the bay to the eastward of this island, as 
it will be found difficult to work out again.'" 

Mr. Nelson, author of the Ma Jura Manual (1868), describes the 
Straits as abounding in 'shoals, currents, sunken rocks, and blind sand- 
banks;' and adds, 'the passage through its entrance is full of difficulty 
and danger.' The fury of the north-east monsoon is particularly felt in 
the Straits. See also Commander Taylors India Directory, p. 450 
(Allen, 187^1). 

Palladam. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Coimbatore District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 742 square miles. Population (1881) 213,391, 
namely, 103,116 m.ales and 110,275 females, dwelling in 194 villages, 
and occupying 47,971 houses. Hindus number 207,895; Muham- 
madans, 3387; Christians, 2107; and 'others,' 2. In 1883 the tdluk 


contained 2 criminal courts ; police circles {tJidnds), 8 ; regular police, 
79 men. Land revenue, ;^36,755. 

Palladam {Pulladum). — Head-quarters of Palladam tdluk^ Coim- 
batore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 10° 59' n., long. 77° 20' e. 
Population (1871) 945, inhabiting 199 houses; and (1881) 1121, 
inhabiting 173 houses. Two cotton presses; ruins of an old fort; 

Pal Lahara. — Native State of Orissa, Bengal, lying between 21° 
8' 30" and 21° 40' 35" N. lat., and between 85° 3' and 85° 21' 30" e. 
long. Area, 452 square miles. Population (1881) 14,887. Bounded 
on the north by the Chutia Nagpur State of Bonai, east by Keunjhar, 
south by Talcher, and west by Bamra. The east and north of the 
State are occupied by hills. A magnificent mountain, Malayagiri 
(3895 feet), towers above the lesser ranges. Some of the finest sal 
forests in the world are found in Pal Lahara ; its agricultural products 
consist of tlie usual coarse grains and oil-seeds, but it has nothing 
worthy of the name of trade. Of the total population in 1881 (14,887), 
Hindus numbered 14,002; Muhammadans, 8; and non-Hindu abori- 
gines, 877. The real number of aborigines is, however, much greater, 
and in 187 1 they were returned at 6340. The aboriginal tribes of Pal 
Lahara are chiefly Gonds and Savars who have adopted some form of 
Hinduism, and have been returned as Hindus in the Census of 1881. 
The number of villages in the State was returned (i 881) at 199, and the 
inhabited houses at 2718. Lahara, the residence of the Raja, situated 
in lat. 21° 26' N., and long. 85° 13' 46" e., is the only village containing 
upwards of 100 houses. The Midnapur and Sambalpur high road 
passes through the State from east to west. 

Pal Lahara was formerly feudatory to Keunjhar, but was separated 
in consequence of quarrels arising from the fact that the Keunjhar 
Raja once compelled his vassal to dance before him in woman's 
clothes. As the price of peace, the Pal Lahara chief was exempted 
from any longer paying his tribute to the Keunjhar Raja, and now 
pays it to the British Government direct. The money, however, 
is still credited in the treasury accounts to the credit of the Keunjhar 
State, although for all practical purposes Pal Lahara is independent of 
the Keunjhar Raja, and completely disowns his authority. For services 
rendered at the time of the Keunjhar rebellion in 1867-68, the Pal 
Lahara chief received the title of Raja Bahadur. The present chief is 
the thirty-fourth in descent from the original founder of the State. The 
estimated annual revenue is ;^i2o; the Raja's militia consists of 67 
men, and the police force of 57 men. 

Pallapatti.— Village in Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. — 
See Arava Kurichi. 

Pallavaram {Palaveram). — Town in Saidapet taluJz^ Chengalpat 


(Chingleput) District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 12° 57' 30" 
N., and long. 80° 13' E., on a wide plain, west of a range of stony hills, 
3 miles south of St. Thomas' Mount, and 1 1 miles south-west of Madras. 
Population (1881) 3956, occupying 793 houses. Hindus number 
2077; Muhammadans, 908; Christians, 970; and 'others,' i. A 
military cantonment and pensioners' station, with a garrison of about 
650 men. Formerly it was called the ' Presidency Cantonment,' and had 
lines sufficient for 4 native regiments. The place is hot, but not un- 
healthy. Elevation, about 500 feet. A station on the South Indian 
Railway ; cantonment magistrate's court ; post-office. 

Palma. — Deserted Jain settlement; situated within a few miles of 
Purulia, and near the Kasai (Cossye) river, in Manbhiim District, Bengal. 
The following description of the ruins is given by Colonel Dalton : — 

'The principal temple is on a mound covered with stone and brick, 
the debris of buildings, through which many fine old //;>^/ trees have 
pierced, and under their spreading branches the gods of the fallen temple 
have found shelter. In different places are sculptures of perfectly nude 
male figures, standing on pedestals and under canopies, with Egyptian 
head-dresses, the arms hanging down straight by their sides, the hands 
turned in and touching the body near the knees. One of these images 
is larger than life. It is broken away from the slab on which it was cut, 
and the head, separated from the body, lies near. At the feet of each 
idol are two smaller figures with chauris in their hands, looking up at 
the principal figure. I have now seen several of these figures, and 
there can, I think, be no doubt that they are images of the Tirthankaras 
of the Jains, who are always thus figured, naked or ' sky-clad,' each with 
his representative animal or symbol. Lieutenant Money also observed 
a stone pillar, set up perpendicularly, standing 12 feet high by ij foot 
square, with corners chamfered, making it an octagon ; and near this, 
four more of the Tirthankaras are found. All about this temple mound 
are other mounds of cut stone and bricks, showing that there must have 
been here, at a remote period, a numerous people, far more advanced 
in civilisation than the Bhilmij and Bauri tribes who have succeeded 

Palmaner (formerly called Venkatagirikotd). — Taluk or Sub-division 
of North Arcot District, Madras Presidency. Area, 447 square miles. 
Population (1872) 60,211; (1881) 41,815, namely, 21,184 niales and 
20,631 females, dwelling in i town and 159 villages, and occupying 8867 
houses. Hindus number 39,194; Muhammadans, 2526; and Chris- 
tians, 95. During the famine of 1876-78 the tdbik suffered severely, 
and many small villages have been depopulated. The Census of 1872 
returned 565 villages, and that of 1881 only 160; the population 
has decreased by 30*5 per cent, during the nine years. In 1883 the 
taluk contained 2 criminal courts ; police circles {thdnds\ 5 ; regular 


police, 52 men; village watch {chaukiddrs\ 7. Land revenue, ^6843. 
The tdhik stands on the Mysore plateau, its general level being about 
2500 feet above sea-level. It was acquired by the British on the 
partition which took place on the defeat and death of Tipii Sultan. 
Iron is worked in the region. Length of roads, 58 miles. 

Palmaner (Pdlamainer). — Head-quarters of the Palmaner tdii^k, 
North Arcot District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 13° 11' 
30" N., and long. 78° 47' 17" e., 26 miles west of Chittiir; elevation 
above the sea, 2247 feet. Lies near the summit of the Magli Pass. 
Population (1881) 1931, inhabiting 379 houses. A healthy station, 
with lower temperature by about 10° F. than the rest of the District. It 
was at one time used as a sanitarium by the Europeans of Madras, 
before the route to the Nilgiris became preferable. There is a busy 
trade, and in the town is a rum and arrack distillery. Dispensary ; 
travellers' bungalow^; schools and chapels. A beautiful glen, near 
the town, called the valley of Gangamma, is frequently visited by 

Palmyras Point— Headland in Cuttack District, Bengal. Lat. 
20° 44' 40" N., long. 87° 2' E. Landmark for vessels making for the 
Hiigli from the south. Commander Taylor thus treats of it in his Sailing 
Directory (1874) :— ' Point Palmyras (called by the natives Maipara, from 
the contiguous sandy island of this name) bears from False Point 
about north-east by north, distant 8 leagues ; but from being abreast 
the latter in 14 or 15 fathoms, with it bearing west-north-west, the direct 
course is about north-east, and the distance 10 leagues to the outer 
edge of the bank off Point Palmyras in the same depth, with the point 
bearing west-north-west. Ships must be guided by the soundings in 
passing between them, as the flood sets towards, and the ebb from, the 
shore; from 14 to 15 fathoms are good depths to preserve with a fair 
wind. The land on Point Palmyras is low, and clothed with Palmyra- 
trees, having on each side of it, at a small distance, the mouth of a 
river ; that on the south side is navigable by boats or snjall vessels. 
In rounding the bank off the Point, the trees on the land are just 
discernible in 15 fathoms water, distant about 4 leagues from the 
shore; ships, therefore, seldom see the Point in passing, unless the 
weather be clear, and the reef approached upon 14 or 15 fathoms, 
which ought never to be done in a large ship during thick weather, or 
in the night. 

'A ship passing False Bay in daylight, with a westerly wind, may 
steer along at discretion in 10 or 12 fathoms; but if she gets into 9 
fathoms, and sees Point Palmyras, she ought instantly to haul out into 
12 or 14 fathoms in rounding the eastern limit of the bank. When 
blowing strong from south-west or south, a ship with da}light, after 
rounding the banks off Point Palmyras, may haul to the westward, and 


anchor to the northward of the banks in lo fathoms or rather less water, 
where she will be sheltered by them until the force of the wind is abated.' 
Palnad.— 21i//^/^ or Sub-division of Kistna District, Madras Presi- 
dency. Area, 1057 square miles. Population (1881) 125,799, namely, 
62,365 males and 63,434 females, dwelUng in 97 villages, consisting of 
24,356 houses. Hindus number 110,182; Muhammadans, 9276; and 
Christians, 6341. In 1883 the taluk contained i civil and 2 criminal 
courts; police circles (thdnds), 12; regular police, loi men; village 
watch {chaukiddrs), 19. Total revenue, £z\MS' Forest tract in the 
extreme west of the District. ' Palnad ' is said to mean ' milk land ' from 
the light cream-coloured marble that abounds ; another derivation makes 
Palndd mean 'the country of hamlets.' Taken over by the British in 
1 80 1. Dachepalle, the head-quarters, has a population (i 881) of 2268, 
dwelling in 497 houses. Post-office. 

Palni.— Tli/z//^ or Sub-division of :vladura District, Madras Presi- 
dency. Area, 910 square miles. Population (1881) 171,5155 namely, 
82,959 males and 88,556 females, dwelling in i town and 125 villages, 
and occupying 34,457 houses. Hindus number 161,857; Muham- 
madans, 8191 ; and Christians, 1467. In 1883 the tdliik contained 2 
criminal courts; police circles {thdnds\ 10; regular police, 75 men. 
Land revenue, ;^24,ooi. 

Palni {Palani or Pulney^.—Tow^n in Palni idluk, Madura District, 
Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 10° 27' 20" n., and long. 77° 33' i" 
E., 34 miles west of Dindigal, and 69 miles north-west of Madura. 
Population (1871) 12,801, inhabiting 1782 houses; (1881) 12,974, 
inhabiting 2074 houses. In the latter year, Hindus numbered ii,395 ; 
Muhammadans, 1329 ; and Christians, 250. It is the head-quarters of 
the tdluk, and gives its name to the neighbouring range of mountains 
{vide infra). Post-office. 

Palni {Palani, Pidney ; also called Varahagiri, Vadagirt, and 
Kaima7idena?i).—lslo\ini2:m range in Madura District, Madras Presi- 
dency ; lying between 10° and 10° 15' n. lat., and between 77° 20' and 
77° 55' E. long. It extends in a north-easterly direction from the 
great mass of mountains known as the Western Ghats, with which it 
is connected by an isthmus or ridge of hills about 8 miles in width, 
being completely isolated on every other side. To the north are the 
Districts of Coimbatore and Trichinopoli ; to the east Madura and 
Tanjore; to the south and west Tinnevelli and Travancore State. 
These mountains were sur\'eyed more than fifty years ago by Cai)tain 
Ward of the Surveyor-General's Department. He states their length, 
from east to west, to be 54 miles ; average breadth, 15 miles ; superficial 
area, 798^ square miles, including Anjinad, now a dependency of 
Travancore. Captain Ward reckons the area of the Anjinad Hills at 
231-:^ square miles, which leaves 567 square miles for the Palm's proper. 

PALNI. 17 

The native name of these mountains is Varahagiri or ' Pig-mountains.' 
The range, although nearly isolated, is part of the same system as the 
Anamalais, and resembles the latter in so many respects that -a large 
portion of the article on the Anamalais may be read as referring 
equally to the Palm's. Anjinad may be taken as belonging to either 
group, and doubtless it is through the Palm's that the colonization of the 
western group will take place. 

The Palm's are divided into two groups, the higher and lower, or the 
west and east ranges. The mean elevation of the former is about 7000 
feet ; of the latter, from 3000 to 4000 feet. Six ghats or passes lead 
up to the lower range, all of a rough description. The lower range is 
generally known to the natives under the designation of Tandigudi and 
Virupachi. The higher range, which has plateaux of over 100 square 
miles, is said to reach an elevation of 8500 feet in one of its peaks. 
The rocks (of gneiss with quartz and felspar) are covered with heavy 
black soil, and traversed by numerous streams. The only made ghat 
up to the higher Palm's on the south side is that from Periakulam to 
Kodaikamal. Six other passes also lead to the higher range. The 
total population of the hills is, according to the Census of 1881, 18,633 
souls ; 5487 on the higher ranges, and 13,146 on the lower. The range 
is connected with the South Indian Railway at Amanayakaniir (40 
miles distant) by a practicable pass, and other roads connect ii- with 
Travancore on the west, and Madura on the east. 

The wild animals met with on the Palnis are — tiger, leopard, wild 
cat, bear, bison, sdmbhar, ibex, spotted deer, jungle sheep, wild hog, 
wild dog, jackal, mongoose, marten cat, and squirrel. Of birds — the 
large brown, the crested and the black eagle, a great variety of falcons 
and hawks, pea-fowl, jungle-fowl, spur-fowl, hill-quail, blackbird, thrush, 
etc. Elephants are now seldom seen. 

The inhabitants of the hills are divided into the following tribes: — (i) 
Manadis, Kunuvars (mountaineers) or Koravars; (2) Karakat Vellalars; 
(3) Shettis or traders ; (4) Paliyars. The Koravars are supposed to 
be a caste of lowland cultivators, who came from the plains of 
Coimbatore some three or four centuries ago. They are the chief 
landed proprietors, possess large herds of cattle, and compared with 
the other tribes, seem to be in easy circumstances. At the marriage of 
a Koravar the whole tribe is present ; and to avoid unnecessary expense, 
marriages are generally put off till two or more can be celebrated 
together, each family contributing towards the expenses. Incompati- 
bility of temper is a sufficient ground for divorce. Polygamy prevails. 
The Western Koravars have the following peculiar custom : — When an 
estate is likely to descend to a female in default of male issue, she 
is forbidden to marry an adult, but goes through the ceremony of 
marriage with some young male child, or, in some cases, with a portion 


i8 PALNI, 

of her father's dwelling-house, on the understanding that she shall be 
allowed to cohabit with any man of her caste whom she prefers, and 
her issue thus begotten inherits the property, which is retained in the 
woman's family. Numerous disputes originate in this custom, and 
evidence has been adduced in courts to show that a child of three or 
four years was the son or daughter of a boy of ten or twelve. The 
religion of the Koravars is nominally Sivaite, but they pay worship 
mainly to the mountain god Vallapom. 

The Karakat Vellalars probably settled on the Palm's at a remote 
period. They are abstemious in their diet and are not averse to meat, 
but smoke and chew opium and tobacco. They anoint themselves 
with ghi instead of oil ; wear the same dress as the Vellalars of the 
plains ; abstain from the use of sandals ; and invariably ornament their 
ears with rings. Though Brahmans officiate as priests in the temples, 
yet the ceremonies of the Vellalars are performed by Pandarams. They 
associate freely with the Koravars, and each can eat food dressed by 
the other. A man, if his wife proves barren, may with her consent 
marry a second, but in no other case is a plurality of wives allowed. 
The remarriage of widows is permitted. 

The Shetti class, from their connection with the people of the plains, 
are considered aliens. Their comparative affluence has procured for 
them the office of mediators in all serious disputes among the other 
tribes, under the impression that being strangers to the hills they are 
likely to act impartially. They trade largely in hill produce, make 
advances on crops, etc., and import low country goods for sale or 
barter among the various tribes. 

The Paliyar tribe is the most numerous on the Palnis, and they are 
regarded as the aborigines. The Paliyars hold a degraded position, and 
are in some degree slaves to the Koravars. In spite of this, they possess 
considerable influence over the Koravars and other tribes as priests and 
physicians, for they alone are believed to understand the use of the 
various medicinal herbs, and alone can offer charms and incantations 
to the local deities. Their position has been ameliorated during recent 
years. As a body, they are mild and inoffensive. They are fond of 
hunting, killing tigers either by shooting or poisoning. Their religion 
is demon-worship, their marriage system monogamous, and their food 
anything. All the tribes of the Palm's are more or less addicted to 
indulging in a species of beer called Iwja made from i-agi (Eleusine 

The native cultivation is carried on in fields, cut into terraces, on the 
spurs and slopes of the hills, and laid out with great skill and labour. 
1 he hill people are well acquainted with the value of manure, carefully 
preserving dung and using it in a liquid form. In irrigation they 
are also skilled ; constructing dams at the most convenient points, and 


conveying the water to their fields by means of channels along the steej) 
sides of the hills. Considerable herds of cattle are in the possession of 
the people, who use both oxen and buffaloes for agricultural purposes. 
But compared with the fine breed of Toda buffaloes in the Nilgiris, 
the Palni buffalo is an insignificant animal. The native products of the 
higher range of the Palm's are — garlic, rice, mustard, wheat, barley, 
vendayam (Trigonella Foenum-gra^cum), t/ien?iai (Setaria italica), and 
a few potatoes. Garlic is the staple product and the chief article of 
export. On the lower range of the Palm's the native i)roducts are- 
turmeric, ginger, cardamoms, plantains, vendayam, castor-oil seed, rice, 
samai (Panicum miliare), vardgu (Panicum miliaceum), themiai, ra<^t 
(Eleusine corocana), kambu (Pennisetum typhoideum), and potatoes. 
The chief staple of export is a peculiar species of plantain. In the 
jungles are found the jack, mango, orange, lime, citron, pepper, wild 
cinnamon, and nutmeg. 

On the lower Palnis coffee plantations have been formed. In 1883 
the number of plantations was 2059, covering an area of 2289 acres, of 
which 1643 acres were under mature plants, 177 acres under immature 
plants, and 469 acres were taken up for planting; the approximate yield 
was 931,581 lbs., or an average of 567 lbs. per acre of mature plants. 
Several portions of the upper range are also well adapted for the growth 
of coffee. 

Considerable traffic is carried on between the plains and the Palnis. 
The chief article of import is salt ; cloth and other necessaries are 
also bartered for hill products, chiefly garlic. The whole of the 
traffic is in the hands of the Shettis and Labbays, who make large 

Since 1880, on the upper Palm's 76-6 square miles, on the lower 
Palm's 27-2 square miles, besides some important sholas or glades, 
have been constituted forest reserves. The timber trees include teak, 
blackwood, cedar, and vengai (Pterocarpus Marsupium). The forests 
on the slopes are of considerable value, containing much vengai and 
other valuable timber. Teak, blackw^ood, and sandal-wood are now 
scarce. Much of the best forest land has been exhausted by plantain 
cultivation. The shingle tree (Acrocarpus fraxinifolius) grows to a 
great size, several trees measuring upwards of 20 feet in girth at six 
feet from the base. 

The climate is milder and of a more even temperature than that of 
Utakamand (Ootacamund). The rainfall is less than on the Nilgiris, 
but it is more equally distributed throughout the year. Mists and fogs 
are common. The lower range is feverish, but the higher portion is 
healthy. The sanitarium of Kodaikanal enjoys a growing popularity. 
Around Kodaikanal the soil is very productive. Nearly all English 
trees and vegetables grow well. 


Paloha.— Village in Gadawara iahsil, Narsinghpur District, Central 
Provinces. Population (1881) 2838, namely, Hindus, 2740; Muham- 
madans, 54; Jains, 8 ; Kabirpanthi, i ; and non-Hindu aborigines, 35. 
PalU.— Village in the District of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal ; 
situated on the left bank of the Hugli, in lat. 22° 47' 30" N., and long. 
88° 24' E., 2 miles above Barrackpur. In old days it was known as 
containing a powder magazine, and as the point where the Grand Trunk 
Road from Calcutta crosses the Hugli towards the north-west. It is 
now more celebrated for its works supplying Calcutta, 14 miles distant, 
with water, the purity of which is daily tested in Calcutta by the Govern- 
ment analyst. The works include a jetty for landing machinery, coals, 
and filtering media, while it protects the two large suction pipes, 30 
inches in diameter, which here dip into the river, and through which 
the water is drawn by pumps. There is an aided vernacular school at 

Palupare.— Old fort in the Kiggatnad taluk of Coorg, on the Kire 
river. Once the residence of former rulers of Coorg named Kole Linga 
and Borne Krishna; and the scene of a battle at the end of the 17th 
century, in which Raja Dodda Virappa completely defeated an invading 
army from Mysore under the command of Chikka Deva Wodeyar. 
Some ditches and small stone temples still mark the spot, which has 
now been converted into a coffee estate. 

Palwal.— Central eastern tahsil of Gurgaon District, Punjab ; lying 
between 27° 55' 30" and 28° 14 n. lat, and between 77° 14' and 
77^" 35' E. long., stretching along the right bank of the Jumna, and 
intersected by the Agra Canal and the trunk road from Delhi to 
Agra. The soil is generally fertile, consisting of loam and clay. 
The population consists principally of Jat cultivators. Area, 385 
square miles, with 186 towns and villages, 13,781 houses, and 32,363 
families. Total population (1881) 142,258, namely, males 75^233, 
and females 67,025. Average density of the population, 369 persons 
per square mile. Classified according to religion, there were in 
1881 — Hindus, 121,576; Muhammadans, 20,494; Jains, 172; Sikhs, 
15 ; and Christian, i. Of the 186 towns and villages, 100 contain less 
than five hundred inhabitants ; 53 from five hundred to a thousand; 31 
from one to five thousand; and 2 upwards of five thousand. The 
average area under cultivation for the five years 1877-78 to 1881-82 
was 246^ square miles, or 157,709 acres, the area occupied by the chief 
crops being as follows \—jodr, 41,366 acres ; barley, 34,480 acres ; gram, 
32,730 acres; hajra, 29,749 acres; wheat, 17,650 acres. Of non-food 
crops, cotton is by far the most important, and was grown on an annual 
average of 23,541 acres for the above five years. Revenue of the 
tahsil, ;£2 7,890. The tahsilddr is the only local administrative officer, 
and presides over i civil and i criminal court ; number of police circles 


(f/uimh), 3 ; strength of regular police force, 84 men ; rural police 
{c/uin/yiddrs)^ 299. 

Palwal. — Town and municipality in Gurgaon District, Punjab, and 
head-quarters of Palwal fa/isil. Situated in lat. 28° 8' 30" n., and long. 
77° 22' 15" E., in the open plain between the river Jumna (Jamuna) 
and the Mewat hills, about 30 miles south-east of Gurgaon, on the 
trunk road from Delhi to Muttra. Palwal is a town dating from remote 
antiquity, and Hindu pandits identify it with the Apelava of the 
Mahdbhdrata, part of the Pandava kingdom of Indraprashtha. It is 
said to have been one of the cities restored by Vikramaditya, 57 B.C. 
The oldest part covers a high mound formed by the accumulated 
debris of many centuries ; but of late years, houses and streets have 
sprung up on the plain at the foot of the mound. Bricks of unusual 
dimensions are often unearthed \ and in digging a well a few years ago, 
remains of walls and houses were found fifty feet below the surface. 

The modern town of Palwal is the second largest in Gurgaon Dis- 
trict ; but with the exception that the bazar forms a grain mart for the 
surrounding country, it is of no commercial importance, and has no 
manufactures. The population, too, has declined from 12,729 in 
1868 to 10,635 in 1881. In the latter year, Hindus numbered 7107 ; 
Muhammadans, 3426; Jains, 97; and Sikhs, 5. Number of houses, 
1293. Municipal income (1883-84), ^743, or an average of is. sd. 
per head. The principal streets are paved with stone or brick, and are 
well drained. An elegant domed tomb of red sandstone, just outside 
the town on the Muttra road, is said to have been built by a fakir, 
who levied an impost for this purpose of one slab on every cart-load of 
stone which passed from Agra to Delhi for the building of the fort of 
Salimgarh. The principal architectural feature of the town is a mosque 
of the early Muhammadan period. It has a flat roof, supported by square 
carved pillars and architraves of the style usually found in mosques 
built of material taken from Hindu temples. The town contains besides 
the usual Sub-divisional courts and offices, a post-oftice, rest-house, 
police station, school, and a large sardi or native inn. 

Pambai. — River in Travancore State, Madras Presidency; a rapid 
mountain stream, with rocky bed and high banks in its upper course 
from the Western Ghats. In the plains it becomes a fine navigable 
river; and, with the waters of the Achinkoil, which join it about 15 miles 
from its mouth, it enters the great backwater at Alleppi. Its whole length 
is about 90 miles, for 50 of which it is navigable by large boats at most 

Pambam Passage {Paumbefi; pambu, *a snake,' said to be named 
from the character of the channel). — The artificial channel known as 
the ' Pass,' which affords the means of communication for sea-going 
ships between the continent of India and the island of Ceylon. It 


lies between the mainland of Madura District and the little island of 
Rameswaram, which is the first link in the chain of islets and rocks 
forming Adam's Bridge. Geological evidence tends to show that in 
early days this gap was bridged by a continuous isthmus ; and the 
ancient records preser\'ed in the temple of Rameswaram relate that in 
the year 1480 a violent storm breached the isthmus, and that, despite 
efforts to restore the connection, subsequent storms rendered the breach 
permanent. The Passage was formerly impracticable for ships, being 
obstructed by two parallel ridges of rock about 140 yards apart. The 
more northerly of these ridges was the higher of the two, and used to 
appear above water at high tide. The space between was occupied by 
a confused mass of rocks, lying for the most part parallel to the ridges, 
and in horizontal strata. The formation is sandstone. 

The first proposal to deepen this channel for traffic was made by a 
certain Colonel Manuel Martinez, who brought the matter under the 
attention of Mr. Lushington, Collector of the Southern Provinces of 
India, and afterwards Governor of Fort St. George. Nothing, however, 
was done until 1822, when Colonel de Haviland recommended the insti- 
tution of a regular sur\-ey, which was entrusted to Ensign (afterwards Sir 
Arthur) Cotton, whose name is so honourably associated with all the 
great engineering projects in Southern India. Cotton's opinion was 
favourable; but other matters diverted the attention of Government 
until 1828, when Major Sim was instructed to undertake experiments in 
blasting and removing the rocks. His report will be found at length in 
the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (vol. iv.). The first 
scientific marine surv^ey of the channel was conducted in 1837 by 
Lieutenants Powell and Ethersey of the Indian Navy, assisted by 
Lieutenants Grieve and Christopher, with Felix Jones as their draughts- 
man. The charts made on this occasion still remain the standard 
authority. Finally, in 1877, a connection was estabhshed by Mr. 
Chapman and Lieutenant Coomb, R.N., between the marine and land 
surveys ; and a series of valuable obser\-ations were made on the 
tides, etc., which have been published in the form of a Hydrographical 

The operations for deepening and widening the channel were com- 
menced in 1838, and have ever since been continued. Convict labour 
has been employed to a considerable extent, under the supervision of 
the Madras Sappers and Miners. By 1844 the channel had been 
deepened to 8 feet of water at low spring tides, and two war steamers 
were able to pass through. The total expenditure up to that date was 
-^o^SjSQS- I^ 1S54, Lieutenant - Colonel Cotton reported that the 
uniform depth was 10 J feet; that the passage was navigable for keeled 
vessels of 200 tons; that the tonnage passing through in 1853 was 
nearly 160,000 tons, as compared with 17,000 tons in 1822 ; and that 


the total expenditure had been about ;£"32,5oo. Colonel Cotton 
pressed upon Government that the channel should be extended on 
such a scale as to be practicable for ocean steamers ; but this is for- 
bidden by the shallow character of the neighbouring coast. Blasting 
and dredging operations have since been carried on regularly up to the 
present date. The main channel through the larger reefs of rocks has 
now been carried down to a minimum depth of 14 feet. Its length is 
4232 feet, and its width 80 feet. The returns furnished for the first 
edition of this work showed that, in 1875-76, the total number of 
vessels that passed through, including several steamers, was 2657, 
aggregating 269,544 tons ; the Government share of pilotage fees 
was ;2<!"23i3. There is a second channel to the south of the main 
channel, called Kilkarai Passage, which is 2100 feet long and 150 
feet wide, and has been dredged through a sandbank to the depth 
of 12 feet. In 1875-76 this was used by 805 vessels, paying ^87 
in dues. Later navigation statistics are not available. 

The traffic passing by the Pambam Passage is mostly of a coasting 
nature, between Ceylon and the mainland ; though there is some 
emigration by this route to British Burma and the Straits. If ocean 
steamers are ever destined to run inside the island of Ceylon, it is 
stated that the best route will be a ship canal across either the peninsula 
of Ramnad or the island of Rameswaram. 

Pambam. — Town, deriving its name from the passage between 
the island of Rameswaram and the mainland of India, in Madura 
District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 9° 17' 20'' n., and long. 
79° 15' 31" E., at the western extremity of the island commanding the 
channel. Population in 187 1 (with adjoining villages) 9407, inhabiting 
1986 houses. In 1881 the population of Pambam village was 4833, 
and the number of houses 727. The lighthouse, rising 97 feet above 
high-water mark, contains a fixed catadioptric light which guides vessels 
making the channel from the Gulf of Manar. The channel is open to 
vessels of 500 tons burden. The population, chiefly Labbays, are 
employed as pilots, divers, and in other seafaring pursuits. Half the 
year, the Ceylon Government have their immigration depot fixed here ; 
and this, with the constant influx of pilgrims from every part of India, 
and the grain trade, gives the port an appearance of great activity. The 
average annual value of trade for the five years ending 1883-84 was 
;£"55,92i— imports ^23,857, and exports ^32,064. In 1883-84 the 
value of trade was ;£\Z^(i2^ — imports ;£"i 9,802, and exports ^28,823. 
At one time the place was of importance on account of its pearl fishery, 
and at an early period it was used as a refuge for the Ramnad 
chiefs, in whose zaviinddri it is still included. They had a palace in 

Pamidi.— Town in Gooty (Giiti) taluk, Anantapur District, Madras 


Presidency; situated in lat. 14° 56' 30" n., and long. 77° 39' 15" e., on 
the Penner river, 14 miles south of Gooty (Gilti). Population (1881) 
5260, residing in 1025 houses. Hindus number 4290, and Muham- 
madans 970. Pamidi is an unhealthy place, occupied chiefly by a 
community of weavers. Post-ofiice. 

Pdmpur. — Town in Kashmir (Cashmere) State, Northern India, 
lying in lat. 34° N., long. 75° 3' E., on the north bank of the river 
Jehlam (Jhelum), about 5 miles south-west of Srinagar, in the midst of 
a fertile tract, surrounded by orchards and gardens. A bridge of 
several arches spans the river ; bazar ; two Muhammadan shrines. 
The neighbouring country is chiefly devoted to growth of saff"ron, con- 
sidered finer than that of Hindustan. 

Panabdras. — ZaminddH or chiefship in Warora iahsil, Chanda 
District, Central Provinces ; situated 80 miles east - north - east of 
Wairagarh, within a dense belt of jungle and forest, comprising an 
area of 344 square miles, with 142 villages and 4058 houses. Total 
population (1881) 12,374; average density of population, 36 persons 
per square mile. The population has considerably increased of late 
years, owing to the opening out of Chhatisgarh, of which plateau the 
Panabaras zamifiddri forms a part. Wild arrowroot {tikhur) grows 
abundantly in the valleys; and the hills yield much wax and honey. 
The climate is moist and cool even in the summer months. Panabaras 
includes the dependent chiefship of Aundhi. The ruler ranks first of 
the Wairagarh chiefs. 

Panabdras. — Teak forest in the south-east corner of Panabaras 
chiefship in Chanda District, Central Provinces. Area, 25 square 
miles. The boundary has been cleared and marked out by the Forest 
Department. The population consists of Gonds, but dahya or nomad 
cultivation seems unknown to them. Some of the trees contain as 
much as 200 cubic feet of timber. This forest supplied the teak 
used in the Nagpur palace, the Kamthi (Kamptee) barracks, and the 
Residency at Sitabaldi. 

Pdndgur. — Town in Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) tahsil^ Jabalpur District, 
Central Provinces; situated in lat. 23° 17' n., and long. 80° 2 e., on 
the northern road 9 miles from Jabalpur city. Population (1881) 
4915, chiefly agricultural. Hindus number 3491 ; Kabirpanthis, 63 ; 
Satnamis, 36; Jains, 417; Muhammadans, 589; and non-Hindu 
aborigines, 319. Iron, from the neighbouring mines, forms the chief 
article of trade. Sugar-cane is the principal agricultural product. 

Panahat (or Bah-Pandhat). — South-eastern tahsil of Agra District, 
North-Western Provinces. It is nearly surrounded on all sides by 
large rivers, and forms almost an island, cut off from the main 
District. For about five or six miles on the east, the iahsil is bounded 
by Etawah District, and in the extreme west for about nine miles by 


Dholpur State. Elsewhere it is enclosed by water — on the south by the 
Chambal, flowing in long and sweeping curves from west to east, which 
separates it from Gwalior territory ; and on the north by the Utanghan 
and the Jumna, which form a continuous boundary line, separating the 
tahsil from Mainpuri and Etawah Districts. In shape, Pan^hat is a 
long irregular strip of land, narrow at either end, but widening out 
toward the centre. Its extreme length from east to west is about 42 
miles, and its extreme breadth about 14 miles, with an average breadth 
of eight or nine miles. 

Total area of the tahsil^ 341 square miles, of which 176 square 
miles are cultivated. A considerable portion of the land is held 
revenue-free, and only 283 square miles are assessed for Government 
revenue; of w^hich 161 square miles are cultivated, 37 square miles 
cultivable, and 85 square miles barren and waste. Total popu- 
lation (1872) 142,155; (1881) 120,529, namely, males 63,524, and 
females 57,005, thus showing a decrease of population in 13 years of 
21,626, or 15-2 per cent. Classified according to religion, there were 
in 1881 — Hindus, 115,154; Muhammadans, 3491; Jains, 1880; and 
Christians, 4. Of 204 inhabited villages, 124 contained less than five 
hundred inhabitants; 52 between five hundred and a thousand; 27 
between one and five thousand; and i upwards of five thousand. 
Government land revenue (1881-82), ^20,867, or including local rates 
and cesses levied on the land, ;£"2 3,698. Total rental, including rates 
and cesses, paid by the cultivators, £^^<^,2^i. 

Panahat tahsil is badly off for communications, and it is only in the 
direction of Dholpur that there is any exit for the tahsil^ except by the 
passage of an unbridged river. Four second-class roads afford means of 
internal communication. There is but httle trade, and there are no 
merchants. Cattle-breeding is largely carried on by the landholders, 
and the so-called Panahat breed has more than a local reputation. 
In 1883 the /^/[j// contained i criminal court; number of police circles, 
4; strength of regular police, 56 men; village police {chaiikiddrs)^ 348. 

Panahat. — Town in Agra District, North- Western Provinces, and the 
head-quarters of the tahsil till 1882, when it was removed to the village 
of Bah. Situated in lat. 26° 52' 39" n., and long. 78' 24' 58" e., about 
a mile from the left bank of the Chambal, -t^Z niiles south-east of Agra 
city. Population (1881) 5697, namely, Hindus, 5005; Muhammadans, 
653; and Jains, 39. The town contains a police station, post-office, 
school, and three fine Hindu temples. The old fort commands an 
extensive view, and is a station of the great Trigonometrical Survey. 

Panapur (or Bhagiadu). — Agricultural town in Saran District, 
Bengal. Population (1881) 6425. 

Panar. — River in Purniah District, Bengal ; formed by the junction 
of a number of hill streams rising in Nepal. Its course is first south- 


east through Sultinpur and Haveli Purniah pargands, then southwards 
through Kadba and Hatanda to the Ganges. It is navigable by 
boats of 250 ?naunds, or about 9 tons burden, in the neighbourhood 
of Purniah, and above that for boats of 100 viaunds (about 3 J tons), 
ahnost to the Nepal frontier. The current in the upper reaches is 
very rapid. 

Panchamnagar. — ^Village in Damoh District, Central Provinces ; 
situated in lat. 24^ 3' n., and long. 79° 13' e., 24 miles north-west of 
Damoh town. Population (1881) below 2000; but the place appears 
to have been once much larger. The paper produced at Panchamnagar 
bears a high repute. Police station and village school. 

Panchannagram {'The Fifty-five Villages'). — The name given to 
the suburbs of Calcutta, containing an area, according to the latest 
Revenue Survey Report, of 14,829 acres, or 23*17 square miles. Lat. 
22° 30' to 22° 41' N., long. 88° 19' to 88° 31' e. Attached to the treaty 
made in 1757 with Mir Jafar, is a Hst of the villages then granted to the 
Company free of rent. This was the origin of the zaminddri of Dihi 
Panchaimagram, of which the part enclosed within the limits of the old 
Maratha Ditch forms the town of Calcutta. The remainder, which is 
under the Collector of the Twenty-four Parganas, yields an annual 
revenue of ;^8i2o, derived from 22,500 separate holdings. The lands 
lie all round the south-east and south of Calcutta, beginning from the 
Government telegraph -yard on Tolly's nald^ and running up to Dum- 
Dum on the east. On the north the zatmnddri is bounded by the 
Government estate of Barahanagar (Burranagore). 

Panchavra. — Petty State in the Gohelwar division of Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency ; consisting of i village. Lies 2 miles south of 
Songarh station, on the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway, and 12 miles north- 
east of Palitana. Area, 78 square miles. Population (1881) 504. 

Panchet {Pdjichkol). — Large zaminddri or landed estate in Man- 
bhiim District, Bengal; occupying an area of 1,209,795 acres, or 1890 
square miles, being five-thirteenths of the total area (4914 square 
miles) of the District. It contains 19 of the 45 pargajtds into which 
Manbhilm is divided, and pays to Government a revenue of ;£"5579. 
The Rajas of Panchet claim that they came into Manbhum as conquer- 
ing Rajputs from North-Western India ; but it is more probable that 
they are of aboriginal descent, and it is certain that their claims to 
supremacy were only nominally recognised by the other chiefs of the 
District. The earliest mention of the estate by the Muhammadan 
historians is given by Mr. Blochmann in The /oiir?ial of the Asiatic 
Society for 187 1, as follows: — 'Of Panchet, I have only found a short 
remark in the voluminous Pddishdh-ndtnah (B. i. p. 317): " Bir 
Narayan, zajuinddr of Panchet, a country attached to Subah Behar, was 
under Shah Jahan a commander of 300 horse, and died in the 6th year 


(a.h. 1042-43, A.D. 1632-33)." Short as the remark is, it implies that 
Panchet paid a fixed />esMasA to Delhi.' 

Mr. J. Grant, in his Report to Lord Cornwallis in the last century 
on the Revenues of Bengal (Fifth Report, Madras edition, 1866, 
p. 464), describes the ' Zamiuddri Ra'J of Pdnchet ' as a jungle territory 
of 2779 square miles, situated within the portion of country ceded to 
the Company, and differing little in its financial history or internal 
management from the adjoining District of Bishnupur. From the 
year 1135 to 1 150 of the Bengal era (1728-43 a.d.). Raja Garur Narayan 
was subject to an annual tribute of Rs. 18,203 ^o^ the Fiscal Division 
of Panchet and the kisuiat of Shergarh. In 1743, an additional charge 
of Rs. 3323 was levied from the estate in the form of the dbivdb chauth 
Mardthd imposed by All Vardi Khan. In 11 70 (1763), the sajf-i-sikkd, 
or impost levied by Kasim Ali to cover losses on the exchange of coins, 
swelled the net assessment to Rs. 23,544. Muhammad Reza Khan in 
1766 raised the demand to Rs. 30,000, but only Rs. 5969 was in fact 
collected during that year. In 1771, a zor talab or compulsory exac- 
tion of Rs. 144,954, including a saranjdmi or deduction for collecting 
charges of Rs. 17,302, was established, and the demand enforced by 
military authority. In the 'gross medium Settlement' of 1777 with 
Raja Raghunath Narayan, ' the actual payment of Panchet, with the 
recent territorial annexation of Jhalida,' is stated at Rs. 69,027. Yet the 
native surveyors had discovered sources of revenue amounting in all to 
Rs. 154,423, including paldtikd or revenue chargeable on lands that 
had been deserted by the cultivators. Finally, in 1783, the total 
assessment of the same territory amounted to Rs. 76,532, charged with 
a deduction of about Rs. 57,000 for collection expenses. This, Mr. 
Grant points out, gives little more to the sovereign than the original 
tribute, and ' leaves a recoverable defalcation exceeding i lakh of 
rupees, if we take the zor talab or compulsory exaction of 17 71 as the 
proper standard.' 

In the Permanent Settlement made with the Raja of Panchet, the 
Government revenue was fixed by assessing in detail every village 
within the zamiuddri, with the exception of the rent-free grants. A list 
of the latter was submitted to Government by the Raja as early as 177 1, 
and the rent-paying villages were returned in a similar manner at the 
time of the Decennial Settlement. The large numbers of rent-free grants 
is mainly due to the desire to induce Brahmans to settle on the estate. 

Panchet. — Hill in Manbhiim District, Bengal; situated in lat. 23° 
37' 30" N., and long. 86° 49' 15" e., half-way between Raghunathpur 
and the confluence of the Barakhar and Damodar rivers. It is 3 miles 
long, stretching from north to south in a long rounded ridge, at least 
2000 feet above sea-level. The hill is covered with dense jungle, and 
is inaccessible to beasts of bur Jen. 


Pdnchipenta {Pdchipeta). — Hill pass or ghat in Saliir taluk, Vizaga- 
patam District, Madras Presidency, by which the road crosses from 
Saliir to Jaipur. The crest of the pass is about 3000 feet above sea- 
level. Lat. 18° 28' N., long. 83° 12' E. The village of Panchipenta 
— containing in 1881, 879 houses and 4385 inhabitants — is the capital 
of an ancient zami?iddri, a feudatory of Jaipur (Jeypore), and ' Count 
of the Southern Marches.' The Maratha Horse of Jafar Ali descended 
into the Chicacole Circar in 1754, by the treachery of the Panchipenta 
zaminddr, who was, in consequence, imprisoned. One of the family 
fell at the battle of Padmanabham in 1794. The estate pays a fixed 
revenue of ;^2 696. 

Pdnchkot. — Large zaminddn and hill in Manbhiim District, Bengal. 
— See Panchet. 

Panch Mahals (or Five Sub-divisions). — British District on the 
eastern frontier of Gujarat, Bombay Presidency; lying between 22° 30' 
and 23° 10' N. lat., and between 73° 35' and 74° 10' e. long. Area, 
1613 square miles. Population in 1881, 255,479 persons, or 158 per 
square mile. For purposes of administration, the territory is distributed 
over 3 Sub-divisions, which form two main groups, divided by the lands 
of Baria in Rewa Kantha. The Sub-divisions are Godhra, Kalol, and 
Dohad. Halol is a petty Sub-division under Kalol. The south-west 
portion is bounded on the north by the States of Lundwara, Sunth, and 
Sanjeli ; on the east by Baria State ; on the south by Baroda State ; 
and on the west by Baroda State, the Pandu Mehwds and the river 
Mahi separating it from Kaira District. The north-east portion is 
bounded on the north by the States of Chilkari and Kushalgarh ; on 
the east by Western Malvva and the river Anas ; on the south by Western 
Malvva ; and on the west by the States of Sunth, Sanjeli, and Baria. 
On the transfer of the Panch Mahals from Sindhia in 1861, they were, 
in the first instance, placed under the Political Agent for Rewa 
Kantha. In 1864 the revenue was made payable through Kaira. In 
1877 the Panch Mahals were erected into a distinct Collectorate. 
For purposes of general administration, they form a non-regulation 
District, under the charge of an officer styled the Collector and Agent 
to the Governor of Bombay, Panch Mahals. The administrative head- 
quarters of the District are at Godhra. 

Physical Aspects. — The two sections of the District differ consider- 
ably in appearance — that to the south-west (except a hilly portion 
covered with dense forest, comprising the Pawagarh Hill) is a level 
tract of rich soil ; while the northern portion, although it contains 
some fertile valleys, is generally rugged, undulating, and barren, with 
but little cultivation. The forests lie mainly in the centre of the 
District. In some of the western villages, the careful tillage, the 
well -grown trees, the deep sandy lanes bordered by high hedges 


overgown with tangled creepers, recall the wealthy tracts of Kaira. 
In other parts are wide stretches of woodland and forest, or bare 
and fantastic ridges of hills without a sign of tillage or population. 
In the north-east, the wide expanse of yellow corn, and the fields of 
many-coloured poppies, tell of the immediate neighbourhood of opium- 
growing Mahvi. 

Though there are many streams and watercourses, the District has 
no permanent river, except the Mahi, which touches on the north-west. 
The Anas and Panam dry up in the hot weather. From wells and 
pools, however, the District is sufficiently supplied with water. There 
are altogether (1881) 2260 wells, 127 water-lifts, and 753 ponds in the 
Panch Mahals. Several of these ponds cover an extent of over 100 
acres. The one near Godhra, called the Orwada lake, is said never to 
have been dry, and to have a pillar in the centre only visible in times 
of extreme drought. 

Pawagarh, the ' quarter hill,' in the south-west corner of the District 
is the only mountain of any size. It rises 2500 feet from the plain in 
almost sheer precipices, and has a rugged and picturesque outline on 
the summit, which is strongly fortified, and was formerly a place of 
much consequence. Mention is made of it so far back as 1022, when the 
Tuars were lords of the neighbouring country and of Pawa Fort. The 
Chauhans next held the fort, and a Muhammadan commander attacked 
it in 1418 without success. Sindhia took it between 1761 and 1770, 
and held it until 1803, when it was breached and seized by Colonel 
Woodington. In 1804, Pawagarh was handed back to Sindhia, with 
whom it remained until 1853, when the English took over the manage- 
ment of the District. Pawagarh is now a sanitarium for the Europeans 
in Panch Mahals District and Baroda. 

The District contains limestone, sandstone, trap, quartz, basalt, granite, 
and other varieties of stone, well fitted for building purposes. The hill 
of Pawagarh is said to represent a mass of trap rock, which at one time 
reached to the Rajpipla Hills. There are hot springs 10 miles west of 

When, in 1861, the District was taken over by the British Govern- 
ment, big game of all kinds, and many varieties of deer, abounded. 
Wild elephants were common two centuries ago, and twenty years 
back, tigers were numerous. As, however, large numbers of big game 
have been shot annually for many years, the supply is now much 
reduced. Only within the last few years has any attempt been made to 
introduce a system of conservancy into the management of the Panch 
Mahal forests. So severely have they suffered from previous want 
of care, that, in spite of their great extent, litde timber of any size is 
now to be found. In 1881-82, the forest revenue amounted to ;^4426. 
Besides timber-trees, the most important varieties are — the 7nahud 


(Bassia latifolia), from whose flowers a favourite intoxicating drink is 
prepared; the khdkhra (Butea frondosa), whose flat, strong leaves are used 
as plates by Hindus ; the mango, and the rayen (Mimusops indica). 

History. — The history of the Panch Mahals is the history of the city of 
Champaner, now a heap of ruins. During the Hindu period (350 to 1300 
A.D.) Champaner was a stronghold of the Anhilwara kings and of the 
Tuar dynasty. The Chauhans followed the Tuars, and retained posses- 
sion of the place and surrounding country until the appearance of the 
Muhammadans in 1484. From this time until 1536, Champaner remained 
the political capital of Gujarat. In 1535, Humayiin pillaged the city, 
and in the following year the court and capital was transferred to 
Ahmadabad. The Marathas under Sindhia overran and annexed the 
District in the middle of the i8th century; and it was not until 1853 
that the British took over the administration. In i86t, Sindhia 
exchanged Panch Mahals for lands near Jhansi. Since 1853, the 
peace has been twice disturbed — once in 1858 by an inroad of 
mutineers, and a second time in t868, when the Naikdas (said to be 
the Muhammadan descendants of the population of Champaner) rose, 
but were dispersed by Captain Macleod and a detachment of Poona 
Horse. The chief criminal, Joria, was hanged. 

Popiclation. — In 1872, the Panch Mahals District had a population 
of 240,743 persons. The Census Returns of 1881 disclosed a total 
population of 255,479, residing in 3 towns and 672 villages, and occupy- 
ing 50,970 houses. Density of the population, 158 persons per square 
mile; houses per square mile, 37; persons per village, 377; persons 
per house, 5*0. Classified according to sex, there were 131,162 males 
and 124,317 females; proportion of males, 51*3 per cent. Classified 
according to age, there were — under 15 years, males 57,041, and females 
53,187; total children, 110,228, or 43*15 per cent.: 15 years and 
upwards, males 74,121, and females 71,130; total adults, 145,251, or 
56'85 per cent. Of the total population, 159,624 were Hindus, 16,060 
Musalmans, 1867 Jains, 77,840 non-Hindu aborigines, 30 Parsis, 7 
Jews, 44 Christians, and ' others,' 7. 

Among the Hindus were included the following castes: — Brahmans, 
6086; Rajputs, 5595; Chamars, 2177; Darji's (tailors), 780; Napits 
(barbers), 1858; Kunbis, 5934; Kohs, 81,737; Kumbars (potters), 
1868; Lobars (blacksmiths), 181 1; Mhars, 5023; Mali's (gardeners), 
918; Banjaras (carriers), 1580; Sonars (goldsmiths), 732; Sutars 
(carpenters), 907; Tehs (oilmen), 746 ; other Hindus, 41,872. 

The bulk of the aboriginal tribes are Bhils, who number 69,590, 
or 27*2 per cent, of the total population; 'other' aborigines numbered 
8250, nearly all Naikdas. Until within the last few years the aboriginal 
tribes were turbulent, and much addicted to thieving and drunken- 
ness ; to check these tendencies the Panch Mahals are provided, in 


addition to the unarmed police, with a regiment called the Gujarat 
Bhil Corps, about 530 strong. The Bhils now mostly cultivate the same 
field continuously, although many still practise nomadic tillage on 
patches of forest land, which they abandon after a year cr two. 
Formerly, as robbers they never entered a town except to plunder, but 
now they crowd the streets, selling grain, wood, and grass. The Naikdas 
are found only in the wildest parts, and are employed as labourers and 
wood-cutters ; a few practise nomadic tillage. The Bhils and Naikdas 
do not live in villages ; each family has a separate dwelling ; and they 
often move from place to place. 

The Muhammadan population by race consists of— Shaikhs, 2601 ; 
Pathans, 1765; Sayyids, :i,T^2 ; Sindis, 65; and 'other' tribes, 11,297. 
According to sect, the Muhammadans were returned — Sunnis 12,597, 
and Shias 3463. Of the Musalman population, 5283 belong to' a 
special class, known as Ghanchis. These men, as their name implies, 
are generally oil-pressers ; but in former times they were chiefly em- 
l)loyed as carriers of merchandise between IMalwa and the coast. The 
changes that have followed the introduction of railways have in some 
respects reduced the prosperity of these professional carriers, and the 
Ghanchis complain that their trade is gone. Several of them have 
taken to cultivation; and they are, as a class, so intelligent, pushing, and 
thrifty, that there seems little reason to doubt that before long they 
will be able to take advantage of some opening for profitable employ- 

In respect of occupation, the Census distributes the adult population 
into six main groups as follows : — (i) Professional class, including State 
officials of every kind and members of the learned professions, 321 1 ; 
(2) domestic servants, inn and lodging keepers, 1414; (3) commercial 
class, including bankers, merchants, carriers, etc., 1469 ; (4) agricultural 
and pastoral class, including gardeners, 60,097; (s) industrial class, 
including all manufacturers and artisans, 9486 ; and (6) indefinite and 
unproductive class, comprising general labourers, male children, and 
persons of unspecified occupation, 55,485. 

Of the 675 towns and villages in the Panch Mahals District, 322 in 
1881 contained less than two hundred inhabitants; 230 from two to 
five hundred: 89 from five hundred to one thousand; 22 from one 
to two thousand ; 7 from two to three thousand ; 2 from three to five 
thousand; i from five to ten thousand; and 2 Irom ten to fifteen 
thousand. The three principal towns in the District are Godhra, 
population (188 1 ) 13,342; Dohad, 12,394; and Jhalod, 5579. 

Agriculture. — Agriculture supported 185,019 persons in the Panch 
Mahdls in 1881, or 72*42 per cent, of the entire population. Of these, 
112,194 were 'workers,' giving an average of 7*5 acres of cultivable and 
cultivated land to each. Of the total District area of 16 13 square 


miles, 1 27 1 square miles are assessed to Government revenue. Of 
these, 673 square miles are under cultivation, and 598 square miles are 
cultivable. Total amount of Government assessment, including local 
rates and cesses on land, ;^33,6ii, or an average of is. 2jd. per 
cultivated acre. 

The total area of cultivable land in 1883 was 482.868 acres, of which 
228,623 acres, or 47*5 per cent., were taken up for cultivation. Of this 
area, 27,484 acres were fallow or under grass ; of the remaining 201,139 
acres (46,108 of which were twice cropped), grain crops occupied 
171,093 acres; pulses, 46,893; oil-seeds, 25,134; fibres, 2765; and 
miscellaneous, 1362 acres. The area under wheat in 1883 was 16,667 
acres; rice, 36,865; maize, 49,679; bdjra (Pennisetum typhoideum), 
30,606; gram, 30,000; tobacco, 227; sugar-cane, 560; sesamum, 
23,999 ; cotton, 286. 

The prices current in the District in 1882-83 were for i rupee (2s.) 
as follows — wheat, 22 lbs.; best rice, 26 lbs.; bdjra (the staple food 
of the cultivators), 35 lbs. ; common rice, 31 lbs. Salt costs about |d. 
per lb. The agricultural stock in 1882-83 included 207,106 horned 
cattle, 945 horses, 1068 mares, 465 foals, 1270 donkeys, 25,837 sheep 
and goats; 34,470 ploughs, and 8234 carts. The cost of labour was 
loi^d. a day for skilled workmen, and 3fd. for unskilled workmen. 
The hire per day of a cart was 2s. 6d. There is not a constant demand 
for labour all the year round, but only in harvest time. Women work 
in the fields as hard as men. 

Considerable tracts of arable land in the Panch Mahals have not 
yet been brought under the plough. The opening of the Godhra 
branch of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway will, 
it is hoped, bring both buyers of land and cultivators. During 
the year 1876-77 colonization was attempted by the settling 
near the foot of Pawagarh Hill of about 1867 families of the 
Talavia tribe, from the overcrowded tracts of Kaira, Broach, and 
Baroda ; but it proved a failure, the settlers nearly all dying out and 
some absconding, causing a loss to Government of about Rs. 86,000 
(^8600), the total of sums advanced from time to time with a view of 
helping the settlers. In 1881, an attempt was made by a Parsi to 
reclaim land. He at first started on 1000 acres, adding to it in 1884 
another 2500 acres in Halol taluk, 7 miles from Bhodarpur, the terminus 
of the Baroda State Railway. In 1885 he had 1500 acres under 
cultivation, growing cotton and wheat (never before cultivated in the 
District), as well as grain w4th much success. There are now (1885) 
on the estate 450 families, 75 ploughs, 500 cattle, 125 houses. 

Trade, etc. — The through trade of the District was once very flourish- 
ing, especially after the reduction of transit duties ; but the opening of 
the Malwa line of the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway into Central India 


from Khandwa has interfered with this traffic, and tobacco and salt from 
Ciujardt, which used to pass over the road leading from Gujarat to 
Malwa and Mewar, are now sent by rail. The opium traffic from 
Malwa has also been stopped under excise prohibition. The chief 
exports to Gujarat are grain, mahiai flowers, timber, and oil-seeds ; the 
chief imports from Gujarat are tobacco, salt, cocoa-nuts, hardware, and 
piece-goods. Timber is the chief article of export, and most of it comes 
from the Baria and Sangli forests. The only industry of any importance 
in the District is the making of lac bracelets at Dohad. Dohad also 
is looked upon as a granary in time of necessity for Malwa, Mewar, 
and Gujarat; and it is anticipated that here a large grain trade will 
spring up. The recent opening of the railway to Godhra, the chief 
town of the District, has given a new impulse to the trade of the 
Panch Mahals. 

Administratioji. — When the British took over the management of the 
Panch Mahals in 1853, the greatest disorder prevailed, as the country 
had for many years been in the hands of revenue contractors, who were 
not interfered with so long as the revenue was paid. Some of the 
Rajputs and village head-men had been forced into outlawry, and the 
contractors in retaliation had collected mercenaries, with whom they 
harried the villages. The British has respected the position of the 
large landlords, tdlukddrs, and thdkiirs, who are chiefly Kolis, and own 
estates varying from one to forty or fifty villages, and levy the same 
rent now as at the commencement of the British rule. The aliena- 
tions of former governments have been settled on an equitable basis. 
A survey settlement has been efl"ected in part of the District, and is in 
progress in the remainder. Special rates have been offered to colonists 
to take up the cultivable waste lands in Godhra Sub-division, namely, 
rent-free for five years, and then at 4 arums (6d.) an acre, and gradually 
rising until the rate equals the sur\-ey rate. 

The District for purposes of administration contains three Sub- 
divisions, Godhra, Dohad, and Kalol. The revenue raised in 
1 88 1-82, from all sources, imperial, local, and municipal, amounted to 
;£455232, or, on a population of 255,479, an incidence per head of 
35. 6d. The land-tax forms the principal source of revenue, amounting 
^o ;^2 7,o57 ; other important items are stamps and forests. The local 
funds created since 1863 for works of public utility and rural education 
yielded a total sum of £\~<^2> i^ 1881-82. The two municipali- 
ties, Godhra and Dohad, contain a municipal population (1882-83) 
of 22,159; municipal income, jP^\oZ^ ; incidence of municipal taxa- 
tion per head, iifd. The administration of the District in revenue 
matters is entrusted to a Collector, with 2 Assistants, of whom 
one is a covenanted civilian. For the settlement of ci^^l disputes 
there are 3 courts; 11 officers administer criminal justice. On an 

VOL. XI. c 


average, each village is lo miles distant from the nearest court. The 
total strength of the regular police consisted in 1882-83 of 796 officers 
and men, giving i policeman to every 331 of the population, or to every 
2-09 square miles of area. The total cost was ;£i 1,638, equal to ^7, 
4s. 3d. per square mile of area, and nearly is. per head of population. 
The number of persons convicted of any offence, great or small, was 
970 in 1876, and 360 in 1882-83. There is one jail in the District] 
number of convicts (1881), 238. 

Education has spread rapidly of late years. In 1855-56 there were 
only 7 schools, attended by 327 pupils. In 1881-82 there were 67 
schools, attended by 4329 pupils, or an average of i school for every 
13 inhabited villages. There are 2 libraries. 

Medical Aspects. — The cold season lasts from November to February ; 
the hot from March to the middle of June ; and the rainy from the 
middle of June until the end of September. October is temperate and 
windy. Average rainfall at Godhra for 14 years ending 1881, 42*4 
inches ; the fall at Dohad in the east of the District is somewhat less. 
The prevailing diseases are fever, eye diseases, and cutaneous affections. 
In 1883, the number of deaths from cholera was 28; from fevers, 3974; 
from smallpox, 31. In 1883, the number of in-door patients treated in 
the two dispensaries of the District was 869; out-door patients, 14,663. 
The number of persons vaccinated in the same year was 9484. Income 
of the dispensaries (1883), ^1537 ; expenditure, ^1356. Vital statistics 
showed a death-rate in 1876 of 20^69 per thousand. In 1883, the birth- 
rate per thousand was 26; and the death-rate, 16 "8. [For further in- 
formation regarding the Panch Mahals, see vol. iii. of the Gazetteer of the 
Bombay Presidency^ published under Government orders, and edited by 
Mr. J. M. Campbell; C.S. See also the Bombay Census Report for 
t88i ; and the several Administration and Departmental Reports for 
the Bombay Presidency.] 

Panchpara. — River in Balasor District, Bengal. Formed by a 
number of small streams, the principal being the Bans, Jamira, and 
Bhairingi, which unite, bifurcate, and re-unite in the wildest confusion, 
until they finally enter the sea in lat. 21° 31' n., and long. 87° 9' 30" E. 
The tide runs up only 10 miles; and although the interlacings 
constantly spread out into shallow swamps, yet one of them, the 
Bans, is deep enough to be navigated by boats of 4 tons burden all the 
year round. 

Panchpukuria. — Village in Tipperah District, Bengal ; situated on 
the Gumti. Targe river-borne trade in rice, jute, hides, etc. 

Pandai. — River in Champaran District, Bengal; rising on the north 
of the Sumeswar Hills, and entering the Ramnagar Raj through a pass 
between the Sumeswar and Churia Ghatia ranges, at the Nepal outpost 
of Thori. For 6 miles below this pass its bed is stony, but the Pandai 


soon becomes an ordinary channel, with high clay banks. The flood 
discharge ,s considerable, the breadth of the stream being 100 yards 
with a full depth of S or 9 feet. The course of the ri^er is at fiS 
jresterly; but afterwards it curves to the south-east, and joins the 
Dhoram about 2 miles east of Singari)ur. 

Pa,nda,na,.— or chiefship in Mungeli /a/,sl/, Bilaspur Dis- 
trict, Central Provinces, comprising 332 villages. Area, 486 square 
miles, half of which is covered with hills, while the remainder is a 
cultivated plain, consisting for the most part of first-class black soil 
largely devoted to cotton. Population (,88i) 71,1:0, namely, males 
35,49-', and females 35,618, residing in 18,965 houses; average density 
of the population, 146 persons per square mile. Besides cotton 
wheat, gram, and other rail crops are grown, as well as much sugar- 
cane, fhe chief is a Raj-Gond, and the chiefship was conferred on 
his ancestor three centuries ago by the Gond Raja of Garhd Mandla 

Pandaria.- Village in Mungeli Misl/, Bilaspur District, Central 
Provinces, and the residence of the ^amwddr of Pandaria estate Lat 

'L ''* /■; '°"^- ,^/° '^' ^- P°P">^ti°n (1881) 431 7, namely, Hindus, 
3682; kabirpanthis, 267; Satnimi's, 65; Muhammadans, 270; and 
non-Hindu aborigines, 33. The village contains a well-attended dis- 

Pandarkaura.-Toun in Wdn District, Berar. Lat. 20^ i' x, loner 
78 35' E. Population not returned in Census Report. Scene of the 
defeat of the Peshwa Baji Rao by the combined forces of Colonels 
Scott and Adams, on the 2nd April 1818. By this defeat the Peshwa's 
movement on Nagpur to aid Apa Sahib was finally checked. The 
town IS now the head-quarters of the newly formed fd/u/c of Kehlapur 
and contams a tczM/dd^^s court, pohce station, dispensary, school, and 

Panda Tarai. - Village in Mungeli fa/isl/, in Bilaspur District 
Central Provmces, and within the Pandaria camhiddn ; situated in lat' 
22 12' N., and long. 81° 22' e., near the foot of the Maikal hills so 
miles west of Bilaspur town. Population (1881) 2421, namely, Hindus 
2070; Kabirpanthis, 143; Satnamis, 4 ; Muhammadans, 69; and non- 
Hindu aborigines, 135. The village does a good trade in grain with 
carriers from Jabalpur (Jubbulpore). The weekly market is the larc^est 
m the Pandaria chiefship. 

Pandaul.— Village in Darbhangah District, Bengal ; situated 7 miles 
south of Madhubani, on the Darbhangah road. The site of a factory of 
the same name, which once had the largest indigo cultivation in Tirhiit. 
Ihere are also the remains of a sugar factory by the side of a large 
tank ascribed to Raja Seo Singh, one of the ancient princes of the 

Pan-daw.— Town in the Ye-gyi township of Bassein District, Pegu 


Division, Lower Burma. Lat 17° 19' 30" n., long. 95° 10' e. Head- 
quarters of the united townships of Ye-gyi, Bo-daw, and Mye-nu. Con- 
tains a court-house, poHce station, and market. Population (1877) 
3982; revenue, ^380: and (1881) population, 2630; revenue, ^391. 
A rapidly rising place, sometimes called Ye-gyi Pan-daw. It was here 
that the Taking army made its last stand against the Burmese conqueror 

Pan-daw. — Creek in Bassein District, Lower Burma. — See Ye-gyi. 
Pandhana. — Village in Khandwa iahsil, Nimar District, Central 
Provinces; situated in lat. 21° 42' n., and long. 76° 16' e., 10 miles 
south-west of Khandwa town. Population (1881) 2788, namely, 
Hindus, 2318; Muhammadans, 452; Kabfrpanthis, 8; and Jains, 10. 
At the market held every Tuesday, a brisk trade is done in grain, 
forest produce, and cotton goods. 

Pandharpur. — Sub-division of Sholapur District, Bombay Presi- 
dency. Situated in the centre of the District between lat. 17* 29' 
and 17° 56' N., and long. 75° 11' and 75° 44' e. Area, 470 square 
miles, containing 2 towns and 83 villages. Population (1872) 79,314; 
(1881) 72,212, namely, 35,843 males and 36,369 females. Hindus 
number 68,187 ; Muhammadans, 2864; and ' others,' 1 161. Pandhar- 
pur is an open waving plain, almost bare of trees. The chief rivers are 
the Bhima and the Man. Along the river banks the soil is mostly 
deep black, and to the east of the Bhima it is specially fine. On the 
high-lying land the soil is shallow, black and gray, gravelly or barad. 
The climate is dry ; rainfall scanty and uncertain. At Pandharpur town, 
in the centre of the Sub-division, during the 10 years ending 1882 the 
rainfall varied from 44 inches in 1874 to 8 inches in 1876, and averaged 
28 inches. Total cultivated area of Government land in 1881-82, 
191,580 acres, of which 2585 acres bore two crops; the principal class 
of crops being — grain crops, 159,545 acres, of which 137,694 were 
jodr (Sorghum vulgare) ; pulses, 10,572 acres; oil-seeds, 16,827 acres; 
fibres, 5321 acres; and miscellaneous crops, 1900 acres. Li 1883 the 
Sub-division contained i civil and 3 criminal courts; police circles 
{thdnds), 3 ; regular police, 48 men ; and village watch {chmikiddrs), 179. 
Land revenue, ^^9443. 

Pandharpur (or IVie City of Paudhari Vithoha). — Chief town of the 
Pandharpur Sub-division of Sholapur District, Bombay Presidency ; 
situated in lat. 17° 40' 40" n., and long. 75° 22' 40" e., on the right or 
southern bank of the Bhima, a tributary of the Krishna, 84 miles east of 
Satara, 112 south-east of Poona (Puna), 38 west of Sholapur town, and 
31 miles from the Barsi road station on the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway. A mail pony cart plies daily along the road from Barsi 
station ; and other pony carts and hundreds of bullock carts are on hire 
at the station. The best view of Pandharpur is from the left bank of 


the Bhi'ma. When the river is full, the broad winding Bhima gay with 
boats ; the islet temples of Vishnupad and Narad ; on the further bank 
the rows of domed and spired tombs ; the crowded flight of steps 
leading from the water ; the shady banks, and among the tree-tops the 
spires and pinnacles of many large temples, form a scene of much beauty 
and life. 

Population (1881) 16,910. Hindus number 15,680 ; Muhammadans, 
859; Jains, 371. Area, about 150 acres. Pandharpur is one of the 
most frequented places of pilgrimage in the Bombay Presidency. The 
debris of former buildings have somewhat raised the level of the centre of 
the town. In that part the houses are comparatively well built, many 
of them being two or more storeys high, with plinths of hewn stone. 
Pandharpur is highly revered by Brahmans, as containing a celebrated 
temple dedicated to the god Vithoba, an incarnation of Vishnu. 
Vithoba's temple is near the centre of the part of the town which is 
considered holy, and is called Pandharikshetra, or the holy spot of 
Pandhari. It has a length from east to west of 350 feet, and 
a breadth from north to south of 170 feet. In honour of this god 
three fairs are annually held. At the first of these, in April, the 
attendance varies from 20,000 to 30,000 persons ; at the second, in 
July, from 100,000 to 150,000; and at the third, in November, from 
40,000 to 50,000. Every month, also, four days before the full moon, 
from 5000 to 10,000 devotees assemble here. Since 1865, a tax of 6d. 
per head has been levied on pilgrims at each of the three great fairs. 
The yield from this source, in 1882, amounted to ^4383. The town 
is well supplied with water, and satisfactory arrangements have been 
made for the comfort and convenience of pilgrims. The Bhima has 
II ghats or landings, three of which were unfinished in 1884. Besides 
these, several stone pavements slope to the river. 

During the famine of 1876-78, numbers of children were left to die 
by their starving parents ; while the famine lasted, the children were fed 
in the Gopalpur relief house. When the relief house was closed, an 
orphanage, the only institution of its kind in the Bombay Presidency, 
was established from subscriptions, and the foundation stone was laid on 
the loth October 1878. In connection with the orphanage a foundling 
home was established from ;^iooo subscribed in Bombay, to which a 
school of industry was added in November 1881. 

In 1659, the Bijapur general, Afzul Khan, encamped at Pandharpur 
on his way from Bijapur to Wai in Satara. In 1774, Pandharpur was 
the scene of an engagement between Raghunath Rao Peshwa and Trim- 
bak Rao Mama, sent by the Poona ministers to oppose him. In 181 7, 
an indecisive action w^as fought near Pandharpur between the Peshwa's 
horse and the British troops under General Smith, who was accompanied 
by Mr. Elphinstone. In 1847, the noted dakdif, Raghuji Bhangrya, was 


caught at Pandharpur by Lieutenant, afterwards General, Gell. During 
1857 the office and the treasury of the indmlatddr were attacked by the 
rebels, but successfully held by the police. In 1879, Vasudeo Balwant 
Phadke, a notorious dakdit leader, was on his way to Pandharpur, when 
he was captured. 

Pandharpur has a large annual export trade worth about ^36,000 
in biika (sweet-smelling powder), gram-pulse, incense sticks, safflower 
oil, kiwiku (red powder), maize, parched rice, and snuff. Pandharpur 
is a municipal town, with an annual revenue of ^£^7369; incidence 
of municipal taxation, 9s. per head. Sub-judge's court, dispensary, 
and post-office. Number of patients treated in the dispensary, 10,406 
in 1883, of whom 56 were in-door. [For a full and interesting account 
of Pandharpur, its temples, ghdts^ and objects of interest, ancient and 
modern, the reader is referred to the Gazetteer of Bombay^ vol. xx. pp. 
415-485 (Bombay, 1884).] 

Pandhlirna. — Town and municipality in Chhindwara ta/isii, Chhind- 
wara District, Central Provinces; situated in lat. 21° 36' n., and long. 
78° 35' E., 54 miles south-west of Chhindwara town, on the main road 
from Betiil to Nagpur. The municipal limits include the villages of 
Bamni and Sawargaon, and contained a total population (1881) of 7469, 
chiefly agriculturists. Hindus numbered 6854; Muhammadans, 500; 
Jains, 60; and non-Hindu aborigines, 55. Municipal revenue in 
1882-83, ;£^302, of which £197 were derived from taxation; average 
incidence of municipal taxation, 6|d. per head. The soil around is 
rich and produces much cotton. Pandhurna has a police outpost 
station, travellers' bungalow, sardi (native inn), and Government school, 
with a daily average attendance of about 120 pupils. 

Pandri Kalan. — Town in Unao ta/isi/, Unao District, Oudh ; 10 
miles south-east of Unao town. Population (1881) 3733, namely, 3620 
Hindus and 113 Muhammadans. Market twice a week, with annual 
sales averaging ;^9oo. Government school. 

Pandrinton (Fdndret/mn). — Temple in Kashmir (Cashmere) State, 
Northern India ; standing in the midst of a tank, about 4 miles south- 
east of Srinagar, the capital of the Kashmir valley. Lat. 34° 2' N., long. 
74° 47' E., according to Thornton, who thus describes the building : 'It 
is a striking specimen of the simple, massive, and chaste style which 
characterizes the architectural antiquities of Kashmir. The ground 
plan is a square of 20 feet, and the roof pyramidal. In each of the 
four sides is a doorway, ornamented with pilasters right and left, and 
surmounted by a pediment. The whole is constructed of blocks of 
hewn limestone. The interior is filled with water, communicating with 
that without, which is about 4 feet deep ; and as the building is com- 
pletely insulated, it can be reached only by wading or swimming. The 
purpose of its construction is not known, but it is generally considered 



a Buddhist relic. It exhibits neither inscriptions nor sculptures, except 
the figure of a large lotus carved on the roof inside.' 

Pandu.— Petty State of the Pandu Mehwas in Rewa Kantha, Bombay 
Presidency. Area, 9^ square miles ; estimated revenue, ^520 ; tribute, 
of ^450, 2s. is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda. I'here are two 
principal holders with several sub-shares of the property, half of which 
has been under British management since 1874, and the other half 
smce 1878, owing to the extreme poverty of the proprietors and their 
mability to pay the amount of their heavy tribute. 

Pandu Mehwas.— Group of 26 petty States forming a territorial 
division of Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency. Area, 147 square 
miles. Population (1872) 20,284; (1881) 20,312, namely, 10,785 males 
and 9527 females, dwelling in 36 villages, containing 4560 houses. 
Density of population, 138 persons per square mile. Hindus number 
19,682, and Muhammadans 630. Estimated revenue, ^11,000. The 
Pandu Mehwas group of estates stretches along the river Mahi in a 
narrow broken line for 58 miles. Climate healthy. Soil light, vielding 
millets, rice, and sugar-cane. Kolis, Bariyas, Rajputs, and Musalmans 
form the landowning classes. The region is, comparatively, a poor 


Panduah.— Village, municipality, and railway station in Hiigli Dis- 
trict, Bengal. Lat. 23° 4' 28'^ x., long. 88^ 19' 43" e. Population 
(iSSi) 3344, namely, males 1656, and females 1688. Municipal income 
(1883-84), ^125; incidence of taxation, 8Jd. per head. Jn ancient 
times, Panduah was the seat of a Hindu Raja, and fortified by a wall and 
trench 5 miles in circumference. It is now only a small rural village, 
picturesquely surrounded by groves, orchards, and gardens. Traces of 
its ancient fortifications are still discernible at places; a tower (120 feet 
high), built to commemorate a victory gained by the Muhammadans 
over the Hindus in 1340 a.d., is said to be the oldest building in 
Bengal. It has defied the storms and rains of a tropical climate for 
five centuries, and has seen the rise and fall of Gaur, Sonargacr, 
Rajmahal, Dacca, and Murshidabad, the successive capitals of Bengal 
during the Muhammadan era. For the local traditions relating to the 
war between the Hindus and Muhammadans, see Statistical Account of 
Bengal, vol. iii. p. 313. Up to the commencement of the present 
century, Panduah was the seat of a large native paper manufacture, but 
not a trace of this industry exists at the present day. 

Panduah (or as it is commonly, but less correctly, called, Faruali), 
—Deserted town in Maldah District, Bengal, once the Muhammadan 
capital of the Province ; situated 6 miles from Old Maldah, where there 
are extensive ruins and remains of paved roadways, showing that this 
was formerly the river port of Panduah, and about 20 miles from G.\ur, 
in a north-easterly direction from both. Like those of Gaur, the ruins 


of Panduah lie buried in almost impenetrable jungle, which for long 
formed the undisputed home of tigers and other wild animals, till the 
recent clearances of the jungle made by new settlements of Santal 
colonies. Although in all respects less noteworthy than Gaur, it con- 
tains some remarkable specimens of early Muhammadan architecture. 
Its comparatively small historical importance has given rise to more 
than one error. The maps scarcely mark the place at all, and uniformly 
give some one of the corrupt modes of spelling the name. Hence, 
Avhen a mention of the place is found in history, it is often confused 
with the better known but much less important place of the same name 
in Hiigli District. To avoid this difficulty. General Cunningham has 
proposed that it should be known as Hazrat Panduah. The proximity 
of Gaur has also overshadowed Panduah, so that the antiquities of 
the latter place have been sometimes attributed in their entirety to the 

The fortified city of Panduah or Paruah, the suburbs of which reached 
to Old Maldah, extended within the ramparts for 6 miles due north along 
the watershed of this part of the country, some 4 miles to the east of 
the Mahananda river, and running nearly parallel with it. It is stated, 
and apparently with truth, that the Mahananda many centuries ago 
flowed past the high ground on which the city of Panduah was 
built. Old Maldah was the fortified river port south of the city at the 
junction of the Kalindri and the Mahananda, while the suburb of Rai 
Khan Dighi was a similar fortified port on the Mahananda, 10 miles 
north of Old Maldah. The fort of Rai Khan Dighi also guarded the 
bridge over the Mahananda at Pirganj on the great military road. The 
attractions offered by the site of Panduah appear to have been its 
natural elevation and commanding position on the main road to the 
north, and also the sport afforded by the game of all kinds which 
abounded in the neighbouring jungles. Panduah was probably 
originally an outpost, forming one of the many defences of the more 
ancient city of Gaur, guarding the road from the north from the 
incursions of Kochs, Palis, and Rajbansis. It afterwards became a 
favourite rural retreat, and for some time was the capital of Bengal, 
when the Muhammadan governors found it a more desirable residence 
than the palace at Gaur, which was the first part of that city to 
experience the unhealthiness caused by malarious exhalations, as 
the Ganges gradually receded westward from below the palace walls in 
the 14th century. As Panduah increased in wealth and importance, its 
fortifications were extended, and it was further strengthened by an 
outpost at Ekdala, some 20 miles to the north, within the limits of the 
modern District of Dinajpur. 

The first appearance of Panduah in history is in the year 1353 a.d., 
when Ilias Khwaja Sultan, the first independent king of Bengal, is said 


to have temporarily transferred his capital from Gaur to Pancluah. It 
has been supposed that this king and his successors, who with difficulty 
repelled the Delhi Emperor, were influenced in their desertion of 
Gaur by strategic reasons. Panduah was not accessible by water, and 
was probably then, as now, protected by almost impenetrable jungles. 
It is not likely that the vast Hindu community of traders and artisans 
also left their homes at Gaur, but merely that the court was removed. 
This would explain both the smaller number of ruined dwelling-houses at 
Panduah, as well as the superior sanctity in which this place is held by 
the Muhammadans. The court name for Panduah was Firozabdd, 
which during this period regularly makes its aj^pearance on the coins, 
whereas that of Lakhnauti ((jaur) disappears. The seat of Government 
remained here during the reigns of five successive monarchs, when it 
was re-transferred to Gaur. It is probable, however, that Panduah, 
though its name is not again mentioned in history, maintained its 
splendour for some time, and was a favourite country resort for royalty. 

The history of Panduah is short, and the topography, so far as it has 
been explored, is equally simple. No survey has ever been taken of 
the site; and even Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton found himself unable to 
penetrate through the dense jungle beyond the beaten track. The 
following description is condensed from his account of the place, con- 
tained in his MS. notes on the District of Dinajpur, which in his time 
(1807-13) included this part of Maldah, whereas Gaur then lay within 
the District of Purniah. 

A road paved with brick, from 12 to 15 feet wide, and not very 
straight (afterwards the high road from Maldah to Dinajpur), seems to 
have passed through the entire length of the town, which stretches nearly 
north and south, and is about 6 miles in length. From the heaps of 
bricks on both sides, it would appear to have been a regular street, 
lined with brick houses, of which the foundations and the tanks can 
still be traced in many places. Almost all the surviving monuments 
are on the borders of this road. Near the middle is a bridge of three 
arches, partly constructed of stone, which has been thrown over a 
rivulet. It is rudely built, and of no great size ; and, as is the case 
with all the other monuments in Panduah, the materials have mani- 
festly come from the Hindu temples of Gaur, as they still show 
sculptured figures of men and animals. At the northern end of the 
street are evident traces of a rampart, and the passage through is called 
Garhdwar, or the gate of the fortress. At the south end are many 
foundations, which have also probably belonged to a gate, but the 
forest is so impenetrable that the wall cannot be traced. Dr. Buchanan - 
Hamilton was of opinion that in general the town extended only a little 
w\iy either east or west from the main street, but that a scattered 
suburb reached in a southerly direction as far as Maldah. 

42 P ANDY A. 

Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton proceeds to give a detailed description of 
the ruins, which is too lengthy for insertion in this work, but which will 
be found in the Statistical Account of Bengal^ vol. vii. pp. 60-64. The 
principal buildings of note are the monuments of Mukhdam Shah Jalal 
and his grandson Kutab Shah, the two most distinguished religious 
])ersonages under the early Muhammadan kings of Bengal ; the Golden 
Mosque (1585 a.d.), with walls of granite, and 10 domes of brick; the 
Eklakhi Mosque, containing, according to tradition, the graves of 
Ghiyas-ud-din 11., the third Muhammadan king of Bengal, and his two 
sons; the Adina Masjid (14th century), by far the most celebrated 
building in this part of India, and characterized by Mr. Fergusson as 
the most remarkable example of Pathan architecture in existence ; and 
the Satdsgarh ('Sixty Towers'), which is said to have been the palace 
of one of the kings. A Muhammadan meld, or religious gathering, 
takes place at Panduah every year in October or November; it is 
attended by 5000 or 6000 persons, and lasts for five days. 

Pandya (IlavSatry of Megasthenes ; Pandi Mandala of the Periplus ; 
Pandionis Mediterranea and Modura Regia Pandionis of Ptolemy). — One 
of the three great Divisions of Dravida or Southern India, the other 
two being Chola and Chera. The capital was first at Kolkai at the 
mouth of the Tambraparni, and afterwards at Madura. Kolkai is now 
several miles inland. An early legend runs that the three kingdoms 
were founded by three brothers from Kolkai, the two younger going 
north and west, and founding Chola and Chera. The kingdom of 
Pandya included Madura District and all south of it. Its early history 
is purely legendary ; but it is believed to have been founded in the 6th 
century B.C., and it is known to have been overthrown in the middle 
of the nth century of the Christian era, to be restored, after a period 
of anarchy, by the Nayaks. Bishop Caldwell says : ' The Singhalese 
traditions preserved in the Mahdva?isa represent Vijaja, the first 
sovereign of Ceylon, as marrying a daughter of the Pandya king, in 
consequence of which his son was called Panduvamsadeva. Arjuna, 
one of the five Pandava brothers, is related in the Mahdbhdrata to have 
married a daughter of the King of the Pandyas in the course of his many 
wanderings. There is no certainty in these traditions, but it is certain 
that about the time of Pliny and the Periplus a portion of the Malabar 
coast was ruled over by the Pandyas, a proof that their power had con- 
siderably extended itself from its original seats; and I regard it as nearly 
certain that the Indian king who sent an embassy to Augustus was not 
Porus, but Pandion, i.e. the King of the Pandyas, called in Tamil 
Pandiyan.' The Senderbandi of Marco Polo is assumed to be a 
corruption of Sundara Pandya, the King of Madura. [For further 
information the reader is referred to The Madiera Count?y, by J. H. 
Nelson, M.A., C.S., Madras, 1868, pp. 1-86 of Part iii.] 


Panhcin. — Pargand in Purwd tahsil, Unao District, Oudh ; bounded 
on the north by Purwa pargand, on the east by Mauranwan and Rai 
Bareli District, on the south by the Lon river, and on the west by 
Purwa. The surface of the pargand is a level plain, except in the 
extreme south, where there is a slight inclination to the bed of the Lon. 
There are no jungles, and but few groves, but babul trees grow 
plentifully along the Lon, on a tract of saliferous land, where salt was 
formerly manufactured on an extensive scale. This industry has, 
however, disappeared as a private undertaking under British rule. 
Near the Rdi Bareli border is a large lake or jhi/, known as the Sudna 
Talab, which is well stocked with fish. Area, 19 square miles, of which 9 
are cultivated. Population (1881) 7566, namely, 7362 Hindus and 204 
Muhammadans. Of the 23 villages or viauzds comprising \S\^ pargand, 
9 are tdlukddri and 14 mufrdd. Government land revenue demand, 
^1599. T\\& pargand was formerly in the hands of the Bhars, and the 
ruins of an old fort are pointed out as the remains of the ancient Bhar 
stronghold. The Bhars were expelled many centuries ago by the Bais 
chieftain Abhai Chand. 

Panhan. — Town in Purwa tahsil, Unao District, Oudh, and head- 
quarters QiV:m\\h\ pargand ; situated 24 miles south of Unao town, on 
the road to Rai Bareli. Lat. 26° 25' n., long. 80° 54' e. Population 
(1881) 237, namely, 199 Hindus and 38 Muhammadans. Three Hindu 
temples. Two annual fairs are held in honour of a Muhammadan saint, 
each attended by about 4000 persons, at which the sales average ^2400. 
Vernacular school, attended by 50 boys. 

Pan-hlaing". — Creek in Rangoon and Thun-gwa Districts, Lower 
Burma. Runs from the Irawadi (Irrawaddy) at Nyaung-dun to the 
Hlaing, just above Rangoon town. Its banks are steep and muddy, 
and covered with grass, trees, and plantain gardens. In the rains, 
river steamers can navigate this channel throughout its whole length ; but 
in the dry season, boats are compelled to take a circuitous route up 
the Pan-daing creek to Pan-daing village, and thence by a narrow 
passage back to the Pan-hlaing above the shoals between the villages of 
Kat-ti-ya and Me-za-li. 

Pania. — Town in Deoria tahsil, Gorakhpur District, North- Western 
Provinces. — See Paina. 

Paniala. — Agricultural village or collection of hamlets in Dera Ismail 
Khan District, Punjab; situated in lat. 32° 14' 30" n., and long. 70° 
55' 15" E., at the entrance to the Largi valley, 32 miles north of Dera 
Ismail Khan town. Population (1881) 6603. Staging bungalow, 
abundant supplies. 

Panimar. — Village in the south of Nowgong District, Assam, on the 
Kapili river, where it debouches into the plains from the Jaintia Hills. 
In the neighbourhood, good building-stone and limestone abound. 


Panipat. — Southern tahsilox Sub-division of Karnal District, Punjab. 
Area, 458 square miles, with 166 towns and villages, 26,715 houses, 
and 42,406 families. Total population (188 1) 186,793, namely, males 
100,301, and females 86,492. Average density of the population, 
408 persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, there 
were in 1881 — Hindus, 137,801, or 73-8 per cent.; Muhammadans, 
45,908, or 246 per cent.; Sikhs, 213; Jains, 2858; and Christians, 13. 
Of the 166 towns and villages, 60 contain less than five hundred 
inhabitants ; 40 from five hundred to a thousand ; 65 from one to five 
thousand; and i upwards of ten thousand inhabitants. The average 
area under cultivation for the five years 1877-78 to 1881-82 was 
2 29 J square miles, or 146,701 acres, the area occupied by the chief 
crops being as follows : — Wheat, 49,710 acres \jod}\ 26,155 acres ; gram, 
15,943 acres; rice, 8263 acres; barley, 7719 acres; other food-grains, 
consisting of <^ay>(7, Indian corn, and inoth^ 7020 acres; cotton, 12,932 
acres; sugar-cane, 11,451 acres; vegetables, 763 acres; and tobacco, 
426 acres. Revenue of the tahsil^ ;£^2 7,385. The tahsilddr is the only 
administrative officer, and presides over i civil and i criminal court ; 
number of police circles {thdfids), 4; strength of regular police, 109 
men ; rural police {chai^kidd7's), 306. 

Pdnipat {Faniput). — Decayed town, municipality, and famous 
battle-field in Karnal District, Punjab, and head - quarters of the 
Panipat tahsil. Situated in lat. 29° 23' n., long. 77° i' 10" e., on the 
Grand Trunk Road, 53 miles north of Delhi, near the old bank of the 
Jumna, upon a high mound composed of the debris of centuries. 
Panipat town is of great antiquity, dating back to the period of the war 
between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, when it formed one of the 
well-known /^/j ox pi'dsthas demanded by Yudishthira from Duryodhana 
as the price of peace. 

In historical times, the neighbourhood of Panipat has thrice formed 
the scene of decisive battles, which sealed the fate of Upper India. 
The great military road which runs north-west through Hindustan to the 
frontier, bisects the broad plain of Panipat, at a distance of about 50 
miles from Delhi. Count von Noer, whose interesting Life of Akbar is 
shortly to be published in an English form by Mrs. Beveridge, thus 
describes the scenery of that wide expanse : — ' Panipat is a far-reaching, 
almost illimitable level tract, broken only by insignificant undulations. 
Here and there, where the shallow soil is moistened from some niggardly 
watercourse, grow sparse grasses and stunted thorn bushes. But for 
the most part, the eye falls only on the uniform yellowish-grey waste 
of sterile earth. Everywhere empty silence reigns ; and it would almost 
seem as if this desert had been designed for the battle-field of nations.' 

In 1526, Babar with his small but veteran army met Ibrahim Lodi at 
the head of 100,000 troops near Panipat, and, after a battle lasting 

FANirA T TO ]VN. 45 

from sunrise to sunset, completely defeated the imperial forces. Ibrahim 
I.odi fell with 15,000 of his followers ; and in May 1526, Babar entered 
Delhi and established the so-called Mughal dynasty. Thirty years 
later, in 1556, his grandson, Akbar, on the same battle-field conquered 
Hemu, the Hindu general of the Afghan Sher Shah, whose family had 
temporarily driven that of Babar from the throne, thus a second time 
establishing the Mughal power. Finally, on 7th January 1761, Ahmad 
Shah Durani fought beneath the walls of Panipat the decisive battle 
which shattered for ever the unity of the Maratha power, and placed 
the destinies of the Empire in the hands of the Afghan conqueror. The 
following graphic account of this great batde is taken from an article 
by Mr. H. G. Keene in the Calcutta Review, 1879 : — 

' The Maratha troops marched in an oblique line, with their left in 
front, preceded by their guns small and great. The Bhao, with the 
Peshwa's son and the household troops, was in the centre. The left 
wing consisted of \\\^ gardis under Ibrahim Khan ; Holkar and Sindhia 
were on the extreme right. 

' On the other side, the Afghans formed a somewhat similar line, 
their left being formed by Najib's Rohillas, and their right by two 
brigades of Persian troops. Their left centre was led by the two 
Wazirs, Shuja-ud-daula and Shah Wall. The right centre consisted of 
Rohillas under the well-known Hafiz Rahmat and other chiefs of the 
Indian Pathans. Day broke ; but the Afghan artillery for the most part 
kept silence, while that of the enemy, losing range in its constant 
advance, threw away its ammunition over the heads of the enemy, and 
dropped its shot a mile to their rear. Shah Pasand Khan covered the 
left wing with a choice body of mailed Afghan horsemen ; and in this 
order the army moved forward, leaving the Shah at his usual post, 
which was now in rear of the line, from whence he could watch and 
direct the battle. 

' On the other side, no great precautions seem to have been taken, 
except indeed by the gardis and their vigilant leader, who advanced in 
silence, and without firing a shot, with two battalions of infantry bent 
back to their left flank, to cover their advance from the attack of the 
Persian cavalry forming the extreme right of the enemy's line. The 
valiant veteran soon showed the worth of French discipline ; and 
another division such as his would have probably gained the day. 
Well mounted and armed, and carrying in his own hand the colours of 
his own personal command, he led his men against the Rohilkhand 
column with fixed bayonets ; and to so much effect, that nearly 8000 
men were put hors de combat. For three hours the gardis remained in 
unchallenged possession of that i)art of the field. Shuja-ud-daula, with 
his small but com.pact force, remained stationary, neither fighting nor 
flying ; and the Marathas forbore to attack him. The corps between 


tliis and ihe Pathans was that of the Durani Wazi'r ; and it suffered 
severely from the shock of an attack deUvered upon them by the Bhao 
himself, at the head of the household troops. The Pandit being sent 
through the dust to inform Shuja what was going on, found Shah Wall 
vainly trying to rally the courage of his followers, of whom many were 
in full retreat. " Whither would you run, friends?" cried the Wazir; 
" your country is far from here ! " 

' Meanwhile the prudent Najib had masked his advance by a series 
of breastworks, under cover of which he had gradually approached the 
hostile line. "I have the highest stake to-day," he said, "and cannot 
afford to make any mistakes." The part of the enemy's force imme- 
diately opposed to him was commanded by the head of the Sindhia 
house, who was Najib's personal enemy. Till noon, Naji'b remained 
on the defensive, keeping off all close attacks upon his earthworks by 
continuous discharges of rockets. But so far the fortune of the day 
was evidently inclined towards the Marathas. The Muhammadan 
left still held their own under the Wazirs and Najib, but the centre was 
cut in two, and the right was almost destroyed. 

' Of the circumstances which turned the tide and gave the crisis to 
the Moslems, but one account necessarily exists. Hitherto we have 
had the guidance of Grant-Duff for the Maratha side of the affair ; but 
now the whole movement was to be from the other side, and we 
cannot do better than trust the Pandit. Dow, the only other con- 
temporary author of importance — if we except Ghulam Husain, who 
wrote at a very remote place — is irremediably inaccurate and vague 
about all these transactions. The Pandit, then, informs us that 
during the earlier hours of the conflict, the Shah had watched the 
fortunes of the battle from his tent, guarded by the still unbroken forces 
on his left. But now, hearing that his right was reeling and his centre 
was defeated, he felt that the moment was come for a final effort. In 
front of him the Hindu cries of Har ! Har ! Jai Mahddeo I were 
maintaining an equal and dreadful concert wuth those of Allah I Allah I 
D'm I Din I from his own side. The batde wavered to and fro, like 
that of Flodden, as described by Scott. The Shah saw the critical 
moment in the very act of passing. He therefore sent 500 of his own 
body-guard with orders to drive all able-bodied men out of camp, and 
send them to the front at any cost. Fifteen hundred more he sent 
to encounter those who were flying, and slay without pity any who 
would not return to the fight. These, with 4000 of his reserve 
troops, went to support the broken ranks of the Rohilla Pathans on the 
right. The remainder of the reserve, 10,000 strong, were sent to the 
aid of Shah Wall, still labouring unequally against the Bhao in the 
centre of the field. The Shah's orders were clear. The mailed 
warriors were to charge with the Wazir in close order, and at full 

PA NIP A T TO \VN. 4 7 

gallop. As often as they charged the enemy in front, the chief of the 
staff and Najib were directed to fall upon either flank. These orders 
were immediately carried out. 

' The forward movement of the Moslems began at i p.m. The fight 
was close and obstinate, men fighting with swords, spears, axes, and 
even with daggers. Between 2 and 3 p.m., the Peshwa's son was 
wounded, and, having fallen from his horse, was placed upon an 
elephant. The last thing seen of the Bhao was his dismounting from 
the elephant, and getting on his Arab charger. Soon after, the young 
chief was slain. The next moment Holkar and the Gaekwar left the 
field. In that instant resistance ceased, and the Marathas all at once 
became helpless victims of butchery. Thousands were cut down, other 
thousands were drowned in escaping, or were slaughtered by the country 
people whom they had so long pillaged. The Shah and his principal 
commanders then retired to camp, leaving the pursuit to be completed 
by subordinate officers. Forty thousand prisoners are said to have 
been slain.' 

The plain of Panipat was selected as the arena for the manoeuvres 
connected with the great Indian Camp of Exercise of December 1885. 
'I'he general plan of the operations comprised the advance of an invadino- 
army from the north, upon Delhi ; and the defence of that city, by the 
counter-movements of an opposing force. 

The modern town of Panipat is built upon a small promontory due 
south of Karnal, round which runs the old bed of the Jumna. From 
all sides the town slopes gently upwards towards an old fort, which is 
its highest point, and with low and squalid outskirts receiving the 
drainage of the higher portion. The town is enclosed by an old wall 
with 15 gates, and suburbs extend in all directions except to the 
east. It is intersected by two main bazars crossing each other in the 
centre. The streets are all well paved or metalled, but are narrow and 

The populadon in 188 1 numbered 25,022, namely, males 12,431, and 
females 12,591. Classified according to religion, there were — Muham- 
madans, 16,917 ; Hindus, 7334; Jains, 768; and 'others,' 3. Number 
of houses, 2952. Municipal income (1883-84), ^2063, or an average 
of IS. 7^d. per head of the municipal population (25,651). The muni- 
cipal income is chiefly derived from octroi duties levied on almost all 
goods brought to the town for consumption. 

The opening of the railway on the opposite side of the Jumna has 
somewhat prejudiced the commercial position of Panipat, having attracted 
to it much of the traffic formerly passing along the Grand Trunk Road. 
The local manufactures consist of copper utensils for export, country 
cloth, blankets, cutlery, silver beads, and glass ornaments for women's 
dress. Panipat was formerly the head-quarters of the District, which 


was transferred to Karnal in 1854, owing to the growing unhealthiness 
of the former place. The principal public buildings, apart from the 
ordinary Sub-divisional courts and offices, are the municipal hall, 
post-office, police station, school, rest-house, and large sardi or native 

Panjab. — Province of Northern India. — Sie Punjab. 

Panjim (or New God). — The central quarter of New Goa, the present 
capital of Portuguese India. — See Goa. 

Panjnad. — Great river of the Punjab, formed by the united waters 
of the Sutlej (Satlaj), Beas (Bias), Ravi, Chenab, and Jehlam (Jhelum). 
Commences at the confluence of the Sutlej (Satlaj) with the Trimab or 
Chenab, in laL 29° 21' n., and long. 71° 3' e., and, taking a south- 
westerly course of about 60 miles, joins the Indus nearly opposite 
Mithankot, in lat. 28° 57' n., and long. 70° 29' e. The Panjnad 
separates the British District of IMuzaffargarh from the Native State of 
Bahawalpur. The stream, even after the junction with the Sutlej, often 
bears the name of the Chenab. 

Pan-ma-myit-ta. — Tidal creek in Bassein District, Irawadi Division, 
Lower Burma. It connects the Pya-ma-law and Ywe streams, and 
is navigable by river steamers at all times, and is the route generally 
followed by small vessels plying between Rangoon and Bassein. 

Pan-ma-wa-di. — Creek in Bassein District, Irawadi Division, 
Lower Burma. Under the name of the Thi-kwin, it leaves the Min- 
ma-naing near the village of Tan-ta-bin, in about lat. 16° 50' n., and 
long. 95° 13' E. After a generally westerly course of about 60 miles, 
the Pan-ma-wa-di unites with the Bassein, the depth at its mouth 
being 10 fathoms at low-water spring-tides. River steamers can ascend 
at all seasons as far as the village of Thi-kwin, a distance of 48 miles, 
where the channel is 200 feet broad. The chief branches of the Pan- 
ma-wa-di are the Min-di and the Min-ma-naing. 

Panna {Punnah). — Native State in Bundelkhand, under the 
political superintendence of the Bundelkhand Agency of Central India. 
Bounded on the north by the British District of Banda, and by one of 
the outlying divisions of Charkhari State ; on the east by the States of 
Kothi, Suhawal, Nagode, and Ajaigarh ; on the south by Damoh and 
Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) Districts of the Central Provinces ; and on the 
west by the petty States of Chhatarpur and Ajaigarh. Estimated area, 
2568 square miles. Population (1881) 227,306. Panna is for the most 
part situated on the table-lands above the Vindhyan Ghats, and contains 
much hill and jungle land. 

The former prosperity oi the State was due to its diamond mines. 
The diamonds were found in several places, especially on the north-east 
of the town (* Panna Mines '). ' The ground on the surface and for a 
few feet below/ says Thornton, from whom this paragraph is condensed, 



'consists of ferruginous gravel, mixed with reddish clay; and this loose 
mass, when carefully washed and searched, yields diamonds, though 
{q\v in number and of small size. The matrix containing in greater 
quantity the more valuable diamonds lies considerably lower, at a depth 
varying generally from 12 to 40 feet, and is a conglomerate of pebbles 
of quartz, jasper, hornstone, Lydian stone, etc. The fragments of this 
conglomerate, quarried and brought to the surface, are carefully 
pounded ; and after several washings, to remove the softer and more 
clayey parts, the residue is repeatedly searched for the diamonds. As 
frequently happens in such speculative pursuits, the returns often scarcely 
equal the outlay, and the adventurers are ruined. The business is now 
much less prosperous than formerly, but Jacquemont did not consider 
that there were in his time any symptoms of exhaustion in the adaman- 
tiferous deposits, and attributed the unfavourable change to the 
diminished value of the gem everywhere. The rejected rubbish, if 
examined after a lapse of some years, has been frequently found to 
contain valuable gems, which some suppose have in the interval been 
produced in the congenial matrix ; but experienced and skilful miners 
are generally of opinion that the diamonds escaped the former search, in 
consequence of incrustation by some opaque coat, and have now been 
rendered obvious to the sight from its removal by fracture, friction, or 
some other accidental cause. More extensive and important than the 
tract just referred to is another extending from 12 to 20 miles north- 
east of the town of Panna, and worked in the localities of Kamariya, 
Brijpur, Bargari, Maira, and Etwa. Diamonds of the first water, or 
completely colourless, are very rare, most of those found being either 
pearly, greenish, yellowish, rose-coloured, black, or brown.' 

Pogson, who worked one of the mines on his own account, mentions 
that the diamonds are of four sorts — the viotichal^ which is clear and 
brilliant ; the mdtiik, of greenish hue ; the pan?ia, which is tinged with 
orange ; and the bauspat, which is blackish. In his time, the mines 
chiefly worked were at Sakariya, about 12 miles from Panna; and he 
thus describes the operation : ' The diamonds there are found below 
a stratum of rock from 15 to 20 feet thick. To cut through this rock 
is, as the natives work, a labour of many months, and even years ; but 
when the undertaking is prosecuted with diligence, industry, and 
vigour, the process is as follows : — On the removal of the superficial 
soil, the rock is cut with chisels, broken with large hammers, and a fire 
at night is sometimes lit on the spot, which renders it more friable. 
Supposing the work to be commenced in October, the miners may 
possibly cut through the rock by March. The next four months are 
occupied in digging out the gravel in which diamonds are found ; this 
is usually a work of much labour and delay, in consequence of the 
necessity of frequently emptying the water from the mines. The miners 




then await the setting in of the rainy season, to furnish them with a 
supply of water for the purpose of washing the gravel.' The same 
writer considers that 'inexhaustible strata producing diamonds exist 
here.' ' None of the great diamonds now known appear to be traceable 
to the mines in Panna, and Tieffenthaler mentions it as a general 
opinion that those of Golconda are superior.' During the prosperity of 
the mines, a tax of 25 per cent, was levied on their produce, but the tax 
now imposed is stated to exceed this rate. The revenue is divided in 
proportions between the Rajas of Panna and Charkhari. The value of 
the diamonds still found in the mines is estimated at ;^i 2,000 per 
annum. Iron is also found in the State. 

The chief of Panna is descended from Hardi Sah, one of the sons of 
the famous Maharaja Chhatar Sal. When the British entered Bundel- 
khand, Raja Kishor Singh was the chief of the State, which was then in 
a condition of complete anarchy. He was confirmed in his possessions 
by i"^/za^j granted in 1807 and 181 1. As a reward for services rendered 
during the Mutiny of 1857, the Raja received the privilege of adoption, 
a dress of honour of the value of ^2000, and a personal salute of 13 
guns. The present Maharaja, Rudra Pratap Singh, who is a Biindela 
Rajput, succeeded in 1870; and in 1876 he was invested with the 
insignia of a Knight Commander of the Star of India by His Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales. 

The population of Panna was in 1881 returned at 227,306 persons, 
dwelling in i town and 867 villages, and occupying 45,414 houses; 
males numbered 118,349, females 108,957. Average number of 
persons per square mile, 88"5. Hindus number 203,425 ; Muham- 
madans, 5989 ; Jains, 1271 ; Christians, 9 ; Parsis, 3 ; aboriginal Gonds, 
8886; and Kols, 7723. The land revenue is estimated at 5 lakhs of 
rupees (say ;£5 0,000), but much of this amount is alienated. A small 
and fiuctuatins: revenue is also derived from a tax on the diamond 
mines. Tribute of ^995 is paid on the districts of Surdjpur and 
Ektana. A road was constructed by the late Maharaja Narpal Singh 
from his capital to Simari3'a in the Damoh direction (40 miles). The 
present chief has constructed another road towards the north, through 
Bisram Ghat, a distance of 14 miles, at a cost of about ^6500, and 
which for tracing and workmanship will bear comparison with any hill- 
road in the country. Schools have also been founded in the State. 
A military force is maintained of 250 cavalry and 2440 infantry, with 
19 guns and 60 artillerymen. 

Panna. — Chief town of the Native State of Panna, Bundelkhand, 
Central India; situated in lat. 24° 43' 30" n., and long. 80° 13' 55" e., 
on the route from Banda to Jabalpur (Jubbulpore), 62 miles south of 
the former and 169 miles north of the latter; distant from Kalpi 130 
miles south, and from x\llahabad 173 south-west. Population (1881) 



14,676, namely, 8194 males and 6482 females. Hindus number 
12,500; Muhammadans, 2028; and 'others,' 148. Elevation above 
sea-level, 1147 feet. Panna is a clean, well-laid-out city, built almost 
entirely of stone, which is found in abundance in the neighbourhood. 
Several large modern Hindu temples; and an imposing-looking edifice 
of nondescript design has been lately completed by the chief as a 
temple to Baladeo (a name of Balarama, brother of Krishna). A new 
palace, now under construction, will, when completed, be a handsome 
building. On a table covered with gold cloth lies the volume of Pran 
Nath, in an apartment of the building consecrated to the use of the sect 
founded by Pran Nath, a Kshattriya, who, being versed in Muham- 
madan as well as in Hindu learning, attempted to reconcile the two 
religions. The neighbouring diamond mines, which take their name 
from the town, are described in the article on Panna State {jide 

Fabnnmv (Funniar). — Town in Gwalior State, Central India; situated 
in lat. 26° 6' 12" n., and long. 78° 2' 2" e., 12 miles south-west of 
Gwalior fort. 'Scene of an engagement,' writes Thornton, 'on the 
29th December 1843 (the date of the victory of Maharajpur), between 
the British and Maratha forces. Major-General Grey, leading from 
Bundelkhand a British detachment to co-operate with that marching 
from Agra under the conduct of Sir Hugh Gough, commander-in- 
chief, crossed the river Sind at Chandpur, and proceeding north-west, 
after a march of 16 miles, was attacked by the Maratha army, 
strongly posted near the village of Mangor. The British army took 
post at Panniar, and, by a series of attacks, drove the enemy from all 
points of his position, capturing all his artillery, amounting to 24 
pieces, and all his ammunition. The Maratha army is represented to 
have been about 12,000 strong, and to have suffered most severely. 
The British loss amounted to 35 killed and 182 wounded.' 

Panroti {Panrutti). — Town in Cuddalore tdluk^ South Arcot 
District, Madras Presidency, and a station on the South Indian Railway. 
A large market town, being situated at the junction of several important 
roads. Lat. 11° 46' 40" n., and long. 79° 35' 16" e. Population 
(1881) 20,172, namely, 10,021 males and 10,151 females. Hindus 
number 18,953; Muhammadans, 1135; and Christians, 84. 

Pantalaori.— Petty State of the Sankheda Mehwas in Rewa Kantha, 
Bombay Presidency. Area, 5 square miles. There are two chiefs, 
Nathu Khan and Nazir Khan. Estimated revenue, ;£"2oo. 

Pantan. — Forest reserve in the south of Kamriip District, Assam, 
on the left bank of the Kulsi river ; containing valuable sal timber. 
Area, 12 square miles. 

Pan-ta-naw. — Township in Thun-gwa District, Irawadi Division, 
Lower Burma. Area, 489 square miles; revenue (1877), ^^16,482, 


and (1881) ^36,072. It is divided into 8 revenue circles, with a 
total population (1881) of 40,410 persons. The greater part of the 
country is covered with forests. -r^- . • ^ 

Pan-ta-naw.— Town in the Pan-ta-naw township, Thun-gwa District, 
Irawadi Division, Lower Burma ; situated on the river Irawadi (Irra- 
waddy), in lat. 16° 55' ^. and long. 95° ^8' e. Population, 5824 m 
1877, and 6174 in 1881. Head-quarters of an extra-Assistant Com- 
missioner. Considerable river-borne traffic in nga-p'i, dried fish, piece- 

troods, and hardware. 

Panth-Piplanda.— Guaranteed chiefship (Thakiirat) under the 
Western :vldlwa Agency. Consisting of 10 villages. Population (1881) 
4086, dwelling in 903 houses. Hindus number 3989; Muham- 
madans, 93 ; and non-Hindu aborigines, 4. 

Panwari. — South-western tahsil of Hamirpur District, North- 
western Provinces.— 5"^^ Kulpahar. 

Panwel — Sub-division of Thana District, Bombay Presidency. 
This Sub-division includes the petty Division of Uran, and lies in the 
south-west of the District, having along its eastern boundary the lofty 
Bava Malang, Matheran, and Prabal ranges, and the Manikgarh range 
on the south-east. It has many naturd advantages ; its seaboard and 
rivers give it the command of water carriage to Bombay as well as in 
the interior, while the Poona and Bombay road supplies excellent 
land communication. The climate, though damp and unhealthy for 
Europeans, is temperate except in the hot season, at which time the 
water-supply gets scanty. Area, 307 square miles, containing 2 towns 
and 217 villages. Population (1872) 96,714; (1881) 101,181, namely, 
52,140 males and 49,041 females. Hindus number 93,816; Muham- 
madans, 5920 ; and ' others,' i445- I" 1879-80, the separate holdings 
numbered 13,105, of an average area of 6f acres each, and paying an 
average assessment of £\, 8s. iid. Total area in i88r, exclusive of 
91 square miles occupied by the lands of alienated villages, 216 square 
miles. Of the Government area, 76,691 acres were returned as 
cultivable, 8959 acres as uncultivable, 39,132 acres as forest land, 4021 
acres as salt land, and 6926 acres occupied by village sites, etc. Total 
cultivated area of Government land in 1880-81, 49,466 acres, of which 
364 acres were twice cropped. Principal crops— grain, 46,535 acres; 
pulses, 2382 acres; oil-seeds, 434 acres; fibres, 29 acres; and miscel- 
laneous, 450 acres. Rice occupied 43^936 acres. In 1883 the Sub- 
division contained i civil and 3 criminal courts ; police circles {thdfids), 
2 ; regular police, 65 men. Land revenue (1882-83), ^19,618. 

Panwel. Chief town of the Panwel Sub-division of Thana District, 

Bombay Presidency ; situated 20 miles south by east of Thana town, 
on the high road to Poona, in lat. 18° 58' 50" n., and long. 73° 9' 10" 
E. Population (1881) 10,351, namely, 5462 males and 4889 females. 

FA OXI- PA- FUN, 5 3 

Hindus number 7807; Muliammadans, 21S6 ; Jains, 95 ; Christians, 20 ; 
Parsis, 15; and 'others,' 228. Panwel is the chief of four ports con- 
stituting the Panwel Customs Division. The average annual value of 
trade at Panwel port during the five years ending 1881-82 was — imports 
^5245, and exports ^12,129. In 1881-82, the trade of Panwel port 
^vas — imports ^^42 78, and exports j£']i6o. The sea trade of Panwel 
is entirely coasting. The chief imports are grain, fish, liquor, gunny- 
bags, viahud flowers, cocoa-nut, timber, from Bombay, Surat, Broach, and 
the neighbouring ports of Thana. The chief exports — grain, ghi^ fire- 
wood, cart-wheel and axle oil, oil-seed, to Bombay, Surat, Broach, Bhau- 
nagar, and neighbouring ports of Thana. The chief local industry is 
the construction of cart-wheels, of which it is said that every cart from 
the Deccan carries away a pair. Brick-making on a large scale has 
been attempted, but the enterprise has on two occasions failed. Panwel 
port is mentioned as carrying on trade with Europe in 1570; and it 
probably rose to importance along with Bombay, as it is on the direct 
Bombay-Deccan route. Sub-judge's court, post-office, dispensary; four 
schools with 554 pupils in 1883. 

Paoni. — Village and administrative head-quarters of Garhwal Dis- 
trict, North-Western Provinces. — See Pauni. 

Papaghni {^ Sin-Destroyer^). — River of Southern India, rising in 
Mysore State. After entering the Madanapalli taluk in Cuddapah 
(Kadapa) District, Madras (lat. 13° 43' n., long. 78° 10' e.), it flows 
through the large tank, Vyasa-samudram, at Kandakur, and thence 
north through the Palkonda Hills at Vempalli, where it is known as 
the Gandairii (' River of the Gorge '). Thence it flows through the 
Cuddapah taluk into the Penner, the confluence being in lat. 14° 
37' N., and long. 78^ 47' e. The Papaghni is held sacred, and on its 
banks, in the Palinendla taluk, is a large pagoda. A girder bridge 
on the north-west line of the Madras Railway, with 22 spans of 72 feet, 
crosses the river a short distance from Kamalapur. 

Papanasham (' Rejuoi'al of Shi '). — Village in Ambasamiidram 
taluk, Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 8° 48' n., long. 77° 
24' E. Noted as a place of pilgrimage, and for the falls of the Tambra- 
parni river. Situated about six miles west of Ambasamiidram. The 
cataract is only 80 feet high, but the body of water is very great. The 
pagoda is much venerated. The fish here are fed by the Brahmans, and 
come up for food when called. 

Papikonda. — Mountain in Goddvari District, Madras. — See Bison 

Pa-pun.— Head-quarters of Sal win (Sal ween) District, Tenasserim 
Division, Lower Burma ; situated on the Yunzalin river. Contains 
a court-house, temporary hospital, and dispensary ; a strong police 
force is quartered in a stockade close to the village. 


Parad Singha. — Village in Katol tahs'il, Nagpur District, Central 
Provinces. Population (i 88 1) 2780, namely, Hindus, 2669; Muham 
madans, 55 ; Jains, 22 ; non-Hindu aborigines, 34. 

Parahat. — Sequestrated estate in Singhbhum District, Bengal. Area, 
791 square miles. Population (1872) 54,374, dwelling in 380 villages 
and 10,327 houses. Number of Hindus, 26,364; Mubammadans, 
200; Christians, 484; and 'others,' 27,326. Average number of 
persons per square mile, 69 ; villages per square mile, 0*48 ; houses per 
square mile, 13; persons per house, 5*3; proportion of males in total 
population, 50*8. No returns of area or population of this estate are 
separately given in the Census Report of 1881. 

Two rival legends are current concerning the origin of the chiefs of 
Parahat, who were formerly called Rajas of Singhbhum. One of these, 
apimrently an aboriginal tradition, alleges that the founder of the family 
was discovered as a boy in a hollow tree, which a Bhuiya forester was 
cutting down. This boy became the head of the Bhuiya tribe, and 
worshipped Pauri or Pahciri Devi, a peculiarly Bhuiya divinity, corre- 
sponding to the Thakurani Mai of the Bhuiyas in Keunjhar The 
Singh family themselves, however, claim to be Kshattriyas of pure blood. 
They assert that, many generations ago, the first of their race, a Kadam- 
bansi Rajput from Marwar, while passing through the country on a 
pilgrimage to the shrine of Jagannath at Puri, was chosen by the people 
as their Raja. Some time afterwards, a dispute arose between the 
Bhuiyas of Eastern Singhbhum and the Larka Kols of the central tract 
of Kolhan ; the chief's family joined the Kols, and after they had put 
down the Bhuiyas, claimed sovereignty over both tribes. This latter 
legend is no doubt open to suspicion, as arrogating to the family a 
distant foreign origin, and indirectly supporting their invalid claim to 
supremacy over the Kols ; but it is corroborated by the fact that good 
families admit the Rajput origin of the Parahat chief. 

The estate of Parahat or Singhbhum Proper was saved by its rocky 
boundaries and sterile soil from conquest by the Marathas, and was 
thoroughly independent when, in 181 8, Raja Ghansham Singh Deo 
tendered his allegiance to the British Government. The neighbouring 
estates of Saraikala and Kharsawan abutted on the frontier of the old 
Jungle Mahals of Western Bengal; and as early as 1793, engagements 
relating to fugitive rebels had been taken from their chiefs. But the 
Parahat estate lay farther west, and there had previously been no com 
munication between its chief and the British Government. The objects 
of the Raja in thus becoming a British feudatory were, — first, to be 
recognised as lord paramount over Vikram Singh, ancestor of the present 
Raja of Saraikala, and Babu Chaitan Singh of Kharsawan ; secondly, to 
regain possession of a certain tutelary image, which had fallen into the 
hands of Babu Vikram Singh of Saraikala; and lastly, to obtain aid 


in reducing the refractory tribe of Larka Kols or Hos. The British 
Government, while disallowing his claim to supremacy over his kins- 
men of Saraikala and Kharsdwan, exacted from him a nominal tribute 
of Rs. loi (^10, 2S.), and declined to interfere in any way with the 
internal administration of the estate. An engagement embodying these 
conditions was taken from him on the ist of February 1820; and it 
was intended that similar agreements should be entered into by the 
chiefs of Saraikala and Kharsawan. The matter, however, appears to 
have been overlooked at the time ; and those chiefs have never paid 
tribute, though they have frequently been called upon to furnish con- 
tingents of armed men to aid in suppressing disturbances. In 1823, 
the Raja of Parahat regained by a Government order the family idol, 
which he had claimed in 181 8 from the Raja of Saraikala. But he gra- 
dually sank into poverty, and in 1837 was granted a pension of Rs. 500 
(^50) as a compassionate allowance, in compensation for any losses 
he might have sustained in consequence of our assumption of the direct 
management of the Kolhan. In 1857, Arjun Singh, the last Raja of 
Parahat, after delivering up to Government the Chaibasa mutineers, in 
a moment of caprice rebelled himself, and was sentenced to imprison- 
ment for life at Benares. The estate of Parahat was confiscated, and 
is now under the direct management of Government. 

Parambakudi. — Town in Madura District, Madras Presidency. — 
Sec Parmagudi. 

Paramukka. — Site of old town in Malabar District, Madras 
Presidency. — See Ferokh. 

Parangla. — Pass in Kangra District, Punjab, over the Western 
Himalayan range from Kibbar in Spiti to Rupshii in Ladakh. Lat. 
32° 31' N., long. 78° i' E. Practicable for laden yaks and ponies. 
Elevation above sea-level, about 18,500 feet. 

Parantij. — Sub-division of Ahmadabad District, Bombay Presidency ; 
situated in the extreme north-east of Ahmadabad District. Area, 449 
square miles, containing 2 towns and 159 villages. Population (1872) 
106,934; (1881) 107,554, namely, 55,099 males and 52,455 females, 
dwelUng in 24,486 houses. Hindus number 96,922 ; Muhammadans, 
7561; and 'others,' 3071. From the north-east, lines of rocky, 
bare hills gradually sink west and south into a plain, at first thinly 
wooded and poorly tilled, then with deeper soil, finer trees, and better 
tillage, till in the extreme west along the banks of the Sabarmati, the 
surface is broken by ravines and ridges. In the east, the staple crop 
is maize, and in the west millet. Garden cultivation is neglected. 
Water abundant. The Sub-division is the healthiest and coolest part 
of the District. Total area, exclusive of 137 square miles occupied by 
the lands of alienated villages, 312 square miles. Of the Government 
area in 1877-78, 195,619 acres were returned as occupied land, of 


which 22,669 ^cres were alienated land, 92,953 acres cultivable, 59 174 
acres uncultivable waste, and 43,192 acres of village sites, etc. Total 
cultivated area of Government land in 1877-78, 72,026 acres, of 
which 3441 acres were twice cropped. Principal crops — grain crops, 
53,205 acres, of which 29,924 were under bdjra; pulses, 19,458 acres; 
oil-seeds, 2572 acres; fibres, 42 acres; and miscellaneous crops, 190 
acres. In 1861-62, the year of Settlement, 10,035 holdings were 
recorded, with an average area of 9 J acres, and paying an average 
revenue of 1 7s. 4id. In 1883 the Sub-division contained 3 criminal 
courts and 2 police circles itJidnds); regular police, 122 men; village 
watch {chaukiddrs), 644. Land revenue, ;£^i 3,830. 

Parantij {Farantej). — Chief town of the Parantij Sub-division, 
Ahmadabad District, Bombay Presidency; situated in lat. 23° 26' 20" 
N., long. 72° 53' 45" E., -^-^ miles north-west of Ahmadabad city. 
Population (1881) 8353. Hindus number 5252 ; Muhammadans, 
2165 ; Jains, 932 ; and ' others,' 4. Parantij is a prosperous town. Its 
special manufacture is soap ; there are six soap factories with a yearly 
out-turn of about 178 tons. Parantij is a municipality, with an income 
in 1883-84 of ;£^378; incidence of taxation per head of population, 
7fd. Post-office, travellers' bungalow, dispensary, and two schools 
with 557 pupils in 1883. Exports, ghi, grain, and leather of annual 
value of ;^ 1 980. 

Parasgarh. — Sub-division of Belgaum District, Bombay Presidency ; 
situated in the south-east corner of the District. A low range of sand- 
stone hills running north-west and south-east divides Parasgarh into two 
nearly equal parts. South-west of the hills, whose southern face is steep 
and rugged, is a plain of fine black soil with many rich villages and 
hamlets, which suffered severely in the famine of 1876-77. The north- 
east, which is broken by low hills, is a high waving plateau overgrown 
with bush and prickly pear; the soil mostly poor and sandy. In the 
extreme north, the sandstone gives place to trap, and the soil is 
generally shallow and poor. The Malprabha, which flows north-east 
through the middle of the Sub-division, forms with its feeders the chief 
water-supply. Before the close of the hot season, almost all the small 
streams dry and stagnate ; and the well and pond water is scanty and 
unwholesome. In the north and east, the rainfall is scanty and 
uncertain ; but in the south and west, and in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the Sahyadri hills it is plentiful. Area, 640 square miles ; 
contains i town and 126 villages. Population (1872) 120,691 ; (1881) 
91,826, namely, 45,404 males and 46,422 females, dwelling in 17,770 
houses. Hindus number 84,419; ]\Iuhammadans, 6384; and 'others,' 
1023. Total area, exclusive of 100 square miles occupied by the lands 
of alienated villages, 540 square miles. Of the Government area, 
17I5495 acres were returned in 1881 as cultivable, 1893 acres as uncul- 


tivabic, ^2, acres grass, and 59,080 acres village sites, etc. In 1S81-S2, 
of 152,787 acres held for tillage, 12,535 were fallow or under grass. 
Total cultivated area of Government land in 1881-82, 140,252 acres, 
of which 13,732 acres were twice cropped. Principal crops — grain crops, 
106,941 acres; pulses, 12,013 acres ; oil-seeds, 7901 acres; fibres, 26,671 
acres, of which 26,608 were under cotton ; and miscellaneous crops, 
458 acres. In 1883 tlie Sub-division contained courts — civil i, and 
criminal 3; police circles (f/idnds), 7; regular police, 55 men; village 
watch {chaukiddrs)^ 469. Land revenue, ;£"i8,744. The head-quarters 
of the Sub-division is at Saundatti village. 

Parasnath. — Hill and place of Jain pilgrimage, in the east of 
Hazaribagh, and adjoining Manbhilm District, Bengal. Tat. 23° 57' 
35" N.,long. 86° 10' 30" E. The mountain consists of a central narrow 
ridge, with rocky peaks, rising abruptly to 4488 feet above sea-level 
from the plains on the south-west, and throwing out long spurs, 
which extend towards the Barakhar river on the north. A spur to the 
south-east forms the boundary between the Districts of Hazaribagh and 
Manbhiim, and eventually subsides into an extended belt of high land 
with peaked hills in the latter District. 

Parasnath was ascended apparently for the first time by a European, 
Colonel Franklin, in 1819. He climbed by a narrow steep path, 
through thick forest, on the northern slope. 'As you ascend,' he 
wrote, ' the mountain presents a stupendous appearance. At intervals 
you perceive the summit, appearing in bluff, jagged peaks, eight in 
number, and towering to the clouds. From an opening in the forest 
the view is inexpressibly grand, the wide extent of the jungle iardi 
stretching beneath your feet. The summit, emphatically termed by 
the Jains Asjnid (more correctly, Samet) Sikhar, or " The Peak of Bliss," 
is composed of a table-land flanked by twenty small Jain temples on 
the craggy peaks.' In 1827, Parasnath was visited by a Government 
officer, in the course of his official tour, who describes it as 'thickly 
covered with magnificent trees from the plain to within a few yards of 
each pinnacle.' 

Dr. (now Sir Joseph) Hooker ascended the hill from the Taldanga 
side in 1848, and was much impressed by its beauty: 'As the sun 
rose, Parasnath appeared against the clear grey in the form of a beauti- 
ful broad cone, with a rugged peak of a deeper grey than the sky. It 
is a remarkably handsome mountain, sufificiently lofty to be imposing ; 
and it is surrounded by lesser hills of just sufficient elevation to set it 
off.' Parts of the forest have disappeared, and there is now a good 
])athway to the top, but the hill still retains much of its old wild beauty ; 
and the valleys of the Barakhnr and Damodar rivers, whicli stretch on 
either side, form a striking landscape. 

The hill is now easily approached by the East Indian Railway to 


Giridhi station, and thence by a short journey along a metalled 
road, the distance being about i8 miles. In 1858, Parasnath was 
selected as a convalescent depot for European troops. The cool- 
ness of its climate (averaging during the seven hot months 16° F. 
below that of the plains), the purity of its air, its nearness to Calcutta, 
and the abundant building materials on the spot, recommended the 
hill for this purpose. Buildings were erected ; but the water-supply 
proved sufficient for only from 60 to 80 men, the plateau at the summit 
was too confined for exercise, and the solitude and quiet exerted a 
depressing influence on the invalid soldiers. They conceived an intense 
dislike to the spot, and begged to be allowed to take their chance in 
hospital on the plains. This feeling seriously retarded their recovery ; 
and it was found that, although the place was an 'excellent sanitarium 
for the robust or the very sick, it was unsuitable for convalescents, who 
could not take exercise beyond the cramped limits of the plateau. 

After much discussion, Parasnath was given up as a sanitarium 
in 1868. Next year the buildings had already fallen into decay, and 
the mountain was again abandoned to the forest and wild beasts and 
Jain pilgrims. The building formerly used as the officers' quarters is 
now utilized as a dak bungalow. Pilgrims flock, to the number of 
10,000 annually, from distant parts of India to this remote spot — the 
scene of A^irvdfia, or ' beatific annihilation' of no less than 10 of the 
24 deified saints, who are the objects of Jain adoration. From the 
last of these, Parsva or Parsvanatha, the hill, originally called Samet 
Sikhar, took its better known name of Parasnath. (For a full account 
of the shrines and ceremonies, see Statistical Account of Bengal^ vol. 
xvi. pp. 216, 217.) 

Pilgrimage to Parasnath is still as popular as ever among the Jains ; 
and new shrines, a single one of which in white marble cost ^8000, 
are from time to time erected. The temples lie well apart from the 
plateau, and the improved means of communication with Calcutta hold 
out a possibility of the latter being yet utilized as a small and cheaply- 
reached sanitarium. 

Paraspur-Ata. — Two adjacent villages in Gonda District, Gudh ; 
situated 15 miles south-west of Gonda town, on the road between 
Nawabganj and Colonelganj. Joint population (1881) of the two 
villages, 4099, namely, Hindus 3412, and Muhammadans 687. 
Paraspur was founded about 400 years ago by Raja Paras Ram 
Kalhans, the only son of the Gonda Raja, whose destruction by a 
sudden flood of the Gogra is narrated in the article on Gonda 
District {q.v.)' His descendant, the present Rajd of Paraspur, and 
chief of the Kalhans of Guwarich, still resides in a large mud-house to 
the east of the village. The Babu of Ata, representative of a younger 
branch of the same family, enjoying a separate estate, lives in Ata, a 


name accounted for by the following legend. Bdbu Lai Sah, the first of 
his branch of the family, when out hunting near Paraspur, met :k fakir 
eating what appeared to be carrion. The holy man pressed him to join, 
and his repugnance yielded to hunger and a dread of the curse which was 
threatened on his refusal. To his surprise, it turned out to be excellent 
wheat flour {did) ; and, at \\\^ fakir's bidding, a pot full of the deceptive 
flesh was buried under the doorway of the fort which Lai Sah was 
building. On the boundary of the two villages is a flourishing school, 
attended by over loo boys. Market twice a week. 

Paraswara.— Village in the highland portion of Balaghat District, 
Central Provinces; situated in lat. 22° 11' n., and long. 80° 20' e., m 
the centre of a well-watered plateau, and surrounded by 30 thriving 
villages, and excellent rice-fields. Population (1881) 692. Police 

Paratwara. — Military cantonment and civil station in Ellichpur 
District, Berar ; situated in lat. 21° 18' n., and long. 77° 33' 20" e., on 
the Bichan stream, about 2 miles from Ellichpur town. A force of 
all arms is stationed here. The cantonment is well laid out, but is 
not considered healthy, the site being low and too much under the 
hills. Schools, police station, civil jail, court with treasury, and a 
Government garden. Population (i 881) 9445. Hindus number 6341 ; 
Muhammadans, 2876 ; Christians, 192 ; and Jains, 36 ; but the number 
varies with the strength of the force cantoned here. 

Parauna.— 7^^/w// and town in Gorakhpur District, North-Western 
Provinces. — See Padrauna. 

Paravanar.— River of South Arcot District, iNLadras ; rising in lat. 
11^ 31' N., and long. 79° 43' e. After a course of about 32 miles in a 
generally northerly direction, and parallel to the coast, it enters the sea 
at Cuddalore (lat. 11° 44' n., long. 79° 50' 30" e.). It is navigable fcr 
10 miles, and is connected with the Vellar by a canal, which, begun 
in 1856-57, and stopped at the time of the Mutiny, was re-opened as a 
famine work in 1878. The Paravanar is one of the three rivers of the 
South Arcot District, navigable for a short distance by boats of 4 tons 
burthen throughout the year. 

Paravur. — Tdhik or Sub-division of Travancore State, INLadras 
Presidency. Area, 47 square miles. Paraviir taluk contains 89 karas 
or villages. Population (1875) 60,156; (1881) 61,966, namely, 31,487 
males and 30,479 females, occupying 11,962 houses. Hindus number 
41,255; Muhammadans, 2926; Christians, 17,690; and Jews, 95. 
The taluk is the most densely populated portion of Travancore State, 
the average density being 131 8*4 persons per square mile. 

Paraviir (/^^/n/r).— Chief town of Pc4ravur Sub-division, Travancore 
State, Madras Presidency. Lat. 10° 10' n., long. 76° 16' e. A busy 
trading place, and formerly a military station. Population (187 1) 3363, 


including a number of ' White ' Jews and Christians. Not separately 
returned in the Census Report of 1881. At one time Paraviir town 
belonged to Cochin, but in 1762 it was made over to Travancore. Tipii 
destroyed a great part of the town. 

Parbati {Pdrvati). — River in Kangra District, Punjab, draining Kiilu 
Proper ; rises in Waziri Riipi, on the slopes of a Mid-Himalayan peak, 
over 20,000 feet in height. Runs in a generally westerly direction, 
and falls into the Beas (Bias) below Sultanpur, in lat. 31° 53' 33" N., 
and long. 77° 11' e., after a total course of about 90 miles. For the 
first 50 miles the mountains on either side rise bare and uninhabited ; 
but a little above Manikarn, a distance of 40 miles, the valley consists 
of a richly timbered forest tract, in which every available acre has 
been brought under the plough. This portion of the valley produces 
particularly fine crops, and supports a comparatively dense population. 

Parbati. — A long but (except in the rains) fordable tributary of the 
Chambal. Risesin the Vindhya hills, in lat. 22° 45' n., long. 76° 33' e., 
and after a northerly course of 220 miles past the Native States of 
Bhopal, Dhar, Rajgarh, Tonk, and Kotah, falls into the Chambal in 
lat. 25° 50' N., long. 76° 40' E. 

Pardi.— Sub-division of Surat District, Bombay Presidency. Area, 
163 square miles, containing 82 villages. Population (1872) 51, 749 5 
(1881) 55,761, namely, 27,336 males and 28,425 females, occupying 
9578 houses. Hindus number 28,401 ; Muhammadans, 1481 ; and 
'others,' 25,879. Land revenue, ^12,756. The region adjoins 
Portuguese territory, and is for the most part an undulating plain 
sloping westwards to the sea. The fields are, as a rule, unenclosed. 
The Sub-division is divided into an unfertile and a fertile region by the 
Kolak river. Average rainfall, 70 inches. The land was surveyed and 
settled in 1869-70 for a term of 30 years. In the year of survey there 
\vere 5532 holdings, with an average area of 14! acres, and an average 
rental of £2, 4s. lojd. Total Government area, 162 square miles. 
Of the Government area, 91,116 acres were returned in 1881 as 
cultivable, 3915 acres uncultivable waste, and 6514 acres as village sites, 
etc. In 1873-74, of 74,096 acres held for tillage, 29,901 acres were 
fallow or under grass. Total cultivated area of Government land in 
1873-74, 44,195 acres. Principal crops — grain crops, 32,022 acres; 
pulses, 7378 acres ; oil-seeds, 7428 acres ; fibres, 325 ; and miscellaneous, 
809 acres. In 1883 the Sub-division contained i criminal court; 
regular police, 59 men ; village watch {chai/kiddrs), 220. 

Pardi. — Head-quarters of Pardi Sub-division, Surat District, Bombay 

Presidency. Lat. 20° 31' e., long. 72° 59' n. Population (1872) 4545- 

Not separately returned in the Census of 188 1. Post-office ; dispensary. 

Parell.^Northern suburb of Bombay city ; once the favourite site for 

the country houses of the European merchants, and still containing 


the residence of the Governor of Bombay. Mr. J. M. Maclean, in his 
Guide to Bombay^ gives the following account of the history of this 
building, the only one of any special interest in the suburb: — 'At the 
d.ite of Fryer's visit to Bombay, about 200 years ago, a church and convent, 
belonging to the Jesuits, stood on the site of the present Government 
House at Parell. The principal establishment of the Society was at 
Bandora, at the other side of the Mahim Strait, where the present 
slaughter-houses have been erected. Fryer describes the college that 
stood there as " not inferior as to the building, nor much unlike those, 
of our universities." It was, moreover, defended like a fortress, with 7 
cannon, besides small arms. The Superior possessed such extensive 
influence that his mandates were respectfully attended to in the sur- 
rounding country. When Bombay was ceded to the English, the 
Bandora College claimed much land and various rights in the island. 
On the claim being disallowed, the Jesuits threatened a resort to arms, 
and went so far as to assist the adventurer Cooke in his impudent 
attempt to raise a force for the capture of Bombay. Their crowninf^ 
act of hostility, however, was the support they gave the Sidi in his 
successful invasion of the island in 1689-90. They were suspected of 
first suggesting to him the practicability of invading Bombay, and they 
certainly had supplied his army with provisions. As a punishment 
when the war was over, all their property on the island, including the 
monastery and lands at Parell, was confiscated. It would appear that 
ir was not till 1720 that the church at Parell was alienated from its 
original use. In that year the Jesuits and their sympathizers were 
expelled from the island, and the spiritual oversight of the Roman 
Catholic congregations was transferred by the P^nglish governor to the 
Carmelites {Bombay Quarterly Review, iii. pp. 61, 62). Bishop Heber 
states that the building afterwards fell into the hands of a Parsf, from 
whom it was purchased by the English officials about the year 1765. 

'The lower storey of the desecrated church forms the present Govern- 
ment House; the upper storey has been added since the building 
became Government property. The outside of Parell House is plain, 
if not ugly ; but the interior, so far as the State rooms are concerned, 
is handsome, the dining-room on the ground floor, and the drawing- 
room above, being 80 feet long, and broad in proportion. The garden 
at the back is sjjacious, and has a fine terrace, shaded by noble trees. 
There used to be a willow at Parell, grown from a slip cut from the tree 
on Napoleon's grave at St. Helena. Mr. W. Hornby (1776) was the first 
governor who took up his residence at Parell. The original building 
was enlarged and embellished by the Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone 
(1819-27). In 1737, the Jesuits' College at Bandora, before referred 
to, was destroyed by the Portuguese to prevent its falling into the hands 
of the Marathas, who in that year invaded Salsette.' 


The present European cemetery at Parell was opened as a botanical 
garden in 1830, and was converted into a cemetery in 1867. It lies 
under Flag Staff hill, sheltered by pines on either side. By Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway, Parell is distant 4 miles from the Bombay 

Parenddi. — Old fortress in Naldrilg District of Haidarabad (Nizam's 
Dominions); situated in lat. 18° 16' 20" n., and long. 75° 30' 18" e., 
on the frontier of Ahmadnagar District. Parenda is one of the many 
forts erected by Mahmud Khwaja Gawan, the celebrated minister of 
the Bahmani king, Aluhammad Shah 11. After the capture of Ahmad- 
nagar by the Mughals in 1605, the capital of the Nizarn Shahi kingdom 
was removed to Parenda for a short period. Parendd. was unsuccess- 
fully besieged by the Emperor Shah Jahan's general, Azam Khan, in 
1630, and by Prince Shah Shuja in 1633. The greater portion of the 
town is now in ruins, but the fortifications are in good order. 

Parganas, The Twenty-four.— District of Bengal. —6"^^ Twenty- 
four Parganas. 

PargMt. — Old pass or route across the Western Ghats leading 
from Satara District to Kolaba, Bombay Presidency. Two villages, 
Par Par or Par Proper and Pet Par, situated 5 miles west of Malcolm- 
pet and immediately south of Partabgarh, give their name to and mark 
the old route into the Konkan called the Parghat, which goes straight 
over the hill below Bombay Point, and winds up a very steep incline 
with so many curves that it was named by the British the Corkscrew 
Pass. Passing through the two Pars, the further line of the Sahyadri 
is descended by an equally steep path to the village of Parghat in 
Kolaba District. This route was maintained practicable for cattle and 
the artillery of the period from very early times, and chaukis or 
toll stations for the levy of transit duties as well as for defence were 
stationed at various points. Afzul Khan, the Muhammadan general 
of the king of Bijapur, brought his forces by this pass to the famous 
interview at Partabgarh, where he was murdered by Sivaji. Until the 
building of the Kumbharli road in 1864 and the Fitzgerald pass road 
in 1876, the Parghat was the only highway leading to the Konkan. 

Pariar. — Fargand in Unao tahsil, Unao District, Oudh ; bounded 
on the north by Safipur, on the east by Unao pargand, on the south by 
Sikandarpur, and on the west by the Ganges, which separates it from 
Cawnpur District. A small parga?id, with an area of 36 square miles, 
of which 19 are cultivated. The soil is chiefly loam and clay, and 
produces wheat and barley of the first quality. Watered by the Kalyani, 
a small tributary of the Ganges. Population (1881) 14,560, namely, 
14,120 Hindus and 440 ^luhammadans. The principal form of 
tenure is zaminddri. Government land revenue, ;£^2857, or an average 
assessment of 2s. 6|d. per acre. Hindu tradition alleges that it was 


here that Si'ta was abandoned by Rama, after he had recovered her 
from Ravana ; hence the name of the pargand, corrupted from the 
Sanskrit into Parian The present /^r^^z//^/ was formed in 1785, out of 
28 villages taken from Sikandarpur and Safipur, 

Pariar. — Town in Unao tahsii, Unao District, Oudh, and head- 
quarters of Pariar /^r^'^^/(f ; situated 12 miles west of Unao town, in lat. 
26° 37' 45" N., and long. 80° 21' 45" e. Population (1881) 2254, 
namely, 2171 Hindus and 'i^ ^lusalmans. The town is considered 
sacred by the Hindus, on account of its legendary association with the 
events of the RdmdyaJia. A great bathing fair, held on the occasion 
of the Kdrtik Fura7wids/ii, is attended by 100,000 persons. 

Parichhatgarh. — Ancient town in Muwana tahsil, Meerut (Merath) 
District, North-Western Provinces ; situated half-way between Muwana 
and Kithor, 14 miles from Meerut city. The fort round which the 
town is built lays claim to great anticjuity, and tradition ascribes its 
construction to Parikshit, grandson of Arjun, one of the five Pandava 
brethren in the Mahdbhdmta, to whom is also ascribed the foundation 
of the town. The fort was restored by Raja Nain Singh, on the 
rise of the Giijar power in the last century. It was dismantled in 
1857, and is now used as a police station. Population (18S1) 5182, 
namely, Hindus, 4339; Muhammadans, 842; and 'others,' i. The 
police and conservancy arrangements of the town are met by a 
small house - tax. The houses are chiefly of mud, with some good 
brick houses and shops in the bazar. Large weekly market held 
every Monday, and numerously attended by inhabitants of neighbour- 
ing villages. The Anilpshahr branch of the Ganges canal runs close 
to the town. Post-office, village school, police station, and canal 

Parikud. — Group of islands lying to the east of the Chilka Lake, 
Bengal, which have silted up from behind, and are now partially 
joined to the narrow ridge of land which separates the Chilka from the 
sea. Salt-making is largely carried on in the Parikud islands by the 
process of solar evaporation. The manufacture begins at the commence- 
ment of the hot season, in the latter half of ^Lirch. In the first place, 
a little canal is dug from the Chilka Lake, with sets of broad, shallow 
tanks on either side, running out at right angles from the canal in rows 
of four. Each tank is 75 feet square, by from 18 inches to 3 feet deep. 
On the first day of manufacture, the brackish water of the lake is 
admitted by the canal into the first tank of each of the sets of rows. 
Here it stands for 24 hours ; and as the depth of this first series of 
tanks is only 18 inches, evaporation goes on very rapidly. Next 
morning, the brine is transferred from tank No. i to tank No. 2 in 
each of the sets of rows. Tank No. 2 is 24 inches deep ; and each 
successive one deepens by 6 inches until the brine reaches No. 4, 


which is 3 feet deep. The water stands for a day in each, gradually 
thickening as it evaporates. On the fourth day it is transferred to 
tank No. 4 ; and on the morning of the fifth, some of the brine is 
ladled from that tank into an adjoining network of very shallow pools 
each pool being 5 feet square by only 6 inches deep. Here it stands 
during the intense heat of the day. By the afternoon the manufacture 
is complete, and the salt is raked out of the network of shallow pools 
The out-turn of a Parikud salt-working is about 15 tons the first week ; 
and if the manufacture goes on without interruption for a fortnight, 
it may amount to as much as 80 tons for the 15 days. A shower 
of rain stops the whole process, and necessitates its being begun 

Parkail. — Mountain peak in Bashahr State, Punjab; a summit of 
the ridge in Kunawar, separating the Spiti from the Sutlej (Satlaj) basin. 
Thornton states that it lies 6 or 7 miles north-east of the confluence 
of these two rivers, in lat. 31° 54' N., and long. 77° 46' e. Elevation 
above sea-level, 22,488 feet. 

Parkar. — Town in Nagar Parkar taluk of the Thar and Parkar 
District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. — See Nagar Parkar. 

Parla Kimedi. — Ancient zaminddri (landed estate) in Ganjam 
District, Madras Presidency ; the largest in the District, extending over 
an area of 764 square miles, including 354 sciuare miles of mdliyas or hill 
country. Population of lowland tract (187 1) 227,482 ; (1881) 240,980, 
occupying 48,097 houses and 723 villages. Hindus in 1881 numbered 
240,266; Muhammadans, 497 ; Christians, 118; and 'others,' 99. The 
mdliya tract contains (1881) 342 villages, and a population of 39,152, 
namely, 20,218 males and 18,934 females, occupying 8936 houses. 
Hindus number 38,952, chiefly Savars ; and Muhammadans, 200. The 
estate pays :\.peshkash (fixed quit-rent) of ^8782, the proprietary income 
being returned at ;£'53,2 74, including interest on funded money. 

The zaminddrs claim descent from the royal house of Orissa Gaja- 
pattis (Gangavansa), and take precedence in the District. Eleven hill 
chiefs called Bissois^ and 23 smaller lairds called Doras ^ owe feudal 
allegiance and pay tribute to the Raja. 

The British first came into contact with the family in 1768, 
when Colonel Peach led a detachment against Narayan Deo, the 
zaminddr^ and defeated him at Jalmur. In 1799, the Company 
temporarily assumed control of the estate for breach of engagement. 
Restored to the family, this difficult country was the scene of continued 
disturbances for many years. In 18 16 it was ravaged by Pindaris ; 
and in 181 9 it was found necessary to send a special commissioner, 
Mr. Thackeray, to quell a rising. Again, in 1833, a field force was 
sent into Parla Kimedi, under General Taylor, and it was not till 1835 
that peace was restored. Until 1856-57 no further disturbance took 


place, but in that year the employment of a small body of regulars was 
again necessitated to restore order. 

In 1830 the zatninddri was placed under the Court of Wards, owing 
to the imbecility of the proprietor, and has since continued under 
Government management. The estate is managed by the Assistant 
Collector, who resides at Parla Kimedi. The country is hilly, with 
numerous fertile valleys. The chief product is rice. A Survey Settle- 
ment has been in progress since 1880. Good roads and extended 
cultivation have greatly increased the value of the estate. — See Kimedi. 

Parla Kimedi. — Chief town of the Parla Kimedi zaminddri in 
Ganjam District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 18° 46' 40" n., 
and long. 84° 8' e. Population (1881) 10,812, namely, 5186 males 
and 5626 females, occupying 2189 houses. Hindus number 10,621 ; 
Muhammadans, 188; and Christians, 3. The town is composed of 
the two villages, Parla-kasba and Chervuthiguva-kasba. K palace is 
being built for the zaminddr at a cost of ^40,000. 

Parlakot. — ZaviUiddri or chiefship in the extreme north-west of Bastar 
State, Central Provinces. Comprising 67 villages; area, 500 square 
miles. Population (1881) 3455, dweUing in 638 houses. Chief village, 
Parlakot; lat. 19° 47' n., long. 80° 43' e. 

Parmaglidi (or Paravibakudi). — Busy weaving town in Ramnad 
zam'mddri^ Madura District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 9° 31' 
X., and long. 78° 42' e. Population (1881) 9287, occupying 1148 
houses. Hindus number 8392 ; Muhammadans, 783; and Christians, 
112. Post-office. 

Parna. — Agricultural village in Panahat tahsil^ Agra District ; situated 
in lat. 26° 53' N., and long. 78^ 46' 32° e., on the right bank of the 
Jumna, 52 miles south-east from Agra cit)', and 10 miles west of Bah, 
the head-quarters of the tahsil. Population (1881) 2856. 

Parnasala. — A celebrated shrine in Godavari District, ^^ladras 
Presidency ; situated about 20 miles from Bhadrachalam town. 

Parner.— Sub-division of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 779 square miles, containing 122 villages. Population (1872) 
82,422; (1881) 73,701, namely, 37,190 males and 36,511 females] 
Hindus number 68,442; Muhammadans, 2734; and 'others,' 2525. 
The surface of Parner is very irregular and hilly, consisting of a series 
of plateaux or table-lands of various heights. The highest is the Kanhur 
or central plateau formed by the widening out of the summit of one of 
the spurs of the Sah, which traverses the Sub-division from north-west 
to south-east. The average height of the central plateau is about 2800 
feet above sea-level, though there are points on it three hundred feet 
higher. As might be expected from the diversified nature of the surface, 
the soil of Parner is of various kinds. On the whole, the water-supply 
is fairly good. Many of the smaller streams have a perennial flow 



Sixteen miles of the x'\hmadnagar-Poona high road He in Parner. The 
Dhond-Manmad State Raihvay skirts the south-east corner, and has 
one station in the Sub-division. The manufactures are few, consisting 
of coarsely woven turbans, cotton cloth, and woollen blankets. Of 
217,629 acres, the actual area under cultivation in 1881-82, grain crops 
occupied 180,472 acres, of which 109,447 were under bdjf^a (Pennisetum 
typhoideum), 58,884 under Jodr (Sorghum vulgare) ; pulses, 26,704 
acres; oil-seeds, 8972 acres; fibres, 191 acres, the whole under hemp 
(Crotalaria juncea); and miscellaneous crops, 1290 acres. In 1883 
the Sub - division contained 2 civil and 2 criminal courts ; i police 
circle {thdjia) ; regular police, 34 men; village watch {chaukiddrs), 218. 
Land revenue, ^£1^,41']. 

Parner. — Town in Ahmadnagar District, Bombay Presidency, and 
head-quarters of Parner Sub-division. Lat. 19° n., long. 74° 30' e. 
Situated 20 miles south-west of Ahmadnagar town and 15 miles west of 
Sarola station on the Dhond-Manmad State Railway. Population (1881) 
4058. Parner contains numerous money-lenders, chiefly Marwaris, with 
a bad name for greed and fraud. In 1874-75, disturbances arose 
between the husbandmen and the money-lenders. The villagers placed 
the money-lenders in a state of social outlawry, refusing to work for 
them, to draw water, supply necessaries, or shave them. The watch- 
fulness of the police saved Parner from a riot. Weekly market on 
Sundays, and post-office. 

Parola. — Town in Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency ; situated 
in lat. 20° 56' 20" N., and long. 75° 14' 30" e., 22 miles east of Dhulia, 
and 22 miles west of the Mhasawar station on the Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway. Population (1881) 12,354, namely, 61 14 males and 6240 
females. Hindus number 9997; Muhammadans, 1743; Jains, 468; 
and 'others,' 146. Parola is a municipality, with an income of ^387 
in 1883-84 ; incidence of taxation per head, 5d. It is said to have been 
raised by its proprietor, Hari Sadasiva Damothar, from the position of a 
small village of 50 houses to that of a walled town. He is also said to 
have built, about 1727, the spacious fort, one of the finest architectural 
remains of the kind in Khandesh. It must have been at one time 
a very strong place ; it is surrounded by a moat, and the entrance 
was formerly protected by a drawbridge and large flanking towers. 
During the Mutiny in 1857, the proprietors proved disloyal, and their 
estate was confiscated, the town being taken possession of by the 
British Government, and the fort dismantled. A considerable trade is 
carried on in cattle, cotton, higdds (women's robes), and grain. Post- 
ofiice ; and dispensary, which relieved 7576 patients in 1883; and 4 
schools with 451 pupils in 1883-84. 

Parone. — Guaranteed chiefship under the Giina (Goona) Sub-Agency 
of Central India, and a feudatory of Gwalior. The ruhng family are 


of ancient lineage, being descended from the family of the Kachwa 
Ajodhya Rajputs, and were formerly Thakurs of Narwar. Daulat Rao 
Sindhia deprived Madhii Singh of Narwar of his hereditary possessions, 
and the latter took to plundering in Sindhia's territories. In 18 18, 
through the mediation of the Resident at Sindhia's court, the estate 
of Parone and six villages were granted to Madhii Singh under 
British protection, on condition of his promising to protect Sindhia's 
territory from robbers. His successor. Raja Man Singh, joined the 
mutineers in 1857, but surrendered in 1859 on condition of a free 
pardon and a suitable maintenance. Man Singh's former possessions 
were consequently restored to him under guarantee. For his sub- 
sequent services in connection with the capture of the rebel Tantia 
Topi, Man Singh received an annual allowance of j^ioo, as equivalent 
to the value of d.jdgir of one village. The chief owns 34 villages, con- 
taining a population in 1881 of 7328, and yielding a revenue of 
about ^1200. Hindus number 7152 ; Muhammadans, 156; Jains, 4 ; 
and aborigines, 16. Man Singh died in January 1883, and will 
be succeeded by his son Gajandar Singh, during whose minority the 
affairs of the State are superintended by the PoHtical Assistant at 

Parone town lies in lat. 24° 59' n., and long. 76° 57' e. It contains 
but a small portion of arable land, and more resembles a wilderness 
than the residence of a chief. The fort walls were destroyed by the 
British troops during the Mutiny, and have never been rebuilt. 

Parpori (or Parpondi).—K\z\i and well-cultivated zaminddri or petty 
chiefship attached to Driig tahsil, Raipur District, Central Provinces; 
comprising an area of 32 square miles, with 24 villages and 1972 
houses. Total population (1881) 6950, namely, males 3457, and females 
3493; average density of population, 217 persons per square mile. 
The chief is a Gond. Principal village, Parpori, in lat. 2\ 35' n., 
and long. 81° 16' e. 

Parseoni. — Town in Ramtek iaiisil, Nagpur District, Central 
Provinces; situated in lat. 21° 22' n., and long. 79° n' e., 18 miles 
from Nagpur town. Population (1881) 4039, namely, Hindus, 3688; 
Muhammadans, 223; Jains, 100; and non-Hindu aborigines, 28. 
Manufactures, coarse cloth and pottery. The weekly market supplies 
the hill tracts of Bheogarh. The town contains tvro fine temples ; and 
pan (betel-leaf) is largely cultivated in the neighbourhood. 

Parshadepur. — Prt-r^^/M in Salon tahsil, Rai Bareli District, 
Oudh; situated north of the Sai river. Area, 54 square miles, of 
which 28 are under cultivation. Population (1881) 32,026, namely, 
29,766 Hindus and 2260 Musalmans. Of the 60 villages comprising 
Xht pargajid, 8 are held under zaminddri, 24 under td/ukddri, and 28 
under pattiddri tenure. The tract originally formed part of the jdgir 


estate of the Bahu Begam, and was constituted a separate pargand 
in 1783. 

Parshadepur (or Auhora Rdvipur). — Village in Salon taJisil, Rai 
Bareli District, Oudh, and head-quarters of Parshadepur pai-gaiid ; 
situated 20 miles from Rai Bareli town, and i mile north of the 
Sai river. Population (1881) 1232, namely, 1036 Hindus and 136 
Muhammadans. Five Hindu temples and 9 Muhammadan mosques. 
Market. Vernacular school. 

Partabg'anj. — Pai-gaud in Nawabganj tahsU, Bara Banki District, 
Oudh ; bounded on the north by Fatehpur ialisU^ on the east by Ram 
Sanehi Ghat tahsil, on the south by '^■^\x')}^\ pargand, and on the west 
by Nawabganj pai'gand. Area, 56 square miles, or 35,751 acres, of 
which 24,288 acres are under cultivation. Population (1881) 33,448, 
namely, Hindus, 27,416; Muhammadans, 6031 ; and 'others,' i. The 
54 villages comprising the pargaiid are held under the following 
tenures : — Tdhikddri, 26; zaminddi'i, 15 ; 2iX\d pattiddri, 13. Intersected 
by the metalled road to Faizabad (Fyzabad). Five schools, two police 
posts, and a post-office. Government land revenue, ^6422, or at the 
rate of 5s. 2M. per acre. 

Partabgarh {Pratdpgarh). — British District in the Rai Bareli Divi- 
sion of Oudh, under the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant-Governor of the 
North-Western Provinces ; situated between 25° 34' and 26° 10' 30" 
N. lat., and between 81° 22' and 82° 29' 45" e. long. Bounded on the 
north by Rai Bareli and Sultanpur Districts, and on the east, south, 
and west by Jaunpur and x\llahabad Districts of the North-Western 
Provinces. The Ganges, flowing from south-west to south-east, forms 
the western boundary line, while the Giimti at the opposite extremity 
marks the eastern boundary for a few miles. The District has recently 
undergone considerable diminution of area, by the transfer in 1869 
of Salon and Parshadepur paj-gands to Rai Bareli. Prior to these 
changes, Partabgarh District contained an area of 1733 square miles. 
Present area, 1436 square miles. Population (1881) 847,047. The 
administrative head -quarters are at Bela, 4 miles from Partabgarh 

Physical Aspects. — The general aspect of Partabgarh is that of a richly 
wooded and fertile plain, here and there relieved by gentle undulations, 
and in the vicinity of the rivers and streams broken into ravines. The 
southern portion of the District in the neighbourhood of the Ganges 
is perhaps more densely wooded than other parts. Barren tracts of 
uncultivable land, impregnated wnth saline efflorescence {reh)^ are met 
with in places, but do not extend over any considerable area. For 
the most part, Partabgarh is under rich and varied cultivation, 
dotted with neatly built villages and hamlets, which are surrounded 
by fine groves of mango, inaJmd^ or other trees. The soil is light, but 


at the same time very fertile. The prevaiHng kind is that known as 
douidt^ a mixture of clay and sand in about equal parts. Where the 
sand largely preponderates, the donidt degenerates into poor, sterile 
bhur^ found especially in the uplands near the Ganges, Sai and Giimti. 
The stiff and rich loamy soil styled viatiar occurs chiefly in the vicinity 
of large swamps ox jhils. 

The one important river of Partabgarh, properly speaking, is the 
Sai, as the Ganges and Giimti nowhere enter the District, but only 
impinge on its western and eastern boundary respectively. The Sai 
rises in Hardoi, and after crossing Rai Bareli District flows through 
Partabgarh in an exceedingly tortuous south-easterly course, and finally 
falls into the Giimti in Jaunpur District, This river runs chiefly 
between high banks at a considerable depth below the level of the 
surrounding country. It is navigable during the rains, when it 
swells into a considerable stream ; but in the hot season it runs 
nearly dry. It receives several tributary rivulets, both on its north 
and south bank ; and in general the line of drainage is towards this 
river. There are many natural lakes or jhils which in the rains 
measure several miles in circumference. They average about 3 feet 
in depth, but are practically of no use for navigation. 

The only mineral products are salt, saltpetre, and kankar or nodular 
limestone. The manufacture of salt and saltpetre from the saliferous 
tracts is prohibited by Government. 

Tigers and leopards are hardly ever met with in Partabgarh ; but 
wolves still abound in the ravines and grass lands, and frequently commit 
depredations on the flocks of the shepherds. A reward is paid for 
their destruction, and their numbers are yearly diminishing. Nilgai^ 
wild cattle, hog, and monkeys do much damage to the crops. Snakes 
are not numerous. Small game, such as hares, pea-fowl, partridges, 
snipe, quail, geese, and ducks, abound. 

Population. — The population of Partabgarh District, as at present 
constituted, after the transfer of parga?tds Salon and Parshadepur to 
Rai Bareli District, is returned in the Oudh Census Report for 1869 
at 782,681 persons, residing in 2209 villages or towns and 156,250 
houses. The Census of 1881 disclosed a population of 847,047, 
showing an increase of population in the twelve years from 1869 to 
1 88 1 of 64,366, or 8*2 per cent. The results arrived at by the Census 
of 1 88 1 may be summarized as follows : — Area of District, 1436 "5 
square miles, with 2214 towns and villages, and 194,308 houses. 
Total population, 847,047, namely, males 420,730, and females 426,317. 
Density of population, 589 persons per square mile; villages per square 
mile, i"54; persons per village, 382; houses per square mile, 135; 
persons per house, 4*3. Classified according to sex and age, the popu- 
lation consists of — under 15 years of age, boys 168,380, and girls 


152,876; total children, 321,256, or 37-9 per cent, of the population: 
15 years of age and upwards, males 252,350, and females 273,441; 
total adults, 525,791, or 62-1 per cent. 

Religion. — Classified according to religion, the population consists of 
— Hindus, 763,054, or 90-1 per cent. ; Muhammadans, 83,944, or 9-9 
per cent.; Christians, 48; and Parsi, i. Of the Hindu population, 
about 70 per cent, are cultivators, which proportion is pretty evenly 
maintained throughout the District. The higher castes, including 
Brahmans (119,096), Rajputs (57,628), Vaisyas (20,797), and Kayasths 
(91 13), form nearly a fourth of the total population. The Brahmans 
are the most numerous caste in the District. In the Manikpur and 
Bihar pargafids there are a great many families of spurious Brah- 
mans, whose ancestors belonged to the lower castes of Hindus, and 
w^ere invested with the sacred thread by Raja Manik Chand, a brother 
of Jai Chand, the last Hindu king of Kanauj. Of the lower castes, 
Ahirs (104,897), Kurmis (93,518), Chamars (87,803), Basis (51,569), 
Gadarias (37,091), and Kachhis (31,577) predominate. The Kurmis 
and Kachhis, who are the best cultivating castes, are almost to a 
man agriculturists ; and in regard to the number of the former, Partab- 
garh ranks third among the Oudh Districts. The majority of the Ahirs, 
Chamars, Basis, and Gadarias are also cultivators. There are more 
Lobars or blacksmiths (15,845) in Bartabgarh than in any other District 
in Oudh, but comparatively few are engaged in agricultural pursuits. 
Lonias are also a numerous (12,109) caste. They are salt-makers by 
hereditary profession ; now that their normal occupation has gone, they 
have been forced to seek new employment, and are almost exclusively 
cultivators. The other important Hindu castes include the following — 
Telis, oil-sellers, 14,682; Nais, barbers, 12,474; Kalwars, spirit-sellers 
and distillers, 11,030; Kahars, palanquin-bearers and domestic servants, 
10,981; Kumbhars, potters, 10,513; Bhurjis, grain parchers, 9105; 
Dhobis, washermen, 8264; Bhats, genealogists, 5610; Mallahs, boat- 
men, 5102; and Tamulis, betel-growers, 5100. 

The Muhammadans, who number 83,994, are chiefly found in Manik- 
pur, Bartabgarh, and W\\\ir pa7-ga?ids, and are fewest in Dhingwas and 
Rampur pargands ; they are nearly evenly divided between agricultural 
and non-agricultural, the former class slightly preponderating. The 
most respected classes are Shaikhs and Bathans. The Muhammadan 
converts or descendants of converts from higher castes of Hindus 
number only 225. The lower classes, who for the most part pursue 
some distinctive trade, include the Julaha or weaver, the Dhunia or 
cotton-corder, the Darzi or tailor and tent-maker, the Manihar or lac- 
bangle maker, and the Kunjra or fruiterer. 

Tow?i and Rural Population ; Occupations. — The population of 
Bartabgarh District is entirely rural, the only place with a population 


exceeding 5000 being the civil station of Bela or MacAndrewganj, as 
it is also called after a former District officer (jjopulation in 1881, 
5S51), which is also the sole municipality. Of the 2214 towns and 
villages comprising the District, 867 contain less than five hundred 
inhabitants ; 845 from two hundred to five hundred ; 369 from five 
hundred to a thousand; 113 from one to two thousand; 16 from two 
to three thousand ; 3 from three to five thousand ; and i upwards of 
five thousand. As regards occupation, the Census divides the male 
population into the following six classes: — (i) Professional class, in- 
cluding Government servants of all grades, 3205; (2) domestic servants, 
332 ; (3) commercial class, including merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 
2102 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 203,978 ; 
(5) industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 34,265; 
and (6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising general labourers 
and male children, 176,858. 

Agriculture. — There are two principal harvests in the year, the rahi 
or spring crop and the kharif or autumn crop, the latter being sub- 
divided into three minor harvests, known as bhadoi, kudri, and aghdni^ 
after the months in which the several crops ripen. The principal grain 
crop is barley, which yields an average out-turn of about 16 maunds, 
or ii| cwts. per acre. Wheat, both the white and red variety, is 
largely grown in Partabgarh. It requires abundant irrigation, and the 
fields are flooded at least three times during the cold season. The 
average out-turn of wheat from all kinds of land throughout the District 
is set down at 197 1 bushels per acre. Four varieties of rice are 
cultivated, known 2j;>kudi'i dhdn, jethi dhdn, sdthi dJubi, 2in6.jarhafi dJuhi. 
The principal rice growing localties are the low-lying lands in Patti 
tahsil, and the neighbourhood of the large jhils and swamps in Kiinda 
tahsil. The yield of the different sorts of rice varies a good deal, from 
9 or 10 niaunds, or from 6 J to 7 J cwts. per acre for sdthi rice, to double 
that out-turn for jethi rice. The other food crops are gram, peas, 
arhar, jodr, and bdjra, the three first being most largely cultivated. 
Sugar-cane cultivation has been rapidly extending of late years, and yields 
a greater profit than is obtained from grain crops. Poppy is cultivated 
under the superintendence of the Opium Department. Miscellaneous 
crops include tobacco of excellent quality, indigo, fibres, pan., etc. 

By far the greater portion of the cultivated area is do-fasli 
or two-crop land. The kharif crop is no sooner off the ground 
than preparations are at once made for sowing the rabi. A heavy 
khar'if Qxo^, \\V^ jodr or bdjra, is followed by a light spring crop, such 
as peas or barley. This is repeated a second year ; in the third 
year no autumn crop is sown, but the land is well w^orked up, 
and prepared for wheat or sugar-cane. The number of ploughings 
the land requires for different crops varies very much. For instance, 


wheat is held to require, on an average, i8 or 20 ploughings; tobacco, 
sugar-cane, peas, and barley, 15 or 16 ploughings; poppy, 12 
ploughings ; cotton, 8 ; and so on. Three or four ploughings are 
sufficient for the autumn crop. Irrigation is extensively carried on, 
and manure is made use of wherever procurable. Rents have steadily 
increased since the introduction of British rule, and still have a 
tendency to rise. The average rate for all varieties of land, over 
an area of 100 villages, was found in 1868 to be 3s. ijd. per local 
bighd, equal to |ths of an English acre. Rents in kind largely pre- 
vailed prior to annexation, and were chiefly, if not entirely, levied on 
poor and un irrigated lands, where the produce was more or less pre- 
carious, in the proportion of one-half. Now, however, they have been 
almost everywhere commuted into money rents. Skilled labourers 
have much improved in circumstances of late years ; but this has not 
been the case with the agricultural classes, who are paid in kmd at 
about the same rates that prevailed under native rule. The average 
daily payment for out-door agricultural labour is 3 lbs. of grain for a 
man, and 2\ lbs for women or children. The District is mostly held 
under tdlukddri tenure, there being 1702 tdliikddri villages, against 512 
held either as zaviinddii, pattiddri, or bhdydchdra. 

Means of Communication, ^/r.— Partabgarh District is now well opened 
up by roads. Exclusive of 22^ miles of the imperial road connectmg 
the military stations of Faizabad (Fyzabad) and Allahabad, which 
passes through Bel£, the civil station, there are 342 miles of good 
second-class roads. These have been entirely bridged, save at four 
points, where the Sai, Sakrui, Pareya, and Bhaklahi respectively would 
require large and solid masonry bridges to withstand the force of the 
current in the rains. The four principal lines of country road are the 
following:— (i) From Bela to Rai Bareli town, running 44 miles 
through Partabgarh District; (2) from Bela to Guthni Ghat on the 
Ganges, 39 miles ; (3) from Bela to Patti, 15 J miles; (4) from Bela to 
Badshahpur in Jaunpur District, 21 miles, of which 20 miles lie within 
Partabgarh. Water communication is afforded by 64 miles of navigable 
rivers. No line of railway runs through the District. Four large ferries 
are maintained on the Ganges, and two on the Giimti. Ferries for foot- 
passengers across the Sai are kept up by the zaminddrs in the rainy 
months, the stream being easily fordable at most places during eight 
months of the year. Wheeled carriage is scarce and difficult to procure. 
Great reluctance is everywhere manifested by the owners to hiring out 
their carts ; and when it is known that troops are on the move, and 
that carriage will be impressed, the carts are frequently taken to pieces 
and concealed in houses, the bullocks at the same time being sent 
to a neighbouring village. Bullocks, buffaloes, and ponies afford the 
ordinary means of transport. 


Track and Covunerce, Manufactures^ etc. — Partabgarh is a great grain- 
exporting District. Tobacco, sugar, molasses, opium, oil, ghi, cattle, 
sheep, hides, and horns also form important articles of export. The 
imports consist mainly of salt, cotton, metals and hardware, country 
cloth, and dyes. English stuffs and piece-goods are also becoming 
every year more common in the local bazars. The exports of grain in 
1872 were reported at 349,000 inaiifids., value ;j^79,ooo, the other 
items making up the total value of exports to ;£97,7oo. The imports 
in 1872 were valued at ;^40,8oo, cotton and salt forming the principal 
items. In 1873, ^^^ exports amounted in value to ;2^io5,562, of 
which ^£^65,517 was returned as the value of 305,671 mauuds of grain; 
the imports in the same year amounted in value to ;£'4o,569. Trade 
returns are not available for later years. The principal market towns 
and villages are the following: — (i) Lalganj, 4 miles south of Bihar on 
the Allahabad road ; a numerously attended bi-weekly market, with 
trade in cattle, English piece-goods, and country fabrics ; annual value 
of sales, about ^30,000 : (2) Derwa bazar in Sabalgarh, a grain mart 
twice a week; annual sales, about ;£"i5,ooo: (3) Jalesarganj in Dharu- 
pur village ; trade in EngHsh and country cloth, sweetmeats, grain, 
matting, etc. ; annual value, ;^i 0,000 : (4) Mac Andre wganj, the bazar 
of the civil station, a thriving and rapidly increasing mart ; trade in 
grain and cloth to the extent of ^^6000. Other markets are Kalakankar, 
Gadwara, Prithwiganj, and Nawabganj Bawan Burji. Several local fairs 
are held on occasions of religious festivals, at which trade is also carried 
on. Sugar of excellent quality is manufactured at Partabgarh town. 
Glass beads, bracelets, water-bottles, etc. are made at Sawansa and a 
few other places in Patti talisil. The only other manufacture is that of 
woollen blankets woven by shepherds from the fleece of their flocks, 
which are bought up by petty traders from the North - Western 

Adminisiratioi7. — Partabgarh is administered by a Deputy Com- 
missioner, aided by 5 or 6 Assistant and extra-Assistant Commissioners, 
and 4 tahsilddrs. The total revenue, imperial and local, of the District 
in 1871-72 was ;£"iii,iio, of which the land-tax contributed ^86,261. 
The expenditure in the same year amounted to ;2^24,49o. By 1883-84 
the total revenue of Partabgarh District had risen to ;£^i75'735j 
of which ^98,219 was derived from the land-tax. The District 
contains 10 civil and revenue, and 11 magisterial courts. Eor the 
protection of person and property there is a regular District and 
municipal police of a total strength of 402 men; maintained, in 1883, 
at a total cost of ^4355, of which ^4206 was paid from provincial 
revenues, and ^149 from other sources. There is also a village watch or 
rural police, numbering 2557 in 1883, and maintained by the land- 
holders and villagers at an estimated cost of ;z^2 765. Total police 


force 2959, or one policeman to every "48 square mile of District area, 
or one to every 286 of the population. Total estimated cost, ^^7120, 
or ;£"4, 19s. id. for every square mile of area, or 2^d. per head of the 
population. The average number of prisoners in jail in 1883 was 192, 
of whom 16 were females. Education is afforded by a high school at 
the civil station, and 89 other inspected schools in the District, attended 
on March 31, 1884, by 3604 pupils. The Census Report of 1881 
returned 3069 boys and 47 girls as under instruction; besides 14,443 
males and 2 1 5 females able to read and write, but not under instruc- 
tion. There is a charitable dispensary at the head-quarters town. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate is healthy, with a mean range of 
temperature of 30° F. The average rainfall for the 14 years ending 
1881 was 38-5 inches, the fall in the latter year being 40-3 inches. No 
thermometrical returns are available. Of endemic diseases, intermittent 
fever, skin affections, and ophthalmia are the most common. In the 
cold season of 1868-69, the District suffered from an epidemic of small- 
pox, immediately followed by a severe and general outbreak of cholera. 
These epidemics were rendered more virulent by the distress which 
resulted from the total failure of the autumn harvest of 1868 and the 
partial failure of the spring crops of 1869. The vital statistics for 1883 
show a total of 22,578 registered deaths in that year, equal to a rate of 
26-65 P^^ thousand. The average death-rate for the previous five years 
was 29-31 per thousand. Fevers are the great cause of mortality, and in 
1883 deaths from these diseases amounted to 21-82 per thousand, that 
from all other causes being only returned at 4*83 per thousand. Inter- 
mittent fever is most prevalent at the close of the rainy season, and 
generally disappears with the cool weather and westerly winds of 
November. Though primarily caused by local malaria, this disease is 
intensified by exposure alternately to cold, damp, and the hot sun, and 
by the poorer classes being unable to obtain sufficiently nourishing food. 
[For further information regarding Partabgarh, see the Gazetteer of the 
Province of Ondh, published by authority (Government Press, xA.llahabad, 
1877), vol. ii. pp. 65-148. Also the Settlement Report of Partabgarh 
District, by Captain W. E. Forbes (Lucknow, 1877) ; \he North- Western 
Provinces and Oudh Census Report for 1881 ; and the several Adminis- 
tration and Departmental Reports.] 

Partabgarh {Pratdpgarh). — Tahsil or Sub-division of Partabgarh 
District, Oudh, lying between 25° 42' 30" and 26° 10' 30" n. lat., and 
between 81° 33' 15" and 82° 6' e. long. Bounded on the north by 
Sultanpur and Kadipur tahsils, on the east and south by Jaunpur 
and Allahabad Districts of the North-Western Provinces, and on the 
west by Patti tahsil. This tahsil comprises the two parga?ids of 
Partabgarh and Ateha. Area, 434 square miles, of which 233 were 
cultivated at the time "-of the revenue survey of the District. 


Population (1869) 264,630; (1S81) 280,685, namely, males 138,003, 
and females 142,682, showing an increase of population in thirteen 
years of 16,055, or 6*07 per cent. Classified according to religion, 
there were in 1881— Hindus, 250,315; Muhammadans, 30,326; and 
'others,' 44. Of the 702 villages comprising the tahsil, 537 con- 
tain less than five hundred inhabitants; 120 from five hundred to 
a thousand ; 44 from one to five thousand ; and i upwards of five 
thousand inhabitants. Total Government revenue at the time of 
survey, ^32,246 ; estimated rental paid by cultivators, £(iAA^'^- I^ 
1S83, Partabgarh iahsil contained 2 civil and 6 magisterial courts, 
including District head-quarters ; number of police circles {thdnds\ 2 ; 
strength of regular police, 56 men ; rural police {chaukidd7's), 660. 

Partabgarh {Pratdpgarh).—Pargand in Partabgarh District, Oudh ; 
situated in the south-east of the District, and extending for many 
miles along both sides of the river Sai. Area, 355 square miles, of which 
192 were under cultivation at the time of survey. Population (1881) 
235,533, of whom 208,041 are returned as Hindus and 27,492 as 
Muhammadans. Government land revenue, ^26,445. Of the 634 
villages comprising the pargand, 508 are held by Sombansi Rajputs, 
w^ho form the dominant caste among the population. 

Partabgarh {Pratdpgarh).—To\Nri in Partabgarh District, Oudh; 
situated on the metalled road to Allahabad, 4 i^ii^es from Bela, the 
civil head-quarters of the District, 36 miles from iVUahabad, and 24 from 
Sultanpur, in lat. 25° 53' 25" N., and long. 81° 59' 10" £. Founded in 
1 61 7-1 8 by Raja Partab Singh, who named it after himself. The fort 
built by the Raja is still extant. It was seized by the native Govern- 
ment about ninety years ago, but after annexation was sold to Raja 
Ajit Singh, a relative of the ancient owner. It was of considerable size, 
but its outer walls and flanking works were destroyed after the Mutmy ; 
an inner keep and little walled garden still remain. Population (1881) 
5851, namely, Hindus, 3870; Muhammadans, 1944; Christians, 36 ; 
'other,' I. Municipal income (1883-84), ^592, of which ^368 was 
derived from taxation; average incidence of taxation, is. 3d. per head. 
Six mosques and four Hindu temples. Sugar of good quality is 
manufactured here. Government high school and normal school. 

Partabgarh {Pratdpgarh).—^?X\\^ State in Rajputana under the 
political superintendence of the Mewar Agency; lying between 23° 
17' and 24° 18' N. lat., and between 74° 31' and 75° 3' e. long. 
Bounded on the north-west and north by Mewar (Udaipur) ; on the 
north-east and east by Sindhia's Districts of Nimach and Mandisor, and 
the States of Jaora, Piploda, and Radam ; and on the south-west by 
Banswara. Its extreme length from north to south is 67 miles, and 
extreme breadth from east to west 33 miles, with a total area of 
about 1460 square miles, and a population, as ascertained by the 


Census of iSSi, of 79,568. Of the total population, 75^050 ^^'^re 
returned as Hindus, 4243 as Muhammadans, 270 Bhils, i Christian, 
and 4 'others.' Classified according to sex, the males numbered 
41,118, the females 38,180. The sex of the Bhils were not deter- 
mined. The State contains i town and 568 villages. Number of 
houses, 18,622 ; number of persons per square mile, 54'49- The 
total revenue is about ;^6o,ooo, of which about ^25,000 is enjoyed 
by feudatories, and ^5688 is paid as tribute to the British Government 
and accounted for by it to Holkar. 

The country is mostly open except in the north-west, which portion 
is wild and hilly, and inhabited almost entirely by Bhils. Here the hills 
attain an elevation of 1900 feet. To the south of Deolia is an old fortified 
hill called Junagarh, with a small tank and well at the summit. Little 
is known about the geology of Partabgarh, nor have any minerals been 
found in the State, but good stone quarries are said to have been 
formerly worked at Dakor, near Deolia. The climate is generally good 
and the temperature moderate ; the average rainfall is about 32 inches. 
The State possesses no particular forest tracts nor rivers of any import- 
ance. There are a few good - sized tanks, of which one at Raipur, 
called Sarpatta, is the largest. Water is generally found within 40 or 50 
feet of the surface. Grain, opium, and country cloth are the principal 
articles of trade. No made roads exist in the State, but the country 
roads — to Nimach, 32 miles to the north; Mandesar, 19 miles to the 
east ; and Jaora, 35 miles to the south-east through the open country — 
are fair of their kind. A cart-road to Banswara, through the Kangarh 
ghdt^ or pass, has been opened out. 

The Maharawal of Partabgarh is a Sesodia Rajput, descended from 
a junior branch of the Udaipur house. From the time of the estab- 
lishment of the Maraiha power in Malwa, the Chief of Partabgarh 
had paid tribute to Holkar. In 181S, Partabgarh was taken under 
the protection of the British Government. Under the 4th article 
of the Treaty of Mandesar, the British Government acquired a right 
to the tribute levied by Holkar from Partabgarh ; but, in considera- 
tion of the political influence lost by Holkar under that treaty, it was 
resolved to account to him annually for the amount of the tribute, 
which is therefore paid over from the British treasury. The late chief, 
Dalpat Singh, who succeeded in 1844, was grandson of the former 
chief of Partabgarh, and had inherited the State of Dungarpur on the 
deposition of Jaswant Singh, by whom he had been adopted. On his 
succession to Partabgarh he relinquished Diingarpur. He died in 1864, 
and was succeeded by his son, Udai Singh, the present Maharawal, 
who was born about 1839. The chief of Partabgarh receives a salute 
of 15 guns. There are fifty Jdgirddrs, large and small, in the State, 
possessing altogether 116 villages, with an aggregate annual income of 


about ;£"24,66o, paying a tribute of ^3230 to the Darbar. The 
administration of the State is carried on almost entirely under the 
personal supervision and direction of the chief, who has the power of 
life and death over his own subjects. The military force consists of 
12 guns, 40 gunners, 275 cavalry, and 950 infantry. 

Partabgarh. — Chief town of Partabgarh State, Rajputana. Lat. 
24° 22' 30" N., long. 74° 52' 15" E. Population (1881) 12,755, namely, 
6556 males and 6199 females. Hindus number 10,329; Muhamma- 
dans, 2421; and 'others,' 5. The town, situated at a height of 1660 
feet above sea-level, was founded by Maharawal Partab Singh at the 
commencement of the i8th century, on a spot at the crest of a gorge, 
formerly known as Dhoderia-Khera. It lies rather in a hollow, and is 
defended by a loopholed wall with 8 gates built by Salam Singh, when 
he ascended the throne in 1758. On the south-west is a small fort 
in which the Maharawal's family reside. The palace stands in the 
centre of the town ; it is not of any size, and is generally un- 
occupied, the present chief having built a new residence about a 
mile to the east of the town. There are three temples to Vishnu 
in the town, and three to Siva outside ; also 4 Jain temples. Par- 
tabgarh is celebrated for its enamelled work of gold inlaid on 
emerald-coloured glass, and carved to represent hunting and mytho- 
logical scenes. The art of making this jewellery, for which there is a 
considerable demand, is now confined to two families, the secret being 
zealously guarded. 

The old capital of the State, Deolia, now almost deserted, lies 
7^ miles due west of Partabgarh. Dispensary, school, post-office, and 

Partabgarh (Pratdfgar/i). — x\ncient fortress in the Jaoli fdhik of 
Satara District, Bombay Presidency. Situated in lat. 17° 56' x., and 
long. 73° 38' 30" E., 8 miles south-west of Mahabaleshwar, on a 
summit of the Western Ghats commanding the Par Ghat, and 
dividing one of the sources of the Savitri from the Koina, an affluent 
of the Kistna. The fort, 3543 feet above sea-level, looks from a 
distance like a round -topped hill, the walls of the lower fort forming 
a sort of band or crown round the brow. The western and northern 
sides of the fort are gigantic cliffs with an almost vertical drop in 
many places of seven or eight hundred feet. The towers and bastions 
on the south and east are often 30 to 40 feet high, while there is in 
most places a scarp of naked black rock not much lower. 

In 1656, Sivaji, the founder of the Marathd power, selected this 
almost impregnable position as one of his principal forts. Partdbgarh 
was the scene of his treacherous murder of the Muhammadan general, 
Afzul Khan, who had been sent against him by the King of Bijapur. 
In 1659, Sivaji decoyed Afzul Khan to a personal interview by 


a pretended submission, the two leaders being each attended by a 
single armed follower. Sivaji stabbed the INlusalman general, and 
gave the signal to his ambushed army to attack the Muhammadan 
troops, who, bewildered by the loss of their chief, were utterly 
routed. For an interesting account of the murder of Afzul Khan, 
and the defeat of the Muhammadan army, the reader is referred to 
Grant Duffs History of the Mardthds, vol. i. pp. 124-126 (Bombay, 
1863). In the Maratha war of 1818, Partabgarh was surrendered 
to the British by private negotiation, though it was an important 
stronghold and was held by a large garrison. 

Panir. — Town in Vomdachalam taluk, South Arcot District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 12° 24' 20" n., long. 79° 33' e. Population 
(1881) 4593, residing in 635 houses. Hindus number 4449; 
Muhammadans, 28; and Christians, 116. Interesting on account 
of the fossil beds of the ' Upper Green Sand and Gault ' formation 
found here, which are described in vol. iv. part i of the Records of the 
Geological Department. 

Pariir. — Town in Paravur Sub-division, Travancore State, Madras 
Presidency. — See Paravur. 

Parvatipur. — Town in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency; 
situated in lat. 18° 47' n., and long. 83° 28' 10" e. Head-quarters of 
the senior Assistant Agent, with magistrate's court, police and post 
offices. A centre of trade between the hills and the plains, being at 
the junction of three roads from Palkonda, Jaipur, and Vizianagaram. 
Population (1881) 9933, namely, 4766 males and 5167 females, 
dwelling in 1976 houses. Hindus number 9783, and Muhammadans 
150. Parvatipur is the centre of the Belgam zamuiddri. 

Parvatipur. — Agency tract in Vizagapatam District, Madras 
Presidency. Population (1881) 37,552, namely, 19,655 males and 
17,897 females; all but 43 were Hindus. Number of houses, 8827, 
and of villages, 260. 

Parwan. — River of Bhagalpur District, Bengal; rising in the south- 
east corner of Naridgar pargajid, not far from the source of the Dhasan. 
The two streams pursue different courses, about 2 J or 3 miles apart, 
until their waters mingle at Singheswarsthan, where there is a temple 
built to Siva Mahadeo. This spot is considered very holy ; and several 
thousand Hindus resort to the shrine in February to pay their devotions, 
bringing with them small quantities of Ganges water, which they throw 
over the image of the god. At this place the Dhasan loses its own name ; 
and the mingled waters, under the name of the Parwan, flow on towards 
the south. The river, after a tortuous course of nearly 30 miles, forms 
the Sahsal swamp, the outlet from which assumes the name of the 
Katna, and flows into pargand Pharkiya, a mile and a quarter below 
the triple junction of that pargand with Chhai and Nisankpur Kiira. 



The Paruan is navigable for boats of 50 viaunds (less than 2 tons) 
burthen up to the village of Mdnpur, a few miles south-east of the 
Sub-divisional head-quarters of Madahpiira. In their upper courses the 
Parwan and Dhasan are dry during the hot months, and are only 
navigable during the rainy season. Below their point of junction, the 
Parwan is navigable by small boats all the year round. 

Pasgawan.— /'-srr^^wi in Nighasan iahsil, Kheri District, Oudh ; 
bounded on the north by Aluhamdi pan::;and^ on the east by the Giimti 
river, on the south by Hardoi District, and on the west by Shahjahanpur 
District, from which it is separated by the Sukheta river. Area, r2i 
square miles, of which 58 are cultivated. Population (1881) 49,775, 
ofwhom 42,099 are Hindus, 7378 Muhammadans, and 298 'others.' No 
towns or important bdzdi'S. Land revenue, ;^6o8o. The present/^r^'d;«i 
was formed as recently as 1869, by the amalgamation of the two older 
pargands^ Pasgawan and Barwar. After the breaking up of the great 
Barwar estate, the land settlement was made with small independent 
zaniinddrs ; and of the 163 villages comprising the pargand, 142 are held 
by small proprietors under za?ninddn tenure, while 21 are tdlukddri. 

Pa -shin. — River in Henzada District, Pegu Division, Lower 
Burma. — See Pa-ta-shin. 

Pasriir. — Central tahsil of Sialkot District, Punjab, lying between 
32° 6' 15" and 32° 20' 30" n. lat., and between 74° 28' 45" and 74° 46' 
45" E. long. Area, 543 square miles, with 575 towns and villages, 
26,732 houses, and 67,717 families. Population (1881) 251,928, 
namely, males 134,180, and females 117,748. Classified accord- 
ing to religion — Muhammadans number 181,161, or 71*9 per cent. • 
Hindus, 57,886, or 22-9 per cent.; Sikhs, 12,547, or 4-9 per cent.; 
Jains, 406; and Christians, 18. Density of population, 464 persons 
per square mile. Of the 575 towns and villages, 437 contain less than 
five hundred inhabitants ; 93 from five hundred to a thousand ; 34 
from one to two thousand; 10 from two thousand to five thousand; 
and I upwards of five thousand inhabitants. The average cultivated 
area for the five years 1877-78 to 1881-82 is returned at 349 square 
miles, or 223,386 acres; the area under the principal crops being — 
wheat, 108,055 acres; barley, 35,754 acres; rice, 11,656 acres; Indian 
corn, 11,496 acres ;7Wr, 6503 acres; gram, 4505 acres; other food- 
grains, 1520 acres. Of non-food crops, sugar-cane occupied 10,207 
acres; cotton, 11,947 acres; and vegetables, 2247 acres. Revenue of 
the tahsil, ^'20,229. The administrative staff consists of i tahsilddr, 
I munsif, and 2 honorary magistrates, presiding over 4 civil and 3 
criminal courts. Number of police circles {t/idnds), 3, namely, Pasriir, 
Satrah, and Kila Sobha Singh. Strength of regular police, 67 men; 
village watch or rural police {chaukiddrs), 471. 

Pasriir. — Decayed town in Sialkot District, Punjab, and head- 


quarters of Pasrdr tahsil ; situated in lat. 32° 16' n., long. 74° 42' 30" E., 
on the Amritsar road, about 18 miles south of Sialkot town. Pasriir 
was once a place of greater size than at present, and is said to have 
been founded by a Bajwa Jdt in the reign of the Emperor Babar. 
Traces of its former prosperity remain, including a tank constructed 
during the reign of Jahangir ; a canal to supply the town with water, 
built by Prince Dara Sheko, brother of Aurangzeb ; and a bridge 
erected by Shah Daula. Many handsome houses of Sikh gentlemen 
and other notabilities. The shrine of Miran Barkhurdar, a Muham- 
madan saint, is the scene of a religious gathering during the Muhari-am. 
Population (1881) 8378, namely, Muhammadans, 5954 ; Hindus, 1889 ; 
Jains, 375; Sikhs, 159; and Christian, i. Number of houses, 1309. 
Municipal income (1883-84), £,Z^^, or an average of io|d. per head 
of the population. Pasrur is a centre of local trade, consisting prin- 
cipally of grain, which it receives from neighbouring villages, and 
exports to different parts of the District. No manufactures. Besides 
the usual Sub -divisional courts, Pasrur contains a police station, 
post-office, dispensary, schools for boys and girls ; sardi or rest-house, 
zailghar or tavern for the use of head-men of villages ; and an encamp- 
ing ground. A large cattle fair is held at Koreke, a village about 6 
miles from Pasrur, at the shrine of a Muhammadan saint named Gulii 

Pata Cuddapah. — Suburb of Cuddapah Town, Cuddapah District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 14° 29' 45" n., long. 78° 53' 30" e. Popula- 
tion (1871) 6616, inhabiting 1822 houses; and (1881) 5364, inhabiting 
131 2 houses. Divided into 4 hamlets. Hindus number 5133 ; ]\Iuham- 
madans, 220; and Christians, 11. 

Patamari. — Village in Goalpara District, Assam, 9 miles south of 
Dhubri on the right bank of the Brahmaputra, with considerable 
exports of jute. Post-office ; large weekly market. 

Patan. — Parga?id in Purwa tahsil, Unao District, Oudh ; bounded 
on the north by Magrayar, Purwa, and V ^xnhixi pargands, on the east by 
Panhan and Bihar, on the south by Bhagwantnagar, and on the west 
by Magrayar parga7id. Area, 1 1 square miles, of which 4 are under 
cultivation. Population (1881) 5740, namely, 5543 Hindus and 197 
Muhammadans. The parga?id comprises 15 villages, of which 12 are held 
under idliikddri and 3 under zaminddri tenure. The chief proprietary 
body are Brahmans and Bais Rajputs among the higher, and Kurmis 
among the lower castes. 

Patan. — Town in Purwa tahsil, Unao District, Oudh, and head- 
quarters of Patan pargand ; situated on the banks of the small river 
Lon. Population (1881) 2238. Two annual fairs are held near the 
tomb of a famous Muhammadan saint, one of which, in December, is 
attended by as many as 300,000 persons. The holy man is supposed 



to exercise a beneficial influence over the insane ; and on the occasions 
of the festival these unfortunates are brought, sometimes to the number of 
hundreds, and tied up to trees opposite the tomb, where they are left 
all night. Village school. 

Patan. — Sub-division of Satara District, Bombay Presidency. 
Situated in the south-east corner of the District, Patan is hilly. The 
chief feature in the west is the south-running Koina valley with its lofty 
flanking hills. On the east the valleys of the Koina, Tarle, and Kole 
open into the plains of the Kistna. The soil of the eastern valleys 
is good, and yields both early and late crops, chiefly jodr (Sorghum 
vulgare) and ground nuts, and, when watered, sugar-cane. The rest 
of the soil is red, and except in the hollows where rice and sometimes 
sugar-cane are grown, is under nomadic cultivation. The Koina, the 
Tarle, and their feeders furnish abundance of water to the villages on 
and near their banks. Away from the rivers, both on the tops of the 
hills and in the valleys, especially during March, April, and May, 
water is scarce. The climate is cool and healthy in the hot weather, 
but the chilly damp of the rains makes it feverish. Area, 536 square 
miles, containing i town and 201 villages. Population (1872) 115,491 ; 
(1881) 112,414, namely, 57,235 males and 55,179 females, occupying 
14,869 houses. Hindus number 110,598; Muhammadans, 1626; 
and 'others,' 190. In 1882-83, the number of holdings, including 
alienated lands in Government villages, was 15,021, with an average 
area of 7*57 acres. In 1881-82, of 85,814 acres held for cultivation, 
38,464 acres were fallow or under grass. Of the remaining 47,350 
acres, 5498 were twice cropped. Grain crops occupied 43,154 acres; 
pulses, 7563 acres ; oil-seeds, 505 acres ; fibres, 97 acres ; and miscel- 
laneous crops, 1529 acres. In 1883 the Sub-division contained i civil 
and 3 criminal courts; i police circle {thdnd) ; regular police, 54 men; 
village watch {chaiikiddrs)^ 61. Land revenue, ;^24,954. 

Patan. — Head-quarters of Patan Sub-division, Satara District, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 17° 22' n., and long. 73° 38' e. Situated at 
the junction of the Koina and Kerla rivers, about 25 miles south-west of 
Satara town. Population (1881) 3548. The town consists of two parts, 
the upper part containing the Sub-divisional and post offices, school, 
market, and the mansion of the i?idmddr Nagojirao Patankar, a second 
class j-^r^^?V and honorary magistrate, with civil jurisdiction in his villages. 
The other part consists of a beautifully wooded suburb called Ramdpur 
on the left bank of the Koina. A specially fine grove of mango and 
jack trees lies at its south-east corner. A broad market street and a 
number of artisans' and traders' shops connect the two parts. 

Patan. — Sub-division of Baroda State (Gaekwar's territory), Gujarat. 
Area, 469 square miles. Population (1881) 120,830, namely, 61,914 
males and 58,916 females, dwelling in 138 towns and villages. Hindus 



number 105,896 ; Muhammadans, 9252 ; and Jains, 5682. The 
number of holdings was 13,771 in 1882, each holding having an average 
area of nine and one-fifth acres. The region is a fairly wooded plain, 
with the river Saras wati running through the centre. Rainfall, 20 inches. 
Land revenue, ;£4i)778. 

Pdtan (or A?ihilwdra Pattan). — Chief town of the Patau Sub- 
division, Baroda State, Gujarat; situated in lat. 23° 51' 30" n., and 
long. 72° 10' 30" E., on the small river Saraswati, a tributary of the 
Banas. In 187 1 the population was returned at 31,523; (1881) 32,712, 
namely, 15,540 males and 17,172 females, of whom about one-eighth 
are Jains, who have no fewer than 108 temples. There are also 
extensive Jain libraries in the city, consisting mostly of palm-leaf 
manuscripts, which are very jealously guarded. Many remains of 
considerable architectural beauty are still to be seen outside the city. 
Anhilwara Patau is one of the oldest and most renowned towns of 
Gujarat. It was the capital of successive dynasties of Rajput kings from 
746 to 1 194 A.D. ; and during the whole time of ]\Iusalman supremacy, 
it maintained a position of some importance. Swords and spears are 
manufactured in the town, and some pottery; and silk and cotton weav- 
ing is carried on. The modern town is mostly of Maratha construction, 
and is entirely surrounded by a wall of great thickness and considerable 
height. Post-office, hospital; Anglo-vernacular, Gujarathi, and Marathi 

Patan {Fattana, or Fatan SomndtJi). — Ancient historic town and 
shrine in the Sorath Division, Junagarh State, Kathiawar, Bombay 
Presidency. Lat. 22° 4' n., and long. 71° 26' e. Population (1881) 
6644. Hindus number 2985; Muhammadans, 3357; and Jains, 302. 


Patan {Keshordi Fdtan). — Next to the capital, the most important 
village of Biindi (Boondee) State, Rajputana ; situated in lat. 25° 17' x., 
and long. 75' 59' e., at a bend of the Chambal, 12 miles below Kotah, 
where the river, running in a north-easterly direction, suddenly turns 
almost at right angles, and, after a straight reach of 5 miles, turns back 
still more abruptly to its former direction. Population (1881) 3937. 

Keshorai Patan claims a very remote antiquity, local historians 
affecting to trace its traditions back to the mythological period of the 
Mdhdbhdrata. In the present aspect of the town, however, there is 
little that testifies to any great age. Two ancient inscriptions alone 
remain. One is in a sati temple on the Breham Ghat, which bears date 
Samvat 35. The other, in an adjoining temple, is dated Samvat 152. 
Long before these periods, however, and before the existence of any 
town at all, it is said that one Parasuram built a temple here sacred to 
Mahadeo, or Siva. This temple gradually fell into decay, but was rebuilt 
during the reign of Chattar Sal; to whom also is due the completion 



of the larger temple of Keshordi, for which the town of Patan is 
now famous. The foundations of this latter temple were laid during 
the reign of Chattar Sal's grandfather, Maharao Ratanji ; but he died 
before anything more than the supporting platform, which stands close 
to the river bank, had been constructed. On the accession of his 
grandson, the work was resumed, and the temple finished as it now 
stands. It contains an image of Keshorai, a name for Vishnu, and 
attracts yearly a large crowd of worshippers. The temple has an 
endowment of ^looo yearly from Biindi, and ^300 from Kotah. 
The managers and attendants are hereditary, counting now about 
300 persons, the descendants of one family. The temple itself, though 
large, does not possess any marked architectural beauties ; and it has 
been so incessantly covered with fresh coats of whitewash, that it 
now looks not unlike a huge piece of fretwork in wax or sugar, which 
heat or moisture had partially melted. 

Patan.— One of the chief towns of Nepal ; situated, approximately, 
m lat. 27° 38' N., and long. 85° 13' e., on rising ground, a short distance 
from the southern bank of the Baghmati, about 2 miles south-east of 
Khatmandu. Patan is thus described by Dr. Wright, formerly surgeon 
to the British Residency in Nepal : — 

' It is an older town than Khatmandu, having been built in the reign 
of Raja Bir Deva in the Kaligat year 3400 (299 a.d.). It is also 
known by the names of Yellondesi and Lalita Patan. The latter 
name is derived from Lalit, the founder of the city. Its general aspect 
is much the same as that of the capital. The streets are as narrow 
and dirty, the gutters as offensive, and the temples even more numerous ; 
but it appears much more dilapidated than Khatmandu, many of the 
houses and temples being in ruins. The main square, however, in 
the centre of the town, is very handsome. On one side is the old 
Darbar, with a fine brazen gateway, guardian lions, and endless carvings. 
In front of this are monoliths, with the usual figures on them, and 
behind these a row of handsome old temples of every description. The 
parade-ground lies to the south-east of the town, the road to it passing 
through a suburb abounding in pigs. The parade-ground is extensive, 
and there are several large tanks to the west, while on the southern side 
stands a huge Buddhist temple of the most primitive description. This 
temple is merely a mound or dome of brickwork, covered with earth. 
There is a small shrine at each of the cardinal points, and on the top 
what looks like a wooden ladder. Many similar mound-temples or 
chaityas exist in and around Patan. The population of the town is said 
to be about 30,000.' 

Patan is connected with Khatmandu by a bridged road. A brigade 
of regular troops is quartered to the south of the town. The people are 
mainly Buddhists, and comprise the superior artisan classes of Nepal. 


Pditan. — Tributary chiefsbip in Tourwati District of Jaipur State, 
Rajputana. This chiefship is interesting from the fact of its rulers 
being the direct Hneal descendants of a very ancient house, the Tuar 
kings of Delhi, who Avere expelled that place some eight centuries ago, 
on its capture by the Ghor dynasty. The family settled at Patan, and 
have since ruled there undisturbed. Population (1881) of the chief 
town, Patan, 11,886, namely, 6430 males and 5456 females. Hindus, 
11,365, and Muhammadans, 521. 

Patan. — Village in Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) iahsil, Jabalpur District, 
Central Provinces. Population (1881) 3171, namely, Hindus, 2532; 
Muhammadans, 383; Jains, 88; non-Hindu aborigines, 168. Small 
trade in grain. Government school and police outpost. 

Patana. — Village in Bhabua Sub-division, Shahabad District, Bengal, 
which, in the opinion of Dr. Buchanan-PIamilton, was once the residence 
of the chief ruler of the Suar or Sivira tribe. Sometimes called Sriram- 
pur, from a hamlet of that name which now occupies part of the ruins 
to the south-west of the village. In the immediate neighbourhood of 
Patana is a linga^ surrounded by a wall and some broken images, the 
largest of which represents Mahavira, or the warlike monkey. Many 
other remains are scattered about. 

Patan Saongi. — Town in Ramtek tahsil, Nagpur District, Central 
Provinces; situated in lat. 21° 19' 30" n., and long. 79° 4' k, on a 
fertile and elevated plain by the river Kolar, 14 miles from Nagpur city. 
Population (1881) 4810, namely, Hindus, 4485; Muhammadans, 258; 
Kabirpanthis, 21 ; Jains, 10 ; non-Hindu aborigines, 36. Chief products 
— cotton stufis and tobacco. In 1742, during the struggle between 
Wall Shah and the legitimate princes, 12,000 men were massacred by 
the victorious party in the now ruined fort. Up to the death of the late 
Raja, a troop of horse was stationed in the town ; and till lately it was 
the head-quarters of a iahsil. It has a good market-place and sai'di 
(native inn), with metalled roads and streets. 

Pa-ta-shin {Pa-shin). — River in Henzada District, Pegu Division, 
Lower Burma. It rises in the Arakan range, and at first is known as 
the San-da ; after an easterly course of about 40 miles, it falls into the 
Irawadi. The Pa-ta-shin drains an area of 100 square miles; its principal 
tributaries are the Pa-daw and the A-lun. It is navigable in the rains 
for a distance of 30 miles. 

Pataudi. — Native State under the political superintendence of the 
Governmeiit of the Punjab, lying between 28° 14' and 28° 22' n. lat., 
and between 76° 42' and 76° 52' 30" e. long. Area, 48 square miles, 
with 40 villages, 2537 houses, and 4136 families. Total popula- 
tion (1881), 17,847, namely, males 9510, and females 8337. Average 
density of the population, 372 persons per square mile. Classified 
according to religion, Hindus number 14,473; Muhammadans, 3286; 



Jains, 81 ; and Christians, 7. Estimated gross revenue of the State, 
^10,000 per annum. Principal products — grain, cotton, sugar, and 
spices. The Rajputdna State Railway from Delhi to Bandikui junction 
passes through the State about 40 miles south-west of Delhi. 

The i)resent Nawab of Pataudi, Muhammad Mumtaz Husain AH 
Khan, a Paliichi by race, was born in 1874. The State was formed by a 
grant from Lord Lake in 1806 of Pataudi in perpetual /^f^'/r to Faiztalab 
Khdn, brother of the Jhajjar Nawab. Faiztalab Khan was severely 
wounded in an action with Holkar's troops, and they^'^V was granted 
to him in recognition of his services. The estimated military force of 
the State, including police, is 94 men. 

Patera. — Large rent-free estate in Deori tahsi\ Sagar District, Central 
Provinces. — See Pitihra. 

Patera. — Village in Hatta tahsil, Damoh District, Central Provinces; 
situated 18 miles north of Damoh town. Population (1881) 2238, 
namely, Hindus, 1940; Muhammadans, 215; Jains, 67; Christians, 
4 ; and non-Hindu aborigines, 12. Trade in grain, and manufacture of 
brass-work. Good market. 

Patgram. — Estate in Jalpdiguri District, Bengal, comprising the 
police division of the same name. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton, in his 
MS. account of Rangpur, thus described it in 1809 : — ' It belongs to the 
Raja of Kuch Behar, and contains 68 mauzds^ or collections of villages. 
More than half the estate is let to large farmers, some of whom hold 
under leases called upanchaki, which are granted for a certain specified 
farm, and not according to a particular area ; their rent cannot be in- 
creased nor their lands measured. Thiuty jotddrs pay their rent directly 
to the Raja's collector ; the average rent paid by them is only 6|d. per 
Calcutta bighd. The people are very poor, shy, and indolent.' 

Pathankot. — North-eastern tahsil of Gurdaspur District, Punjab ; 
lying between 32° 5' 30" and 32° 23' 30" n. lat., and between 75° 22' 
and 75° 44' 15" E. long., and including a hill and plain portion. 
Area, 357 square miles, with 412 towns and villages, 20,775 houses, 
and 33,616 families. Total population (1881), 140,825, namely, 
males 78,060, and females 62,765 ; average density of population, 
394 persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, Hindus 
number 92,426, or 657 per cent.; Muhammadans, 46,630, or 33-1 per 
cent. ; Sikhs, 1475, o^ ^'o P^^ ctnt. ; and Christians, 294, of whom 279 
are Europeans or Eurasians. Of the 412 towns and villages, 327 con- 
tain less than five hundred inhabitants; 52 from five hundred to a 
thousand; 27 from one to two thousand; 5 from two to five thousand; 
and I upwards of five thousand inhabitants. The average cultivated 
area for the five years 1877-78 to 1881-82 is returned at 185 square 
miles, or 118,209 acres; the area under the principal crops being — rice, 
35,227 acres; wheat, 32,155 acres; sugar-cane, 7184 acres; y^£?>, 6938 


acres; gram, 6567 acres; barley, 6344 acres; tobacco, 2765 acres; 
Indian corn, 1755 acres; vioth^ 1461 acres; and vegetables, 1357 acres. 
Revenue of the tahsil, ;£^i9,875. The administrative staff consists of 

1 extra Assistant Commissioner, i tahstlddr, i miinsif, and i honorary 
magistrate exercising criminal powers only. These officers preside over 

2 civil and 2 criminal courts. Number of police circles {t/id?ids), 
6, namely, Pathankot, Shahpur, Dunera, Dalhousie, Parmanand, and 
Narot Number of regular police, no men; village watch or rural 
police (chaukiddrs), 302. 

Pathankot. — Town and municipality in Gurdaspur District, Punjab; 
situated in lat. 32° 16' 45" n., and long. 75° 42' e., near the head of 
the Bari Doab, and 23 miles north-east of Gurdaspur town, at the point 
where the trade route from the hills of Chamba, Niirpur, and Kangra 
unite and enter the plains. Pathankot is a flourishing town, increasing 
in commercial importance. The population, which in 1868 numbered 
2818, had increased to 4344 in 1881. Classified according to religion, 
there were in 1881 — Muhammadans, 2316 ; Hindus, 1991 ; Sikhs, 32 ; 
and Christians, 5. Number of houses, 852. Municipal income 
(1883-84), ^483, derived chiefly from octroi duties; average incidence 
of taxation, 2s. 2|d. per head, Pathankot is the terminus of the 
carriage road from Amritsar to Dalhousie and Kangra, the remaining 
distance lying through the hills, and being performed on horseback or 
by dhulL The town itself is a collection of brick-built houses, well 
drained, and with paved streets. It is the seat of a considerable 
shawMveaving industry. Besides the usual Sub-divisional courts, the 
town contains a police station, post-office, two bdzdrs, school-house, 
dispensary, municipal hall, ddk bungalow, sa?'di or native inn, and 
encamping ground. For an account of the antiquities of Pathankot, 
see General Cunningham's Reports of the Archaeological Stin^ey, vol. v. 
pp. 145-155, and vol. xiv. pp. 11 5-1 19, and 135, 136; also his Ancie?it 
Geography of India, pp. 143, 144. 

Pd,thardi. — Town in Ahmad nagar District, Bombay Presidency ; 
situated in lat. 19° 10' 25" n., and long. 75° 13' 31" e., about 30 miles 
east of Ahmadnagar town. Population (1881) 6734. Hindus number 
5968; Muhammadans, 603; Jains, 148; and 'others,' 15. The town 
lies picturesquely on the side of a steep hill which rises in the midst of 
a barren tract, skirted on the north and east by a range of hills which 
pass from Dongargaon into the Nizam's territory. Post-oflice, and two 
schools with 247 pupils in 1883-84. 

Pathari. — Native State under the Bhopal Agency of Central India, 
adjoining the British District of Sagar (Saugor), and lying south-west of 
Rahatgarh. The chief, Nawab Abdul Karlm Khan, an Afghan by race, 
was born about 1852. He belongs to a younger branch of the Bhopal 
family, being descended from its founder. Dost Muhammad. In 1807, 


Nawab Haidar Muhammad Khan, the father of the present chief, was 
deprived of his patrimony by Sindhia ; but eventually, through the 
mediation of the British Government, he obtained the present estate in 
exchange for certain villages he heM in Rahatgarh. Area of Pathari, 
22 square miles. Population (1875) 4330; (1881) 6393. Hindus 
number 5410; Muhammadans, 965; Sikhs, 10; and aborigines, 8. 
Revenue, about ^1200. The chief town, Pathari, lies in lat. 23° 56' n., 
and long. 78° 15' e. 

Patharia. — Hill range in the south of Sylhet District, Assam. 
Estimated area, 47 square miles ; height above sea-level, 600 feet. In 
this tract, a peculiar perfume called agar attar is manufactured. It is 
distilled from the resinous sap of the pitdkard (Aquilaria agalocha, 
Roxb.), and is said to be exported via Calcutta as far as Arabia and 

Patharia. — Village in Damoh ta/isit, Damoh District, Central 
Provinces; situated in lat. 23° 53' n., and long. 79° 14' e., 17 miles 
west of Damoh town, on the main road between Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) 
and Sagar (Saugor). Population (1881) 2326, namely, Hindus, 2075 ; 
Muhammadans, 125; Jains, 99; and Kabirpanthis, 27. Under the 
Marathas, an Amil was stationed at Patharia, which appears to have 
once been a much larger place. Government school, dispensary, police 
station, and travellers' bungalow. 

Pathri. — Village in Khairagarh State, attached to Raipur District, 
Central Provinces. Population (1881) 2093, namely, Hindus, 1544; 
Kabirpantliis, 322; Satnamis, 10; Muhammadans, 96; and non-Hindu 
aborigines, 121. 

Pathrot. — Town in Ellichpur District, Berar. Population (1881) 
5271, of whom 4646 were Hindus, 617 Musalmans, and 8 Jains. 

Patiala. — Native State, under the political superintendence of the 
Punjab Government. Patiala belongs to the group known as the 
cis-Sutlej States ; and is situated between 29° 23' 15" and 30° 54' N. lat., 
and between 74^^ 40' 30" and 76° 59' 15" e. long. The State is divided 
into two portions, of which the larger is situated in the plain south of 
the Sutlej (Satbj), while the other portion is hill country stretching up 
to Simla, which latter place formerly belonged to Patiala, but has been 
exchanged for territory in the district of Barauli. 

Within the confines of the State are situated a slate quarry near 
Simla, and a lead mine near Subathu ; the latter is worked by a company, 
and yields about 40 tons of ore a month, containing from 16 to 72 per 
cent, of lead. There are also marble quarries and copper mines in 
Narnaul. The usual cereals are produced in the tracts under cultivation. 

Area of the State, 5887 square miles, wdth 2601 towns and villages, 
282,063 houses, and 328,668 families. Total population (1881) 
1,467,433, namely, males 806,984, and females 660,449; density 

88 P ATI A LA. 

of population, 249 persons per square mile. Classified according to 
religion, the population consists of — Hindus, 734,902 ; Muhammadans, 
321,354; Sikhs, 408,141; Jains, 2997; and Christians, 39. Estimated 
gross revenue of the State, ;^468,956. 

History.— ^\\(t ruling families of Patiala, of Jind (Jheend), and ot 
Nabha, are called ' the Phulkian houses,' because they are descended 
from Phul, a Chaudhari, or agricultural notable, who in the middle of the 
1 7th century founded a village in the Nabha territory called after his 
name. The Rajas of Jind and Nabha are descended from Tiloka, the 
eldest son of Phul ; the Maharaja of Patiala is descended from Rama, 
the second son, and is a Sikh of the Sidhu Jat tribe. 

Like most of the Jat tribes, the Sidhus claim a Rajput origin, and 
trace their descent from Jaisal, a Bhatti Rajput, and founder of the State 
and city of Jaisalmer, who was driven from his kingdom by a successful 
rebellion in 1180 a.d. From Jaisal descended Sidhu; from Sidhu 
descended Saughar, who aided Babar at the battle of Panipat, and 
whose son Bariam was made by the victor a Chaudhari, or head-man of 
a District, responsible for its revenues. Phul was descended from 
Bariam, and as a boy received the blessing of Giirii Har Govind, the 
sixth Sikh gurii, who said of him, ' His name shall be a true omen, and 
he shall bear many blossoms.' From the Emperor Shah Jahan he 
obtained 2ifarmd?i granting him the chaudhriyat so long held by his 
ancestors. He died in 1652 a.d. From him are descended not only 
the chiefs of Jind and Nabha, but also the Laudhgharia families, and 
those of Bhadaur and Malod, — in all, thirteen houses ; and these were 
at one time equal in point of rank. 

Ala Singh, son of Rama and grandson of Phul, succeeded in defeating 
the Nawab Sayyid A sad Ali Khan, the imperial general commanding in 
the Jalandhar dodb^ at the battle of Barnala, and obtained many other 
successes over the Bhattis and other foes. He built a fort at Patiala, 
and, after being utterly defeated, with other Sikh leaders, at the battle 
of the Barnala in 1762 by Ahmad Shah Durani, he submitted to the 
Afghan invader, and received from him the title of Rajd. After the 
departure of Ahmad Shah, however, Raja Ala Singh put himself at 
the head of his Sikhs, and boldly attacked the Afghan governor of Sir- 
hind, whom he defeated and killed. The city of Sirhind was never 
rebuilt, and is held accursed to this day by the Sikhs ; but a consider- 
able portion of the population was removed to the rising town of 
Patiala.' .Ahmad Shah, when he again invaded India, not only forgave 
Ala Singh for his attack on Sirhind, but actually received him into 
favour, on the payment of a subsidy; and, on the return of the Durani 
monarch, Ala Singh accompanied him as far as Lahore. Ala Singh 
died at Patiala in 1765, having firmly established the foundations of this 
the most important of the cis-Sutlej States. 


F ATI A LA. 89 

Ala Singh's successor was Amar Singh, who obtained from Alimad 
Shah Durani, in 1767, the title of Raja-i-Rajgan Bahadur, and the 
insignia of a flag and a drum. About the year 1772 he was threatened 
with an attack of the Marathas under Janka Rdo, and sent off all his 
treasures and family jewels to Bhatinda ; and subsequently he was in 
great danger from a rebellion of his brother Himmat Singh, who seized 
the fort of Patiala ; but he was finally successful in defending himself 
from all his enemies, and largely increased his power at the expense of 
his neighbours and of the crumbling Delhi Empire. He died in 1781 ; 
and for a long time afterwards the chiefship of Patiala was in feeble 
liands, and its importance waned before the growing power of Ranjit 
Singh at Lahore. 

The terrible and unprecedented famine of 1783 did much to cripple 
the power and resources of Patiala. Sir Lepel Griffin says of this 
famine {Punjab Rdjds, 1870, p. 57) :— ' The year previous had been dry, 
and the harvest deficient; but in 1783 it entirely failed. The country 
was depopulated, the peasants abandoning their villages, and dying in 
thousands of disease and want. But little revenue could be collected ; 
the country swarmed with bands of robbers and dakdits ; and the state 
of anarchy was almost inconceivable. The neighbouring chiefs began 
to seize for themselves the Patiala villages, and all who dared threw off 
Patiala authority, and declared themselves independent.' The Raja of 
Patiala was, however, saved by the courage and energy of the Diwan, 
and of certain ladies of the ruling family, which has always been 
famous for the talents of its female members. These formed an alliance 
with the Marathas, and by their aid subdued all those who had attacked 
the Raj ; but they received little gratitude from the Raja Sahib Singh, 
and finally died in disgrace or exile. 

During the concluding years of the century, the State suffered much 
from the famous adventurer George Thomas; but at last the Sikhs, 
with the aid of Perron and Bourquin, were able to drive him off. 
After the capture of Delhi by General Lake in 1803, and the sub- 
sequent submission of the Marathas under the treaty of Sarji 
Anjengaon, the English became the paramount power in this part of 
India; and when, in 1807 and 180S, the Maharaja Ranjit Singh 
seemed to be entertaining designs on the cis-Sutlej country, an appeal 
was made to the English Governor-General for protection. This was 
eventually accorded; and a treaty was made with Ranjit Singh in 
1809, in which he engaged not to commit or suffer any encroachments 
on the possessions or rights of the cis-Sutlej chiefs. 

In the Nepal war of 1815, when the Gurkhas were expelled from the 
hill country above the Punjab, the Patiala chief aided the British 
Government with troops, and received, in recognition of his services, 
an accession to his territory in the hill country. Again, when the Sikh 


army invaded the cis-Sutlej States in 1845-46, the Maharaja of Patiala 
cast in his lot with the British, and obtained, for his services during the 
campaign, the gift of an adcHtional portion of territory. During the 
Mutiny of 1857, Maharaja Narendra Singh aided the British Govern- 
ment by furnishing an auxihary force which proceeded to Delhi, and 
kept open the communication on the Grand Trunk Road. He also 
helped the Government with money. For these services he received 
from the British Government the Narnaul division of the Jhajjar 
territory, besides other rewards. Narendra Singh was succeeded in 
1862 by his son Mahendra Singh, who died in 1876, and was succeeded 
by his infant son, Rajendra Singh, the present Maharaja. 

The Maharaja of Patiala furnishes a contingent of 100 horse for 
general duty. He is entitled to a salute of 17 guns. The military 
force consists of about 2750 cavalry, 600 infantry including police, 31 
field and 78 other guns, and 238 artillerymen. 

Patiala. — Capital of the Patiala State, Punjab. Lat. 30° 20' n., long. 
76° 25' E. Founded in 1752 by Sardar Ala Singh. Population (1881) 
53,629, namely, males 30,858, and females 22,771. Hindus number 
24,963; Muhammadans, 21,119; Sikhs, 7101 ; Jains, 435; and 
Christians, 11. Number of houses, 11,692. 

Patiali. — Ancient town in Ali'ganj tahsil^ Etah District, North- 
Western Provinces, situated on the old high bank of the Ganges, 22 
miles north-east of Etah town, with which it is connected by a broad 
unmetalled road. The present towai is built on a mound of ancient 
debris^ marking the site of the ancient city, which dates from the time 
of the Mahdbhdraia. A ruined fort, built by Shahab-ud-din Ghori, still 
stands, but the greater part of its block kankar walls have been carried 
away by the inhabitants as building materials for their houses, or by 
Government officials for the erection of bridges and public buildings. 
Population (1881) 4798. For the support of the police and for the 
conservancy and sanitation of the town, a small house-tax is raised. 
Patiali was a flourishing town in the days of the Rohilla power, but 
is now decayed into a mere village with no trade or manufactures. 
It was the scene of a brilliant victory over the rebels during the Mutiny 
of 1857-58. 

Patkulanda. — Ancient zaininddri or chiefship attached to Sambal- 
pur District, Central Provinces, 35 milts south-west of Sambalpur town. 
Population (1881) 1292, chiefly agricultural, residing in 6 villages; 
area, 10 square miles, the whole of which is cultivated, for the most 
part with rice. The chief is a Gcnd, belonging to a branch of the 
Bheran zaminddrs family, whose estate it adjoins. The chief was out- 
lawed for having joined in the rebellion of 1858, but was afterwards 
amnestied and restored to his estate. 

Patna. — Division or Commissionership under the jurisdiction of 

PATNA. 91 

the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, lying between 24" 17' 15" and 
27° 29' 45" N. lat., and between 83° 23' and 86' 46' e. long. Area, 
23,726 square miles. It comprises the Districts of Patna, Gaya, 
Shahabad, Darbhangah, Muzaffakpur, Saran, and Champaran, 
all of which see separately. The Division is bounded on the north 
by Nepal ; on the east by Bhdgalpur and Monghyr ; on the south 
by Lohardaga and Hazdribdgh Districts; and on the west by the 
Districts of Mirzapur, Ghazipur, and Gorakhpur in the North-Western 

The population of Patna Division was returned in the Census Report 
of 1872 at 13,120,817. The last enumeration in 1881 disclosed a 
population of 15,063,944, showing a total increase of 1,943,127, or 14-8 
per cent., in nine years. This increase, though largely due to natural 
causes, is partly fallacious, and due to under-enumeration in 1872, as is 
shown by subsequent Censuses of two Sub-divisions of Darbhangah 
District in 1874 and in 1876, both of which disclosed a very large 
increase of population over the Census of 1872, that could not be 
attributable to any natural increase. 

The results of the Census of 1881 may be summarized as 
follows : — Area of the Division, 23,647 square miles, with 67 towns 
and 44,524 villages; number of houses, 2,241,533. Total popu- 
lation, 15,063,944, namely, males 7,368,185, and females 7,695,759; 
proportion of males, 48-9 per cent. Average density of population, 
637*03 persons per square mile, varying from 450-15 per square mile 
in Shahabad to 86971 per square mile in Saran District; number of 
persons per town or village, 338 ; inmates per house, 67. Classi- 
fied according to sex and age, the Census shows — under 15 years 
of age, males 2,995,288, and females 2,868,095; total children, 
5,863,383, or 38-9 per cent, of the population: 15 years and upwards, 
males 4,372,897, and females 4,827,664 ; total adults, 9,200,561, or 6i-i 
per cent. 

i?^4V^//.— Classified according to religion, Hindus number 13,327,728, 
or 88*4 per cent, of the population ; Muhammadans, i,730j0935 or 11-5 
percent. ; Christians, 5875 ; Brahmos, 16; Jains, 22; Jews, 14 ; Parsi, i ; 
and 'others,' 195. Of the higher caste of Hindus, Brahmans number 
865,034, and Rajputs 968,342 : intermediate castes include — Babhans, 
750,304; Kayasths, 287,977; and Baniyas, 242,879. Of the lower or 
Sudra castes, the most important (numerically) are — Gwala, 1,844,463, 
the most numerous caste in the Division ; Koeri, 909,084 ; Dosadh, 
829,295; Chamar, 689,840; Kurmf, 681,860; Tell, 436,324 ; Kundu, 
426,885; Kahar, 357,167; Mallah, 328,712; Musahar, 274,974; 
Dhanuk, 258,496; Nuniya, 231,124; Napit, 219,702; Lobar, 186,306; 
Kumbhar, 172,215 ; Barhai, 157,951 ; Tatwa, 149,941 ; Sonar, 134,664; 
Dhobi, 131,460; Kalwar, 126,558; Pasi, 121,356; Bind, 98,780; 

92 PATNA, 

Gareri, 84,277; Madak, 83,241 ; Sunri, 78,641 ; Tdnti, 69,207; Barui, 
57,245; Dom, 56,571; Rajwar, 55,399; ^^ut or Kewat, 54,650; and 
Mali, 54,245. The non-Hindu aborigines number only 195, while the 
Hindus of aboriginal descent are returned at 21 t,i 73, namely — Bhuinya, 
103,015; Gond, 29,723; Kharwar, 12,549; and 'others,' 65,886. 
The Muhammadan population, divided according to sect, consists of 
Sunnis, 1,541,235; Shias, 31,251; Wahabis, 27; and unspecified, 
157,580. Of the 5875 Christians, Europeans number 2199; Eurasians, 
541 ; natives of India, 2772; and all others, 363. By sect, the Chris- 
tians include — Church of England, 1689 ; Protestants, unspecified as to 
sect, 686; Roman Catholics, 2641 ; Church of Scotland, 99; Baptists, 
89; Lutherans, 72; and Methodists, 67; other sects or unspecified, 


Toivn and Rural Population. — The following are the thirteen 
principal towns in Patna Division with a population exceeding 15,000 
— Patna city, 170,654; Gaya, 76,415; Darbhangah, 65,955; Chapra, 
51,670; Behar, 48,968; Arrah, 42,998; Muzaffarpur, 42,460; Dinapur, 
37,898; Hajipur, 25,078; Bettiah, 21,263; Dumraon, 17,429; Buxar, 
16,498; and Lalganj, 16,431. Total of thirteen largest towns, 633,717. 
Besides the foregoing, there are 54 minor towns or municipalities, with 
an aggregate population of 371,789. The total urban population there- 
fore amounts to 1,005,506, or 6-67 per cent, of the total. Patna Division 
contains forty-five municipalities, wnth an aggregate population of 
910,026 ; total municipal income (1883-84), ^45,136, of which ;£34,309 
was derived from taxation ; average incidence of taxation, 9d. per head 
of the municipal population. The Census Report thus classifies the 
44,591 towns and villages — 23,037 villages contain less than two 
hundred inhabitants; 13,413 from two to five hundred; 5890 from five 
hundred to a thousand; 1819 from one to two thousand; 291 from 
two to three thousand ; 84 from three to five thousand ; 33 from five 
to ten thousand; 11 from ten to fifteen thousand; and 13 upwards of 
fifteen thousand. 

As regards occupation, the male population are thus returned — ■ 
(i) Professional class, including all military and civil officials, 89,595; 
(2) domestic class, 271,588; (3) commercial class, 215,967; (4) agri- 
cultural and pastoral class, 2,614,109 ; (5) manufacturing and industrial 
class, 494,040; (6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising 
general labourers and male children, 3,682,886. 

Adnwiictration. — The six main items of Government revenue in 
1883-84 aggregated ;^i, 404,091, made iip as follows: — Land revenue, 
;^8ii,6o7; excise, ^270,748; stamps, ^^169,165; registradon, 
^^16,362; road cess, ;^ioi,90o; and municipal taxes, ;£^34,309. The 
charges for civil administration, as represented by the cost of the 
officials and police, amounted in 1883-84 to ^^2 13,041. The land 



revenue is derived from 4g,2gy estates, held by 361,399 individual 
registered proprietors; average land revenue paid by each estate, 
;^i6, 9s. 4d. ; by each proprietor, ^2, 4s. lod. The Division contains 
49 civil and 71 criminal courts, with 80 police circles {Ihdnds). Strength 
of regular and municipal police, 4518 men, besides a rural police or 
village watch of 30,433 chaukiddrs. 

Patna. — British District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of Bengal, 
lying between 24° 58' and 25° 42' n. lat., and between 84° 44' and 
86° 5' E. long. Area, 2079 square miles. Population (18S1) 1,756,856. 
Patna forms the south central District of the Patna Division. It is 
bounded on the north by the river Ganges, which separates it from 
Saran, Muzaffarpur, and Darbhangah; on the east by Monghyr; on the 
south by Gaya; and on the west by the river Son (Soane), which 
separates it from Shahabad District. The chief town is Patna, which 
adjoins on the east the administrative head-quarters at Baxkipur, and 
is situated on the south or right bank of the Ganges. 

Physical Aspects. — Patna District is, throughout the greater part of its 
extent, a dead level ; but towards the south the ground rises into hills. 
The soil is for the most part alluvial ; and the country along the bank of 
the Ganges is peculiarly fertile, producing the finest crops of all descrip- 
tions. The general line of drainage is from west to east ; and high 
ground along the south of the Ganges forces back the rivers flowing 
from the District of Gaya. The result is that, during the rains, nearly 
the whole interior of the District south of a line drawn i^arallel to the 
Ganges, and 4 or 5 miles from its bank, is flooded. There are no 
forests or jungles of any extent, but fine groups of trees are found in 
many places. In the south-east the District is, for some 30 miles, 
divided from Gaya by the Rajagriha Hills, which consist of two 
parallel ridges running south-west, with a narrow valley between, inter- 
sected by ravines and passes. These hills, which seldom exceed 1000 
feet in height, are rocky and clothed w^ith thick low jungle. They 
possess a special interest for the antiquary, as containing some of 
the earliest memorials of fjuddhism. To the north of this ridge 
rises an isolated hill, which, being composed of the same materials as 
the Rajagriha Hills, may be considered as an outlying spur of that 
range ; it has been identified by General Cunningham with the 
* Kapotika ' of Hiuen Tsiang. Hot springs are common on the 
Rajagriha Hills. 

The chief rivers of Patna are the Ganges and the Son (Soane), 
which form, as has been said, the northern and western boundaries of 
the District respectively. The total length of the Ganges along the 
boundary of Patna District is 93 miles. The Son first touches the Dis- 
trict near Mahibalipur village, and flows in a northerly direction for 41 
miles, till it joins the Ganges ; during this part of its course it receives 


no tributaries. The Patna Canal (^/.z\), one of the most important 
branches of the Son Canal system, passes through the west of the 
District. The only other river of any consequence is the Punpun, which, 
though described as one of the navigable rivers of Bengal, is in this 
District chiefly remarkable for the number of petty irrigation canals 
which it supplies with water. So much of the river is thus diverted, 
that only a small portion of its water ever reaches the Ganges. The 
course of the Punpun is north-easterly until it reaches Naubatpur, 
where it takes a bend to the east, crossing the Patna and Gaya 
Railway about 9 miles from Bankipur, and joins the Ganges at Fatwa. 
The total length of the Punpun in this District is stated to be 54 
miles ; about 9 miles from its junction with the Ganges, it is joined 
by the Murhar. Great changes have from time to time taken place 
in the course of the Ganges, and the point at which the Son joined 
this river was once several miles east of its present position {see 

Forests, jungles, marshes, or pasturage grounds, do not exist in 
Patna District, which is cultivated over almost its entire area. The 
mineral products consist of building stone, which may be dug from 
the hill at Behar; silajit, a medicinal substance which exudes from 
the rock at Tapoban and Rajgir ; ka?ikar or calcareous limestone ; and 
saline efflorescence. 

Large game is not abundant in Patna District, there being no jungles 
except on the Rajagriha Hills. Among these hills bears are found. 
Wolves and jackals are common, hyaenas are sometimes seen, and the 
small Indian fox is not unknown ; a leopard was killed near Behar 
town in 1876. Of smaller game, duck, quail, and ortolan are abundant; 
and partridges and wild geese are also found. Birds of prey are 
numerous, and hawking was formerly a favourite amusement among 
rich natives. 

History. — The history of Patna District is so intimately interwoven 
with that of Patna City that it is unnecessary to anticipate what the 
reader will find in the historical sections of that article. The District 
possesses special interest, both for the historian and the archaeologist. 
Patna City has been identified with Pataliputra (the Palibothra of 
Megasthenes), which is supposed to have been founded six hundred 
years before the Christian era by Raja Ajata Satru, a contemporary of 
Gautama, the founder of the Buddhist religion ; and in the south- 
eastern portion of the District are found some of the earliest remains 
of Buddhism. Here, too, is situated the town of Behar, the early 
Muhammadan capital which gave its name to the Province; and 
throughout the District are places which were visited and have been 
described by the Chinese Buddhist pilgrims, Fa-Hian and Hiuen 
Tsiang. The name of Patna is derived from patana^ literally ^ the 


town ' ; and Behar is simply the vernacular form of the Sanskrit vihdra, 
""a Buddhist monastery. 

i^" In the modern history of the District, two events of special interest 
to Englishmen stand prominently out, and demand separate notice. 
The one is known as "the Massacre of Patna (1763), and the other is 
the outbreak of the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. The former occurrence, 
which may be said to have sealed the fate of Muhammadan rule in 
Bengal, was the result of a quarrel between Mir Kasim, at that time 
Nawab of Murshidabad, and the English authorities. The Nawab, 
after much negotiation, had agreed to a convention which was also 
accepted by Mr. Vansittart, the Governor, that a transit duty of only 9 
per cent, should be paid by Englishmen, which was far below the rate 
exacted from other traders. This Convention, however, was repudiated 
by the Council at Calcutta, and Mir Kasim, in retaliation, resolved to 
abandon all duties whatever on the transit of goods, and to throw the 
trade of the country perfecdy open — a measure still less agreeable to 
the Company's servants. 

In April 1763, a deputation, consisting of Messrs. Hay and Amyatt, 
was despatched from Calcutta to Monghyr, where the Nawdb had 
taken up his residence ; but it was now too late for negotiation. 
Numerous and fierce disputes had arisen between the giimdshtds 
of the English and the Muhammadan officers ; and there was much 
hot blood on both sides. An occurrence which happened at Monghyr, 
while Messrs. Hay and Amyatt were there, hastened the rupture. Mir 
Kasim seized and detained some boat-loads of arms which were passino- 
up the Ganges to Patna, on the ground that the arms were destined 
to be used against himself. On the 24th June, Mr. Ellis, the Com- 
pany's chief of the factory at Patna, ordered his sepoys to occupy 
Patna city, which was done the following morning. In reven^^e, the 
Nawab sent a force in pursuit of Mr. Amyatt, who had been allowed 
to return to Calcutta, Mr. Hay having been detained as a hostage. 
Mr. Amyatt w^as overtaken and murdered near Kasimbazar. In the 
meantime the Company's sepoys, who had been plundering the city, 
were driven back to the factory by the Muhammadans at Patna, a 
large number of them being killed. The remainder, only about 300 
out of 2000 men, after being besieged for two days and nights, 
tied in their boats to the frontier of Oudh, where they ultimately laid 
down their arms. They were then brought back to Patna, to which 
place had been conveyed Mr. Hay from Monghyr, the entire staff of 
the Kasimbazar factory, who had also been arrested at the first out- 
break of hostilities, and some other prisoners. 

As soon as regular warfare commenced, however, Mir Kasim's successes 

came to an end. He was defeated in two battles by Major Adams at 

Gheria on the 2nd August, and at Udha-nala on the 5th September. 


These defeats roused Mir Kasim to exasperation, and on the 9th 
September he wrote to Major Adams : ' If you are resolved to proceed 
in this business, know for a certainty that I will cut off the heads of 
Mr. Ellis and the rest of your chiefs, and send them to you.' This 
threat he carried out, with the help of a Swiss renegade Samru (whose 
original name had been Walter Reinhardt), on the evening of the 6th 
October. Mr. Ellis and others, according to a contemporary letter, 
were decoyed one by one out of the room where they were drinking 
tea at seven o'clock, and instantly cut down. The remainder took 
alarm, and defended themselves as best they could with bottles and 
plates, their knives and forks having been already removed. About 
60 Englishmen were thus murdered, their bodies being thrown into 
a well in the compound of the house in which they were confined. 
It is said that 200 Englishmen were killed at this time throughout 

On the news of the massacre reaching Calcutta, a general deep 
mourning was ordered for the space of fourteen days, and minute- 
guns were fired from the fort and the fleet. A lakh of rupees 
(;£io,ooo) was offered for the person of Mir Kasim, and ^4000 for 
Samru. The subsequent war with the Wazir of Oudh, which was 
prolonged till May 1765, was to some extent occasioned by the 
refusal of the Wazi'r to surrender these persons, who had placed 
themselves under his protection. Mir Kasim is said to have died in 
great indigence at Delhi. 

Samru took refuge with a succession of new masters, and was ulti- 
mately presented with the jagir of Sardhana in Meerut District ; he 
died at Agra in 1778, leaving as his widow and heir the notorious 
Begam Samru. This lady endeavoured in her old age to make amends 
by charities for a long life of wickedness. She died in 1834, and by 
her will she devoted ^15,000 to the foundation of a Clergy Fund and 
Poor Fund ; and her name now stands first in Archdeacon Pratt's 
' Endowments of the Diocese of Calcutta.' The litigation connected 
with her property was not finally settled till more than a third of a 
century after her death. 

The other important event in the modern history of the District is 
the outbreak of the Mutiny at Dinapur, the military station attached 
to Patna city. For a full account of the events connected with the 
outbreak, the reader must be referred to the history of the period; 
only a very brief narrative can be given here. The three Sepoy 
regiments at Dinapur in 1857 were the 7th, 8th, and 40th Native 
Infantry, regarding whom General Lloyd, commanding at Dinapur, 
wrote expressing his confidence. They were accordingly not dis- 
armed ; but as the excitement increased throughout Behar, and stronger 
measures seemed in the opinon of the Commissioner, Mr. Tayler, to 



be necessary, the General, while still apparently relying on the trust- 
worthiness of the men, was unwilling to disregard the remonstrances 
of the European residents, and in July made a half-hearted attempt 
at disarming the Sepoys. The result was that the three regiments 
revolted and went off in a body, taking with them their arms and 
accoutrements, but not their uniforms. Some took to the Ganges, 
where their boats were fired into and run down by a steamer which was 
present, and their occupants shot or drowned. But the majority were 
wiser, and hastened to the river Son, crossing which they found them- 
selves safe in Shahabad, a friendly country, with nothing to oppose 
them but a handful of civilians, indigo-planters, and railway engineers, 
with a few Sikh soldiers, who might or might not prove faithful to their 

The story of what took place in Shahabad will be found in the article 
on Shahabad District. The news that the rebels, headed by Kunwdr 
(or Kudr) Singh, the natural leader of the Rajputs of Behar, had sur- 
rounded the Europeans at Arrah, reached Bankipur about the same 
time that the Commissioner was informed of the assassination of Major 
Holmes and his wife at Sagauh', in Champaran, by his regiment of 
irregular horse, in whom he had rashly placed implicit trust. An 
attempt was made to rescue the Europeans at Arrah, but ill-luck 
attended the effort. A steamer, which was sent on the 2 7ch up the 
river from Dinapur, stuck on a sandbank. Another steamer was 
started on the 29th ; but the expedition was grossly mismanaged. 
While there was abundance of food on board, the men wTre left fasting. 
They were landed at the nearest point to Arrah at about 7 p.m.; and 
though the men were tired and hungry, they were pushed on till they 
fell into an ambuscade about midnight. The commander of the 
expedition. Captain Dunbar, was speedily shot down. The enemy were 
concealed in a mango grove, while the European troops, marching on a 
raised causeway, were terribly exposed. All was soon in confusion. 
When morning dawned, a disastrous retreat had to be commenced by 
the survivors of this ill-fated expedition. The enemy were all round 
them, the retreat became a rout, and had not the ammunition of the 
insurgents run short, hardly an Englishman would have escaped. As 
it was, out of the 400 men who had left Dinapur, fully half were left 
behind ; and of the survivors, only about 50 returned unwounded. 

But disastrous as was the retreat, it was not disgraceful. Individual 
acts of heroism saved the honour of the British character. Two 
volunteers, Mr. M'Donell and Mr. Ross Mangles, both of the Civil 
Service, besides doing excellent service on the march, made themselves 
remarkable by acts of conspicuous daring. The former, though wounded, 
was one of the last men to enter the boats. The insurgents had taken 
the oars of his boat and had lashed the rudder, so that though the 



wind was favourable for retreat, the current carried the boat back to 
the river bank. Thirty-five soldiers were in the boat, sheltered from 
fire by the usual thatch covering ; but while the rudder was fixed, the 
inmates remained at the mercy of the enemy. At this crisis, Mr. 
M'Donell stepped out from the shelter, climbed on to the roof of the 
boat, perched himself on the rudder and cut the lashings, amidst a 
storm of bullets from the contiguous bank. Strangely enough, not a 
ball struck him ; the rudder was loosened, the boat answered to the 
helm, and by Mr. M'Donell's brilliant act the crew were saved from 
certain destruciion. Mr. Ross Mangles' conduct was equally heroic. 
During the retreat, a soldier was struck down near him. He stopped, 
lifted the man on to his back, and though he had frequently to rest on 
the way, he managed to carry the wounded man for 6 miles till he 
reached the stream. He then swam with his helpless burden to a boat, 
in which he deposited him in safety. Both these civilians afterwards 
received the Victoria Cross as a reward for their heroism. 

Population. — Several early estimates have been made of the popula- 
tion of Patna District ; among them, one by Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton 
in 1807, which is interesting as corresponding in a remarkable degree 
with the results obtained by the Census of 1872. He estimated the 
population of nine police circles, which nearly correspond with the 
present area of the District, at 1,308,270 souls. In 1857 it was 
estimated at 1,200,000; and a later calculation reduced this figure to 
900,000. The first regular Census in 1872 disclosed a total population 
of 1,559,638 persons. The latest enumeration in 188 1 returned the 
population of Patna District at 1,756,856, showing an increase of 
197,218, or 12*64 per cent., above that returned by the Census of 
1872. The pressure of the population on the soil is greater in Patna 
(845 per square mile) than in any District of Bengal Proper, except 
the metropolitan District of the Twenty-Four Parganas and the suburban 
District of Howrah ; and very little less than in the adjacent Bchar 
District of Saran (869 per square mile). 

The results of the Census of 1881 may be summarized as fol- 
lows : — Area of District, 2079 square miles, with 11 towns and 5624 
villages, and 319,167 houses, of which 279,455 were occupied. Total 
population, 1,756.856, namely, males 858,783, and females 898,073; 
proportion of males, 48*9 per cent. Average density of population, 
845 persons per square mile; towns or villages per square mile, 271 ; 
persons per town or village, 312, or excluding the 11 towns, 252; 
houses per square mile, i53'5; inmates per house, 6*3. Classified 
according to age and sex, the population consists of — under 15 years 
of age, boys 330,872, and girls 321,670; total children, 652,542, 
or 37-1 per cent, of the population: 15 years and upwards, males 
527,911, and females 576,403; total adults, 1,104,314, or 62-9 per cent. 



HeligioiL — Classified according to religion, the population consists of 
— Hindus, 1,541,061, or 8771 per cent, of the total population of the 
District; Muhammadans, 213,141, or 12-13 P^r cent.; Christians, 
2588; Brahmos, 16; Jains, 22; Jews, 14; Parsi, i; and 'others,' 13. 
Of high-caste Hindus, there are 47,041 Brahmans and 64,332 Rajputs. 
Ranking next after these two castes are the Babhans, who are very 
numerous throughout the Patna Division, and number in this District 
121,381. Their origin is much disputed. They claim in Patna to be 
Sarivarid Brdhmans, and they are also called Bhuinhar, and zani'ui- 
ddri or military Brahmans. Intermediate castes include Baniyas, 
34,538 ; and Kayasths, 29,864. Among the lower or Sudra castes, the 
most numerous are the Goalas or Ahi'rs, the great herdsman class, of 
whom there are 217,845; and the Kiirmis, the principal agricultural 
caste, who number 194,222. Other Hindu castes include — Dosadh, 
99,976 ; Koeri, 86,738 ; Kahar, 85,824 ; Chamar, 56,867 ; Teli, 
52,880; Pasi, 37,146; Musahar, 36,858; Dhanuk, 36,530; Kandu, 
32,177; Ncipit, 29,165; Barhai, 26,360; Kumbhar, 24,069; Sonar, 
23,313; Mallah, 19,099; Dhobi, 13,534; Nuniya, 12,389; Tatwa, 
12,333; Madak, 10,148; Kalwar, 8749; Gararia, 8355; Lobar, 8131 ; 
Sunri, 7899; Tanti, 7158; Mali, 561 1; Dom, 5594; and Tambuli, 
5024. The total number of Hindus in the District who do not 
recognise caste is 4791. 

The Wahabi's form the most interesting section of the Musalman 
communit5\ They are a numerous body (although only 27 returned 
themselves as such at the time of the last Census), among whom 
are said to be included a few wealthy traders, though the majority 
belong to the lower classes. IMany of them are fanatical in their 
opposition to both Sunnis and Shias, though Wahabi-ism is really 
but_ a branch of the Sunni faith. Patna was first visited by Sayyid 
Ahmad, the leader of the Wahabi movement in India, about the year 
1820. The Patna Wahabi's were involved in treasonable practices in 
1864-65 ; eleven persons were arrested and sentenced to transportation. 
For the Wahabi movement and State Trials, see the present author's 
India?i Musalindns^ 3rd ed. p. 105, etc. 

The Christians, according to the Census of iSSr, number 2588, or 
•15 per cent, of *the total population. E^uropeans number 1539, 
including the troops at Dinapur; Eurasians, 366; natives of India, 
420 ; and ' others,' 263. By sect, the Christians include — Church of 
England, 1265 ; Protestants, without distinction of sect, 321 ; Roman 
Catholics, 640; Church of Scotland, 71; Baptists, 63; Methodists, 
62 ; and ' others,' 166. 

Toivn and Rural Population. — Ten municipal towns in Patna 
District contain a population exceeding five thousand inhabitants — 
Patna City, population (1881) 170,654; Beiiar, 48,968; Dixapur, 


37,893 ; Barh, 14,689 ; Khagaul, 14,075 ; Mukama, 13,052 ; Faiwa, 
10,919 ; Muhammadpur, 8479 • Kaikunthpur, 6424; and Rasulpur- 
MoNER, 5769. Nawada (population 3323) is also a municipality. 
Total urban population, 334,245, or 19 per cent., leaving 1,422,611, 
or 81 per cent., as the rural population of the District. Detailed 
accounts of the above mentioned towns will be found under their 
respective names. The municipalities of the District contain a total 
population of 336,842 ; municipal income (1883-84), ;£i6,9i3, of 
which ^13,879 was derived from taxation ; average incidence of 
taxation, 9|d. per head. Patna city, in which the whole interest and 
importance of the District, and, indeed, of the Division, centres, is, 
after Calcutta, the largest river-mart in Bengal. It forms a busy 
changing-station, where the piece-goods, salt, and miscellaneous manu- 
factures of Europe which come up from Calcutta by rail are trans- 
ferred into country boats to be distributed throughout the neighbour- 
ing tracts, and where the agricultural produce of a wide area is collected 
for despatch to the seaboard. Trade, however, has decreased of late 
years, since the opening of the Tirhiit and Gaya lines of railway have 
rendered w^arehousing at Patna unnecessary. Reference has already 
been made to the historical interest of the city, and to its identification 
with the ancient Pataliputra. The civil station of Bankipur and the 
military cantonment of Dinapur are situated within a few miles of 
the city of Patna proper. Among the numerous places of historic 
interest in the District may be mentioned : — Rajagriha or Rajgir, the 
site of the capital of the ancient kingdom of Magadha ; the hills of 
the same name, with their Buddhist remains ; Giriyak, a place full 
of archaeological interest ; and Sherpur, the scene of a large fair, — 
all of which see separately. 

Of the 5635 towns and villages in Patna District, 3301 contain 
less than two hundred inhabitants; 1609 from two to five hundred; 
561 from five hundred to a thousand ; 129 from one to two thousand; 
18 from two to three thousand; 7 from three to five thousand; 
3 from five to ten thousand ; 4 from ten to fifteen thousand ; and 3 
upwards of fifteen thousand inhabitants. 

As regards occupation, the Census classifies the male population of 
the Districts into six main divisions as follow — (i) Professional class, 
including all Government servants, civil and military, 16,804; (2) 
domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, etc., 49,408 ; (3) 
commercial class, including bankers, merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 
35,585; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 233,950; 

(5) manufacturing and industrial class, including all artisans, 76,230; 

(6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising general labourers 
and male children, 446,806. 

Agriculture. — Rice, which forms the staple of the District, is divided 


into two great crops — the kartika or early rice, sown broadcast in June 
or July, and reaped in October or November; and the ag/uini or winter 
rice, sown after the commencement of the rains, and reaped in November 
or December. The boro or spring rice is also cultivated to a limited 
extent, being sown in November or December, and reaped in April 
or May. By far the most important of these is the aghdni crop, of 
which 46 varieties are named. This rice is sown broadcast on land 
which has been previously i)loughed three or four times ; and after a 
month or six weeks, when the seedlings are about a foot high, they 
are generally transplanted. The crop requires irrigation. Among the 
other principal crops of the District are wheat and barley, Indian 
corn {;nakdi), khesdri^ gram, peas, cotton, tobacco, sugar-cane, a little 
mustard, several other oil-producing plants, and poppy. The last- 
named crop is one of the most important in the District, and will be 
referred to in detail in another section of this article (infra). All the 
poppy grown in the Province of Behar is manufactured at Patna city ; 
and the area cultivated with poppy in Patna District amounted in 1881-82 
to 25,314 acres. The out-turn in that year was 177 tons; average 
produce per acre, about 10 lbs. The rent of early rice lands producing 
also a second crop varies from 8s. to 12s. pd. an acre; that of late or 
winter rice lands, which produce in general one crop only, from 9s. 6d. 
to 19s. an acre. All lands are irrigated, wherever possible; rotation of 
crops is not practised, except in the case of sugar-cane, which is never 
grown on the same field in two successive years. 

Wages are low in Patna, as compared with Bengal generally. Day- 
labourers receive 3d. a day ; agricultural labourers are paid in grain, 
representing a money wage of about id. a day; smiths and carpenters 
earn from 3|d. to 6d. a day. Prices are said to have increased during 
the last twenty or thirty years, but the early figures are not available. 
The price of the best cleaned rice in 1870-71 was 6s. lod. a cwt., 
and of common rice, 4s. id. In 1883-84, prices of food were higher 
than usual, owing to scanty crops due to unequal distribution of the 
rainfall. The average price of common rice throughout the year was 
i6^th sers per rupee, or 6s. 6Jd. per cwt.; and of wheat, i9}fth sers 
per rupee, or 5s. 7d. per cwt. 

Natural Calamities. — Patna is subject to blights, floods, and 
droughts. Blights occur seldom, and on a small scale. Floods are 
caused by the overflowing of the Ganges and the Son (Soane) ; they 
are of frequent occurrence, but usually cause only partial damage. In 
1842 and 1869, however, inundations caused extensive loss. The 
District was affected by the famine of 1866, but not to any serious 
extent ; the maximum price of the best cleaned rice in that year was 
15s. per cwt., and of common rice, 9s. 6d. Long-continued drought 
during the rainy season, followed by an almost total loss of rice in the 


winter harvest and absence of rain when the spring crop is being 
sown, should, according to an official statement made in 187 1, be con- 
sidered as a warning of impending famine. If paddy were to sell in 
January or February at from 3s. 6d. to 4s. 3d. per cwt., it would be an 
indication of the approach of famine later in the year. There are 
abundant facilities for the importation of grain in case of distress. 

Co?n7?ie?'ce and Trade, etc. — The trade of the District centres in Patna 
city, which is, as has been already stated, riext to Calcutta, the largest 
river-mart in Bengal. Its central position near the junction of three 
great rivers, the Son, the Gandak, and the Ganges, where the traffic 
of the North-Western Provinces meets that of Bengal, gives it great 
natural advantages. It is also conveniently situated for the purpose 
of transport, either by river or railway, having a river frontage during 
the rains of from 7 to 8 miles, and in the dry months of 4 miles. 
The trade statistics will be found in the article on Patna City. 
The total length of District and Provincial roads is 454 miles ; total 
annual expenditure on all roads under the Department of Public 
Works, ^9607. The East Indian Railway traverses the whole length 
of the District, entering it west of Barhiya station, and leaving it at the 
Son bridge, a distance of 86 miles. During the scarcity of 1873-74, 
siding lines were laid down at Fatwa, Barh, and Mukama, to assist in 
the transport of grain. Of these the one at Barh still remains, but the 
others have been taken up. Three newspapers are published at Patna ; 
the most important is the Beha?- Herald, appearing weekly, and con- 
ducted by the native pleaders of the Patna bar. 

Opium Alamifachire. — Patna is one of the two places in British India 
where opium is manufactured by Government. The cultivation of the 
poppy is confined to the large central Gangetic tract, about 600 miles in 
length and 250 miles in breadth ; it extends on the north to the borders 
of Nepal, on the east to Bhagalpur, on the south to Hazaribagh, and on 
the west to Bareli District in the North-Western Provinces. This tract 
is divided into the two agencies of Behar and Benares, the former being 
under the charge of an agent stationed at Bankipur, and the latter 
of an agent at Ghazipur ; both agencies are under the control 
of the Board of Revenue in Calcutta. In the Behar Agency in 
1881-82, poppy was cultivated on an area of 297,162 acres, which 
yielded an out-turn of 1816 tons of opium. The Benares Agency, 
including the Oudh tract, into which poppy cultivation has recently 
been introduced, had, in 1881-82, an area of 249,049 acres under 
poppy, which yielded an out-turn of 1896-^ tons of opium. The 
poppy cultivated is exclusively the white variety (Papaver somniferum 
album), and the crop requires great attention. The ground having 
been carefully prepared, the seed is sown broadcast in November ; and 
by February the plant is generally in full flower, having reached a height 


of from 3 to 4 feet. Towards the middle of that month the petals are 
stripped off; and four or five days after their removal, when the capsules 
have attained their utmost development, the collection of the juice 
commences — a process which extends from about the 20th of February 
to the 25th of March. A detailed account of the cultivation of the 
plant and the manufacture of the drug would occuj^y more space than 
can be here given, but the reader will find the subject exhaustively 
dealt with in TJie Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xi. pp. 146-154, 
where the i)rocesses of testing and examination, and the usual methods 
of adulteration, are described. The amount of produce from various 
lands differs considerably. Under very favourable circumstances of 
soil and season, the out-turn per acre may be as high as 41 lbs. of 
standard opium {i.e. containing 70 j)er cent, of pure opium and 30 per 
cent, of water), paid for at the rate of 5s. per lb. ; but the average is 
from 10 to 16 lbs. per acre. The opium is made up into cakes weigh- 
ing about 4 lbs., and containing about 3 lbs. of standard opium. 
These cakes are packed in chests (40 in each), and sent to Calcutta 
for exportation to China. The price which they fetch varies every 
year; the average for the five years ending 1882 was ^129, ics. per 
chest, the cost as laid down in Calcutta being ^35, los. The varia- 
tions in price were formerly excessive, but the Government is now 
careful to regulate the supply according to the demand. 

Administration. — It is difficult to compare the revenue and expendi- 
ture of Patna for different years, because not only do the balance-sheets 
contain many items of account and transfer, but the changes which 
have taken place in the constitution of the District render comparison 
misleading or impossible. The net revenue in 1870 was ^230,998, 
and the civil expenditure ^72,228. In 1877-78 the revenue amounted 
to ^253,707. In 1883-84 the six main items of Government revenue 
aggregated ^290,758, made up as follows : — Land revenue, ^£"146,054 ; 
excise, ^78,854 ; stamps, ;£"33»297 ; registration, ^3204; road cess, 
^15,470; municipal taxes, ^13,879. The civil expenditure of the 
District, as shown by the cost of officials and police, amounted in 
1883-84 to ^64,826. 

The land-tax forms by far the most important item of revenue, 
amounting in 1877-78 to ^146,564, or 57 per cent, of the total. 
Sub-division of estates has been carried out to a remarkable extent. 
In 1790 there were 1232 separate estates on the rent-roll of Patna 
District as then constituted, held by 1280 registered proprietors or 
coparceners paying revenue direct to Government ; the total land 
revenue in that year amounted to ;£43,343. In 1800 the number of 
estates had already increased to 1813, the proprietors to 1976, and the 
land revenue to ;£5o,28o. In 1850, when the area of the District hod 
been considerably increased, there were 4795 estates and 25,600 


registered proprietors; the land revenue amounted to ^121,352, or an 
average payment of ;£"25, 6s. 2d. from each estate, and of ;2f 4, 14s. gd. 
from each proprietor or coparcener. In 1866, the Sub-division of 
Behar, containing 796 estates, was attached to Patna; and in 1869, 19 
estates were transferred from Patnd to Tirhut. IncUiding the net total 
of 777 new estates obtained by these changes, the number of estates 
on the rent-roll of the District in 1870-71 amounted to 6075 ; the 
number of registered proprietors had increased to 37,500, and the land 
revenue to ;^i 50,798, or an average payment of ^^24, i6s. 4d. from 
each estate, and of ;^4, os. 5d. from each proprietor. By 1883-84 
the number of estates had further increased to 8318, and the regis- 
tered proprietors to 67,287 ; total land revenue, ;^i46,o54, or an 
average payment of ^17, iis. 2d. from each estate, and £,2, 3s. 5d. 
from each individual proprietor. Allowing for the increase in the 
size of the District by the addition of the Behar Sub-division, the 
number of estates has multiplied nearly five times since 1790; the land 
revenue has more than trebled ; and where there was formerly one 
proprietor, there are now over fifty. There is reason to believe that 
the increase in the value of each estate during the same period has in 
all cases been large, and may in some instances amount to more than 
fifty times the estimated rental of 1790. 

For police purposes, the District is divided into 18 thdnds or police 
circles. The regular police consisted in 1883 of 1300 men of all ranks, 
including 751 municipal and 44 cantonment police, maintained at a 
total cost to Government of ^18,373. In addition, there was in that 
year a village watch or rural police numbering 3124 men, maintained 
by the villagers and landholders at an estimated cost in money or 
lands of ^9124. The total machinery, therefore, for the protection 
of person and property consisted of 4424 officers and men, or i man 
to every -47 square mile of the area or to every 397 of the popula- 
tion. The total cost of maintaining this force was estimated at 
^27,497, equal to a charge of ^£^13, 4s. 7d. per square mile of area, or 
3|d. per head of population. The District jail at Patna, and subordi- 
nate prisons at Behar and Barh, contained in 1883 a daily average of 
256 prisoners, of whom 14 were females. Convicts numbered 230; 
under-trial prisoners, 21 ; and civil prisoners, 5. 

Education has progressed rapidly in Patna. The number of 
Government and aided schools in the District in 1856-57 was 12, with 
583 pupils; in 1860-61 the number of such schools was 10, and of 
pupils 515 ; and in 1870-71 there were 23 such schools, attended 
by 1530 pupils. Since that year education has rapidly advanced, 
owing principally to Sir George Campbell's system of grants-in-aid to 
primary schools. In 1874-75 there were, exclusive of Patna College, 
309 Government and aided schools, with 9003 pupils; and in 1877-78 


the number of such schools was 816, attended by 16,396 pupils. By 
1883-84 the total number of schools in Patna District had risen to 
2027, attended by about 27,000 })upils. The lower primary schools 
numbered 1452, with 19,658 pupils, and the unaided schools 512, with 
5065 i)upils. The Patna College was founded in 1862, and is the only 
institution for superior instruction in the whole of Behar. The number 
of pupils on the rolls in 1873-74 was 92, and in 1883-84, 165. The 
total expenditure on the College in 1883-84 amounted to ^4664, of 
which ;^34ii was paid by Government, and the remainder, viz. ^1253, 
was contributed by fees, etc. The total cost of each student in that 
year was ^."28, 5s. 4d., of which the Government paid ;£^2o, 13s. 5d. 
The Collegiate school attached to the College was attended by 639 
pupils in 1883-84. Special schools comprise — a normal school, with 
90 pupils in 1883-84; a law school with 53 pupils; a surveying school 
with 54 pupils ; and a vernacular medical school with 145 pupils. No 
details are available with regard to girls' schools. Of the boys of 
school-going age, i in every 4*2 was attending school in 1883-84. 
The Census Report of 1881 returned 24,528 boys and 3874 girls as 
under instruction, besides 57,760 males and 7907 females able to read 
and write, but not under instruction. 

Medical Aspects^ etc. — The climate of Patna is considered remarkably 
healthy. The prevailing winds are east and west, in almost equal pro- 
portion. The average annual rainfall for a period of over 25 years is 
returned at 41 "81 inches, the average for each month being as toUows : 
— January, 071 inch; February, 0*57 inch; March, 0*37 inch; April, 
0-32 inch; May, i*6o inch; June, 6*72 inches; July, 10*42 inches; 
August, 9-61 inches; September, 8-33 inches; October, 2-82 inches; 
November, 0*21 inch; and December, o"i3 inch. In 1883-84 the 
total rainfall at Patna was 3975 inches, of which 278 inches fell from 
January to May, 36*57 inches from June to September, and 0*40 inch 
from October to December. The annual mean temperature of Patna 
is 77*8° F., the monthly mean being as follows: — January, 60*9°; 
February, 66 '0° ; March, 77*3°; April, 86*8°; May, 88*6°; June, 88*4°; 
July, 84*8°; August, 84*1"'; September, 83-9°; October, 79*7°; 
November, 70*3°; and December, 62*3°. In 1883 the thermometer 
ranged from a maximum of 110° F. in May to a minimum of 43*5° 
in December. The prevailing endemic diseases of the District are 
cholera in and about the city of Patna, and stone in the bladder. 
Small-pox and fever are also prevalent. There are 5 charitable 
dispensaries in the District, which in 1883 afforded medical relief 
to 2288 in-door and 47,205 out -door patients. The registered 
mortality of Patna District in 1883 was at the rate of 21*98 per 
thousand, the total number of recorded deaths being 38,633. [For 
further information regarding Patna, see The Statistical Account of 


Bengal^ by W. W. Hunter, vol. xi. pp. 1-222 (London, Triibner & 
Co., 1877); General Cunningham's Ancient Geography of India, vol. i. 
pp. 452-454 (London, 187 1) ; the Bengal Census Rep07't for 1881 ; and 
the several Administration and Departmental Reports of the Bengal 
Government from 1880 to 1884.] 

Patna. — Sadr or head-quarters Sub-division of Patnd District, 
Bengal, lying between 25° 12' 30" and 25° 39' n. lat, and between 
84° 44' and 85° 19' E. long. Area, 617 square miles; villages, 17 14; 
houses, 96,028. Population (1872) 521,336; (1881) 585,887, namely, 
males 285,895, and females 299,992, showing an increase of 64,551, 
or 12*38 per cent., in nine years. Classified according to religion, 
the population in 1881 consisted of — Hindus, 504,061, or 86*2 per 
cent.; Muhammadans, 81,264, or 137 per cent.; Christians, 523; 
Brahmos, 12; Jains, 8; Jews, 5; Parsi, i; non-Hindu aborigines, 13. 
Proportion of males in total population, 48*8 per cent. ; number of 
persons per square mile, 949; villages per square mile, 278; persons 
per village, 342; houses per square mile, i77'63; persons per house, 
6'r. Patna Sub-division consists of the six police circles of Patna 
municipality, Patna, Bankipur, Naubatpur, Masaudhi, and Paliganj. 
In 1883 it contained 8 civil and 10 magisterial courts, including the 
District head-quarter courts, a general police force of 779 men, and a 
village watch of 998 men. 

Patna City (known to the natives as Az'imdbdd). — Chief city of 
Patna District, Bengal; situated in lat. 25° 37' 15" n., and long. 85° 12' 
31" E., on the right or south bank of the Ganges; adjoining on the 
east Bankipur, the civil station and administrative head-quarters of the 
District. Area, 6184 acres. Population (1881) 170,654. 

Early History. — The following section on the early history of Patna 
city is based upon General Cunningham's Ancient Geography of India, 
vol. i. pp. 452-454 (London, 187 1). Patna has been identified with 
Pataliputra, which, in spite of Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton's opinion to 
the contrary, is undoubtedly the same town as Palibothra, mentioned 
by the Greek historian Megasthenes, who came as ambassador from 

Seleukos Nikator to jhe court, of _Sandra.cottus or Chandra Gupta, at 

Pataliputra, about the year_^oo_Rx:. ^ The foundation of the city is 
attributed by Diodorus to Herakles, by whom he may perhaps mean 
Balaram, the brother of Krishna ; but this early origin is not claimed 
by the native authorities. According to the Vdya Purdna, the city of 
Pataliputra, or Kusumapura, was founded by Raja Udayaswa, the 
grandson of Ajata Satru. This Ajata Satru was the contemporary of 
Gautama, the founder of the Buddhist religion, who died about 543 b.c. 

According to Buddhist accounts, when Buddha crossed the Ganges 
on his last journey from Rajagriha to Vaisali, the two ministers of 
Ajata Satru, King of Magadha, were engaged in building a fort at the 


village of Pdtali, as a check upon the ravages of the Wajjians, or the 
people ofVriji. At that time, Buddha predicted that the fort would 
become a great city. Upon this evidence, General Cunningham con- 
cludes that the building of Patna was begun then, but finished later, in 
the time of Udaya, ab out 4^0 r-c. According to the Hindu chrono- 
logies, Udaya was the thirty-seventh king of Magadha, dating from 
Sahadeva, who was contemporary with the great war of the Mahd- 
bJidrata. Tiie thirteenth in succession from Udaya was Chandra 
Gupta, who was reigning at Pataliputra when Megasthenes, whose 
account of the city has been preserved by Arrian, visited the city. He 
savs that the distance of Palibothra from the Indus is 10,000 stadia, 
that is, 1 149 miles, or only 6 miles in excess of the actual distance. 
He proceeds to describe Palibothra as the capital city of India, on 
the confines of the Prasii, near the confluence of the two great rivers 
Erannoboas and Ganges. The Erannoboas, he says, is reckoned the 
third river throughout all India, and is inferior to none but the Indus 
and the Ganges, into the last of which it discharges its waters. Now 
Erannoboas is the Greek form of Hiranya-baha, v.-hich has been identi- 
fied with the Son ; and the confluence of this river was formerly much 
nearer Patnd than now. Megasthenes adds that the length of the city 
of Palibothra was 80 stadia, the breadth 15 ; that it was surrounded by 
a ditch 30 cubits deep; and that the walls were adorned with 570 
towers and 64 gates. According to this account, the circumference of 
the city would be 190 stadia, or 24 miles. Strabo, Pliny, and Arrian 
call the people Prasii, the Greek corruption of Palasiya or Parasiya, the 
men of Palasa or Parasa, which is a well-known name for Magadha, 
derived from \\\^ palds tree (Butea frondosa). 

The next description that we have of Patna is supplied by Hiuen 
Tsiang, the Chinese pilgrim, who entered the city after his return from 
Nepal, about 20th February 637 a.d. At that time the kingdom of 
Magadha was subject to Harsha Varddhana, the great king of Kanauj. 
It was bounded on the north by the Ganges, on the west by Benares, 
on the east by Hiranya Parvata or Monghyr, and on the south by 
Kirana Savarna or Singhbhiim. Hiuen Tsiang informs us that the old 
city, called originally Kusumapura, had been deserted for a long time 
and was in ruins. He gives the circumference at 70 //', or iig miles, 
exclusive of the new town of Patalij^tutrapura. 

Little is known of the mediaeval history of Patna. In the early years 
of Muhammadan rule, the governor of the Province resided at the 
city of Behar. During Sher Shah's revolt, Patnd became the capital 
of an independent State, which was afterwards reduced to subjection by 
Akbar. Aurangzeb made his grandson Azim governor, and the city 
thus acquired the name of Azimabad. The two events in the modern 
history of Patna city, namely, the massacre of 1763, and the mutiny of 


the troops at Dlnapur cantonments in 1857, have been described in the 
account of Patna District. 

Description of the City. — Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton, in his ms. account 
of Patna city (1810), includes the whole of that part of Y^IVik pargaiia 
which was under the jurisdiction of a kotwdl and 15 darogahs, who were 
appointed to superintend the police of the 16 wards {mahdllas) into 
which this area was divided. Each of these wards lay partly within 
the town ; but some of them also included part of the adjacent country, 
consisting chiefly of garden land, with some low marshy ground 
that intervenes. The city of Patna, taken in this sense, includes the 
suburb of Bankipur on the w^st, and Jafar Khan's garden on the 
east, an extent of nearly 9 miles along the bank of the Ganges. The 
width, from the bank of the Ganges, is on an average about 2 miles ; 
so that the whole circumference includes an area of about 18 square 
miles. The city proper within the walls is rather more than a mile and 
a half from east to w^st, and three-quarters of a mile from north to 
south. It is very closely built, many of the houses being of brick ; the 
majority, however, are composed of mud with tiled roofs, and very few 
are thatched. There is one fairly wide street, running from the eastern 
to the western gate, but it is by no means straight or regularly built. 
Every other passage is narrow, crooked, and irregular ; and it would 
be difficult to imagine a more unattractive place. Still, every native 
who can afford it has a house in this quarter. In the dry weather the 
dust is beyond belief, and in the rains every place is covered with mud, 
while in one quarter there is a large pond which becomes very offensive 
as it dries up. 

The old fortifications which surrounded the city had long been 
neglected in Buchanan - Hamilton's time, and have now entirely dis- 
appeared. The natives believe that they were built by Azim, the grand- 
son of Aurangzebj but an inscription on the gate, dated 1042 a.m., 
attributes the erection of the fort to Firoz Jang Khan. There are 
hardly any striking buildings ; and a view of the town, except from the 
river-side, where some European houses are scattered along the bank, is 
decidedly mean. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton states that the only public 
works, except those dedicated to religion, were the Company's opium 
stores, a granary, and a few miserable brick bridges. The Roman 
Catholic church, in the middle of the city, was the best-looking building 
in the place. None of the Muhammadan mosques or Hindu temples 
was worthy of notice ; some of the former were let to be used as ware- 
houses. The number of houses in the whole city, as estimated by Dr. 
Buchanan-Hamilton, amounted to 52,000; of which 7187 were of 
brick, 11,639 of t^^'O storeys, with mud walls and tiled roofs; 53- with 
thatched roofs; 22,188 were mud huts, covered with tiles, and the 
remainder were mud huts covered with thatch. The population he 


estimated at 312,000, or nearly double the present number, on an area 
twice as large. 

One of the most curious buildings in Patna is the old Government 
Granary, or Gold, a high dome-shaped storehouse. This structure, con- 
sisting of a brick building in the shape of a bee-hive, with two winding 
staircases on the outside, which have been ascended on horseback, was 
erected in 1786 as a storehouse for grain. It was intended that the 
grain should be poured in at the top, there being small doors at the 
bottom to take it out. The walls are 21 feet thick. The following 
inscription is on the outside: — 'No. i. — In part of a general plan 
ordered by the Governor-General and Council, 20th of January 1784, 
for the perpetual prevention of Famine in these Provinces, this Granary 
was erected by Captain John Garstin, engineer. Compleated {sic) the 

20th of July 1786. First filled and publickly closed by .' The 

storehouse never has been filled, and so the blank in the inscription 
still remains. During the scarcity of 1874, a good deal of grain, which 
if left at the railway stations might have been spoilt by the rain, was 
temporarily stored here. In times of famine, proposals are still made 
by the native press to fill the Patna Gold. But the losses from damp, 
rats, and insects, render such a scheme of storing grain wasteful and 
impracticable. The Gold is usually inspected by visitors on account of 
the echo, which is remarkably perfect. 

The Patna College is a fine brick building, at the west end of the 
city. Originally built by a native for a private residence, it was pur- 
chased by Government and converted into courts for the administration 
of justice. In 1857 the courts were removed to the present buildings 
at Bdnkipur; and in 1862 the College was established in its present 

Proceeding farther eastwards, for about 3 miles, we arrive at the 
quarter called Gulzdrbdgh, where the Government manufacture of 
opium is carried on. The opium buildings are all on the old river 
bank, and are separated from the city by a high brick wall. In the 
neighbourhood are two small temples, which appear to be of great 
antiquity. One is used by Muhammadans as a mosque, and the other 
by Hindus. 

Beyond Gulzdrbdgh lies the city proper. The western gate is, 
according to its inscription, 5 miles from the Gold, and 12 from 
Dindpur. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton's remarks on the state of the city, 
with some modifications due to improved conservancy arrangements, 
are applicable to its present condition. South of the city, in the quarter 
called Sadikpur, a market has been made on the ground formerly 
occupied by the Wahdbi rebels; but it is not much used by the inhabit- 
ants. Nearly opposite to the Roman Catholic church is the grave where 
the bodies of Mir Kasim's victims were ultimately deposited. It is 


covered by a pillar, built partly of stone and partly of brick, with an 
inlaid tablet and inscription. The i:)resent European graveyard lies to 
the west of the city, just without the confines of Bankipur. 

The chief Muhammadan place of worship is the monument of Shah 
Arzani, about the middle of the western suburb. He died here in the 
year of the Hijra 1032, and his shrine is frequented both by Muham- 
madans and Hindus. In the month of Zikad there is an annual fair 
held on the spot which lasts three days, and attracts about 5000 votaries. 
Adjacent to the tomb is the Karbala, where 100,000 people attend 
during the MuJiarrani festival. Close by is a tank dug by the saint, 
where once a year crowds of people assemble, and many of them bathe. 
The mosque of Sher Shah is probably the oldest building in Patna, and 
the Madrasa of Saif Khan the handsomest. The only other place of 
Muhammadan worship at all remarkable is the monument of Pir Bahor, 
which was built about two hundred and fifty years ago. The Sikhs 
have a place of worship of great repute, called the Har-mandir, which 
owes its celebrity to its having been the birthplace of Govind Singh, the 
last great teacher of the sect. In spite of the antiquity of Patna, the total 
absence of ancient edifices is not to be wondered at, for quite modern 
buildings fall into decay as soon as they are at all neglected. Chahal 
Satun, the palace of the Behar viceroys, which in 1760 was in perfect 
preservation, and occupied by Prince Ali Jahan, afterwards the Emperor 
Shah Alam, could in 181 2 be scarcely traced in a few detached portions 
retaining no marks of grandeur. In the same year, the only vestige to 
be found of a court of justice, which had been erected in 1728, w^as a 
stone commemorating the erection, dug up in 1807, when a police 
office was about to be erected on the spot. A few gardens in and 
about Patna are cultivated with roses, for distilling rose-water; and 
some of them cover a third of an acre in extent. 

Population^ etc. — Patna city covers an area of 6184 acres, or 9§ square 
miles. As regards population, it ranks seventh among the cities of 
British India, and is second only to Calcutta among the cities of Bengal. 
Its population, which in 1872 was returned at 158,900, had increased 
by 1881 to 170,654, namely, males 83,199, and females 87,455. Hindus 
form the great majority, or 74-4 per cent., of the population, and in 1881 
numbered 127,076, namely, males 62,581, and females 64,495. Muham- 
madans numbered 43,086, namely, males 20,456, and females 22,630; 
and Christians, 492, namely, males 162, and females 330. Municipal 
income (1883-84), ;£'ii,i47, of which ^9116 was derived from taxa- 
tion ; average incidence of taxation, is. o|d. per head of municipal 
population (173,251). 

Ti'ade. — The principal business quarters of the city, proceeding from 
east to west, are: — Mariifganj, Mansiirganj, the Kila, the Chauk with 
Mirchaiganj, Maharajganj, Sadikpur, Alabakhshpur, Gulzarbagh, and 


Colonelgnnj. The following paragraphs are condensed from a memo- 
randum prepared in the Bengal Secretariat : — 

In the District of Patnd, the principal mart is Patna city, a place 
of considerable importance as a commercial depot. Its central position^ 
at the junction of three great rivers, the Son, the Gandak, and the 
Ganges, where the traffic of the North-Western Provinces meets that 
oT Bengal, and another line of trade branches off to Nepal, gives it 
in this respect great advantages. It is conveniently situated for the 
purpose of transport either by river or railway, having a river frontage 
during the rains of from 7 to 8 miles, and in the dry months of 4 

Mr. M. Rattray, the Salt Superintendent at Patna, who was deputed 
during the early months of 1876 to collect trade statistics of Patna 
city, has furnished an elaborate Report on the subject, showing the 
export and import trade, the places of shipment and destination, and 
the route taken by each kind of trade. The following paragraphs are 
derived from Mr. Rattray's Report, and the figures refer to 1875-76. 
The statistics for 1883-84 are given at the end of this article. 

The city proper comprises the large business quarters of (i) Mardf- 
ganj, (2) Mansiirganj, (3) the Kila, (4) the Chauk with Mirchaiganj, 
(5) Maharajganj, (6) Sadikpur, (7) Alabakhshpur, (8) Gulzarbagh, (9) 
Colonelganj, and other petty bazars too numerous to mention, extending 
westward as far as the civil station of Bankipur. The mercantile 
portion of the city may be said to commence at Colonelganj, which 
is situated a short distance west of Gulzarbagh, and is the centre of a 
large trade in oil-seeds and food-grains. From here the other marts 
run eastward as far as the Patna branch line of railway, immediately 
adjoining which is Mariifganj, by far the most important of any of the 
marts in the city. 

The influx of goods into Mariifganj, Colonelganj, Gulzarbagh, and the 
Kila (in respect of cotton), is from northern Behar, the North-Western 
Provinces, and Bengal, with which these marts possess direct and easy 
water communication, and thus command a far larger supply than the 
inland marts of Mansiirganj, Maharajganj, Sadikpur, and Alabakhsh- 
l)ur, or any of the other petty bazars remote from the river bank. 
The trade of these latter is more intimately concerned with the pro- 
duce of the Districts of Patna, Gaya, and Shahabad, which transmit 
large supplies of oil -seeds and grain by means of carts and pack- 
bullocks. Oil-seeds are disposed of wholesale to the few large export 
merchants of Marufganj ; the supply of grain, which consists prmci- 
pally of rice, is sold retail in the bazars for local consumption. 

The principal imports are cotton goods, oil-seeds, salt, saline sub- 
stances {khdri, sdjji, etc.), sugar (refined and unrefined), wheat, pulses, 
gram, rice, paddy, and other cereals. 


The import of European cotton manufactures amounts to the large 
total in money value of ;^285,537, and the import of native manufac- 
tures to ;£'3o65. Of silk cloths, considering the size and wealth of the 
city, the value appears to be comparately small, viz. ;^i 3,040. There 
is a large import of gunny-bags (673,419 in number); and it is said 
that about two-thirds of these are re-exported with grain. 

Irrespective of these imports, large quantities of salt, indigo seed, 
and various other kinds of merchandise are imported by rail, by 
merchants who have no agents or business connection in the city, and 
are residents of some other District. These articles are loaded into 
boats direct from the goods-sheds, and cannot be considered as forming 
a part of the regular import trade of the city. In a similar manner there 
are considerable exports of goods which have no connection with any 
of the business houses in the city, but are landed into waggons direct 
from boats. 

By far the largest importing mart is Marilfganj, the merchants of 
which place may be said to possess a monopoly of the oil-seed trade, 
for their imports amount to no less than 728,237 maunds, or nearly 
two-thirds of the entire quantity imported into Patna. In respect to 
other staples also, this mart shows a large importation. The imports of 
refined sugar amount to 36,501 maimds. Mr. Rattray w\as informed 
by a respectable merchant of the city that, since the opening of the 
Jabalpur railway, a large portion of the produce of the North-Western 
Provinces, which used to be consigned to Patna, is now despatched by 
that line to Bombay. 

The next mart of importance is Mansiirganj, lying immediately south 
of Marilfganj. Being more of an inland mart, the supplies of Mansiir- 
ganj are drawn for the most part from Patna District and other Districts 
to the south. 

Colonelganj, a river-side mart, stands next in order, with imports 
brought almost wholly by boat from the Districts of North Behar and 
from Bengal. Other smaller marts for oil-seeds and cereals are Sadikpur 
and Maharajganj. 

Omitting the imports into the numerous petty bdzdis^ there remains 
the central business quarter of the Chauk, connected with which is 
Mirchaiganj ; and farther east the Kila, also known as the cotton mart, 
for it imports 35,871 viaiinds of cotton out of a total of 38,271 maunds 
for the whole city. All these marts have a distinct trade of their own. 

The importance of the Chauk consists in the variety and value of 
its imports. The principal import is cloth, of which a considerable 
trade is carried on by the Marvvaris. European cotton goods, chiefly 
longcloth, to the value of ^180,425 for the Chauk, and of ^93,200'for 
Mirchaiganj, are said to have been imported during the year 1875-76. 
The whole of this came by rail. 


Before entering into an explanation of the figures, it is necessary to 
explain the particular character of the import trade of the city, which 
alone can account for the heavy imports by river. There are scarcely 
twenty persons in the city to whom the term ' merchant ' can be strictly 
applied— that is, wholesale dealers with head-quarters in the city and 
agencies at out-stations, who carry on an import and export business 
entirely on their own account. The truth is that the bulk of the so- 
called merchants are, properly speaking, merely commission agents ; 
and the general practice is for bepdris or dealers to bring merchandise 
to these agents, at a storehouse, termed an arat^ where the grain is sold, 
the agent or aratddr merely receiving a certain percentage. In this 
manner, a considerable import trade passes through the hands of the 
aratddrs into those of the wholesale exporting merchants. It is said that 
nine-tenths of the oil-seeds and grain, when brought into the city, 
are deposited in some anit^ where they are taken over by the aratddr 
on his own account at the then prevailing rates. Taking the trade 
as a whole, it may be laid down that most articles are passed on 
through the city from one mart to another. Thus, to take the 
important staple of oil-seeds, large quantities are landed at Colonelganj, 
where they are purchased by Maharajganj merchants, who in their turn 
sell to merchants of some other mart, and so on till the goods finally 
reach the hands of the exporting merchant for despatch to Calcutta. 

Possessing, as the city does, great advantages in the way of water 
communication, it is not surprising to find the imports by river much in 
excess of those by rail and by road. Importers of goods, to whom time 
is of little consequence, naturally select water carriage as being cheapest 
and most convenient ; and there are of course certain classes of goods, 
such as bamboos, large and small, timber, firewood, hay and straw, 
rattans, mats and golpafld, which, from their bulky nature and com- 
paratively small value, will not admit of any other mode of conveyance. 

A very elaborate and interesting statement, enumerating no fewer 
than 86 places from which the Patna imports are derived, and giving 
the quantities received from each, is supplied by Mr. Rattray in the 
Report already referred to. A full condensation of that statement will 
be found in T/ie Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xi. pp. 163-169. 

The export trade, with the exception of oil-seeds and salt, is com- 
paratively small, the most important article of export being oil-seeds, of 
I which no less than 1,146,852 maiinds were exported in 1875-76. The 
trade in this staple is in the hands of about a dozen merchants. Two 
European agencies in the city exported between them more than half the 
above quantity. Salt to the extent of 105,329 maitnds, not quite half 
the imports, is the next most important item. 

The railway has been very successful in attracting to itself the bulk 
of the export traffic. The total despatched by this route amounted to 



1,105,659 viaunds, the larger proportion of which consisted of oil-seeds, 
979,047 maunds. 

The total exports of such articles as are shown by weight amounted 
to 1,525,827 maunds for the city, or nearly half as much as the imports; 
of which oil-seeds account for 1,146,852 maunds, and salt 105,329 
maunds. Apart from these exports, there is a sort of indirect export 
trade by no means inconsiderable, chiefly in cotton, spices, English 
piece-goods, cocoa-nuts, and tobacco, regarding which the merchants 
were unable to supply statistical information. By ' indirect ' exports 
are meant goods purchased daily in small or large quantities by the 
mahdjaiis and bainyds of the interior of Patna District and of other 
Districts of the Division, which unquestionably do form a part of the 
export trade of the city. It is impossible to state, even approximately, 
the quantity thus exported, but it is known to be considerable. Amongst 
other articles of export may be mentioned 200 maunds of tobacco 
despatched to Bombay, and 250 maunds to Calcutta. This is prepared 
tobacco for smoking, for which Patna is noted. The remaining exports 
from Patna are unimportant. 

Trade in 1883-84. — The foregoing paragraphs give a general \iew of 
the trade of Patna in detail for the various marts in the city, and with 
particular reference to the year 1875-76. Since then, the trade, though 
maintaining the same general character, has very materially increased. 
In 1883-84, the total trade of Patna (including the civil station of 
Bankipur and the military station of Dinapur) amounted in value to 
;2^io,495,763, namely, imports ^3,892,184, and exports ^6,603,579. 

Patna Canal. — Canal in Patna District, Bengal, on the Sox System ; 
branches off from the Eastern Main Canal in Gaya District, about 
4 miles from the village of Barun, where the Son is crossed by an anicut 
which diverts the water into the Eastern and Western Main Canals. 
The Patna Canal is designed to irrigate the country lymg east of the 
Son. It is 79 miles in length, of which 36 miles lie within Patna 
District ; and it commands an area of 780 square miles, or 449,200 
acres, irrigated by water conveyed by distributaries. The course of the 
canal from its commencement is, in general, parallel with that of the 
Son ; but shortly after entering Patna District it bends to the east, 
following an old channel of the Son, and joins the Ganges at Digha, 
a village situated between Bankipur and Dinapur. The canal was 
completed and opened throughout in October 1877. 

Patna. — Native State attached to Sambalpur District, Central 
Provinces, lying between 20° 5' and 21° n. lat., and betw^een 82"" 45' and 
83° 40' E. long. Bounded on the north and west by the Borasambar 
and Khariar chiefships, on the south and east by the Feudatory States 
of Kalahandi and Sonpur. Area, 2399 square miles. Population 
(1881) 257,959. 


1 1 

The country is an undulating plain, rugged and isolated, with ridges 
of hills crossing it here and there, and shut in on the north by a lofty 
irregular range. The soil for the most part is light and sandy. The 
principal rivers are the Tel, Ong, Suktel, and Sundar. 

Patna was formerly the most important of all the Native States 
attached to Sambalpur, and the head of a cluster of States known as 
the Athdra Garhjdt—' The Eighteen Forts.' The Maharaja traces 
his descent through thirty-one generations to a race of Rajput princes 
of Garh Sambar, near Alainpuri. Hitambar Singh, the last of that 
line, having offended the King of Delhi, was killed, and his 
family dispersed. One of his wives, however, found her way to 
Patna, then represented by a cluster of eight garhs or forts, and there 
gave birth to a boy, who was called Ramai Deva. The chief of 
Kolagarh adopted the child, and eventually abdicated in his favour. 
Until this tin-ie, the custom had been for the Raja of each garh to take 
it in turn to rule for a day over the whole ; but when Ramai Deva's 
day arrived, he put the chiefs of the other seven garJis to death, and 
governed the eight garhs with the title of Maharaja. He further 
strengthened his position by a marriage with the daughter of the ruler 
of Orissa. 

During the three centuries which elapsed between the reigns of 
Ramai Deva and Baijal Deva, the tenth of the line, Patna obtained 
considerable accessions of territory. The States of Khariar and 
Bindra Nawagarh to the west, Phuljhar and Sarangarh to the north, 
and Bamail, Gangpur, and Bamra to the north-east, were all made 
tributary ; while Rairakhol, with a tract of land on the left bank 
of the Mahanadi, was annexed. A fort was erected in the Phuljhar 
State ; and Chandrapur pa/gand on the left bank of the Mahanadi 
was wrested from the ruler of Ratanpur. Narsingh Deva, the twelfth 
Maharaja, ceded to his brother Balram Deva all his territories north 
of the river Ong. Balram Deva then founded Sambalpur, which soon 
afterwards, by the acquisition of territory in every direction, became 
the most powerful of all the hill States. Meanwhile, Patna declined ; 
and though for some generations it continued to receive a certain 
allegiance from the surrounding States, it sank by degrees into insig- 
nificance, and until recently was one of the poorest of all. Some old 
temples on the banks of the Tel, and others at Rani Jhiria, built, 
it is said, a thousand years ago by a pious Rdni of the Chauhan 
caste, alone record the past greatness of Patna. 

Rice forms the staple product, but pulses, oil-seeds, sugar-cane, and 
cotton are also grown. For 30 miles round the town of Patna, a vast 
forest extends, containing sd/, sdj\ Mjesdl, dhdiird, ebony, and other 
woods, with small clearings here and there. These jungles are infested 
with tigers, man-eaters being common ; wild buffaloes, bears, and 


leopards are also numerous. Patna has no manufactures of importance. 
Iron-ore is found in many parts, but no mines are regularly worked. 
The only means of communication are a few bullock or pony tracks 
across the hills. 

Area of State, 2399 square miles, with 1591 villages and 50,841 
houses. Total population (1881) 257,959, namely, males 131,570, 
and females 126,389 ; average density, 107-5 persons per square 
mile. No separate return is given in the Census Report, showing 
either the ethnical or religious division of the people. The most 
common Hindu castes are Brahmans, Mahantis, Rajputs, Agarias, and 
Kultas. The aboriginal tribes consist of Gonds, Kandhs, and 
Binjwars. Of the total area of 2399 square miles, 550 square miles 
are returned as under cultivation; while of the portion lying waste, 950 
square miles are said to be still available for cultivation. 

In 187 1, upon the death of the late Raja leaving an infant heir, the 
State was taken under direct Government management, and is now in 
a very flourishing condition. The State is still under the management 
of the Government Political Agent, and the minor Raja is a student 
at the Rajkumar College at Jabalpur. In 1 8 76-7 7 the collections 
amounted to ^4740, the expenditure to £2^^^, and the balance to 
nearly ;2^2 3oo, including the surplus of the previous year. The in- 
come of the State in 1883-84 amounted to ;^644o, and the expenditure 
to ;£^59oo, with an accumulated balance in hand of ;£"6894. 

The temperature is that of the plains generally, in the cold months 
being often as low as 45° F. at daybreak, and rising by mid-day to 
about 80° F. The hot season lasts from April to the middle of 
June, when the thermometer sometimes reaches iio^ F. in the shade. 
Though the climate has a bad reputation, the inhabitants appear robust 
and healthy. Cholera frequently breaks out, especially in the larger 

Patna. — Chief town of Patna Tributary State, attached to Sambalpur 
District, Central Provinces, and residence of the Raja. Population 
(1881) 2053, namely, Hindus 2044, and Muhammadans 9. 

Patna. — A small river rising in the Bhanrer range of hills in Slee- 
manabad tahsil, Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) District, Central Provinces. 
After a northerly course of 35 miles, it falls into the right bank of the 
Bairma river. For some distance the Patna marks the boundary 
between Panna State and Jabalpur District. 

Patri. — Petty State in the Jhalawar division of Kathiawar, Bombay 
Presidency ; consisting of 7 villages, with i tribute-payer. Area, 40 
square miles. Population (1881) 3877. Estimated revenue, ^900; 
tribute of ;£"52 3, los. is paid to the British Government. 

Patri. — Town in Viramgam Sub-division, Ahmadabad District, 
Bombay Presidency; a station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central 


India Railway, in lat. 23° 11' n., and long. 71° 50' e., 58 miles west 
of Ahmaddbad city. Situated in a bare plain on the border of the 
Rann of Cutch, surrounded by a wall and with a strong central castle. 
Population (1881) 6525. A town of rising importance; trade in 
cotton, grain, and molasses. Post-office. 

PattapattU {Faftai). — Town in Tinnevelli taluk, Tinnevelli District, 
Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 8' 43' 20" N., and long. 77^43' 
10" E. Population (1881) 7321, occupying 1575 houses. Hindus 
number 4283; Muhammadans, 2613; and Christians, 425. Post- 

Patti.— Agricultural town in Kasur tahsil, Lahore District, Punjab ; 
situated in lat. 31° 17' n., long. 74° 54' e., 38 miles south-east of 
Lahore city. Population (1881) 6407, namely, Muhammadans, 3869 ; 
Hindus, 1943; Jains, 421; and Sikhs, 174. Number of houses, 
1 09 1. Municipal income (1883-84), £aa^, or an average of is. 4id. 
per head. Patti is an ancient town, and is mentioned in the itinerary 
of Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese pilgrim of the 7th century. The 
town is walled, and the houses are mostly built of burnt bricks ; 
streets well paved, and a good bazar. An old fort 200 yards north- 
east of the town contains the police station and rest-house. School. 
Patti forms a favourite recruiting station ; the inhabitants are noted 
for their fine physique, and large numbers of them are serving in the 

'?dXti.— Ta/isiloT Sub-division of Fartabgarh (Pratapgarh) District, 
Oudh ; bounded on the north by Sultanpur and Kadipur tahsils, on 
the east by Jaunpur District, on the south by Allahabad District, and 
on the west by Partabgarh iahsil. Area, 468 square miles, of which 
217 are cultivated. Population (188 1) 255,697, namely, 229,751 Hindus 
and 25,946 Muhammadans. The most thinly populated tahsil in the 
District, the average pressure being 546 persons to the square mile. 
Number of villages or townships {inauzds), 816. This /rz/zj// comprises 
the 2 pargands of Patti and Dalippur, which are now joined together 
and returned as one; of the 816 villages, 695 are held under taluk- 
ddri, and 120 under mufrdd tenure, while i belongs to Government. 
Of the 695 tdlukddri villages, 680 are held by Bachgoti Rajputs in 23 
estates; the remaining 15 composing a single estate held by Dirg- 
bansis. In 1884 the tahsil contained i civil and 2 criminal courts; 
strength of regular police, 41 men ; rural police or village watch 
{chaukiddrs), 712. 

Pattikonda. — Tdluk or Sub -division of Karniil (Kurnool) Dis- 
trict, Madras Presidency. Area, 1134 square miles. Population 
(1881) 105,438, namely, 54,666 males and 50,772 females, dwelling in 
107 villages, containing 20.755 houses. Hindus number 97,094: 
Muhammadans, 8231; Christians, 100; and 'ethers,' 13. The A/Z^z/C* 


contains 2 criminal courts ; police circles {t/iands), 20 ; regular police, 
142. Land revenue (1883), ;^i 7,042. 

Pattikonda. — Head-quarters of the Pattikonda idliik, Karnul 
(Kurnool) District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 15° 28' N., long. 77° 4' E. 
Pojoulation (1881) 3087, inhabiting 717 houses. Memorable as the 
scene of Sir Thomas Munro's death, from cholera, in July 1827. Post- 

Pattukotai. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Tanjore District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 909 square miles. Population (1872) 237,423; 
(1881) 244,717, namely, 117,871 males and 126,846 females, dwelling 
in 840 villages, and occupying 47,346 houses. Hindus number 
221,556; Muhammadans, 17,066; Christians, 6093; and 'others, 2. 
In 1883 the number of civil courts in the td/nk was i, and of criminal 
courts 2; police circles {thdnds), 13; regular police, 87 men. Land 
revenue, ^19,205. 

Pattukotai. — Town in Tanjore District, and head-quarters of Pattu- 
kotai tdluk, Madras Presidency; situated 27 miles south-east of Tanjore 
town. Population (t88i) 4677, occupying 809 houses. A sub-station 
of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel ; a station of the 
Vicariate -Apostolic of ]\Ladura ; police station, sub-jail, telegraphic 
and post offices, dispensary, and fort. The fort was built by Vijaya 
Raghaya (the last of the Nayak dynasty) in the 7th century. 

Patuakhali. — Sub-division of Bakarganj District, Bengal ; com- 
prising the 4 police circles of Patuakhali, Bauphal, Gulsakhali, and 
Gulachhipa. Area, 1231 square miles, with looi towns and villages, 
and 49,620 houses. Population (1872) 425,019: (1881) 426,758, 
namely, males 223,688, and females 203,070. Muhammadans num- 
ber 342,112, or 8o-i per cent.; Hindus, 79,749, or 18-9 per cent.; 
Buddhists, 4723; and Christians, 174. Proportion of males in total 
population, 52*4 per cent. ; average density of population, 346 persons 
per square mile ; persons per village, 426 ; houses per square mile, 
42-2 ; inmates per house, 8*6. Head-quarters at the village of Patua- 
khali or Lankati ; lat. 22° 20' 35" x., long. 90° 22' 45" e. In 1883, 
Patuakhali Sub-division contained i criminal and 3 civil and revenue 
courts, a regular police force numbering 81 men, and a village watch or 
rural police of 1088 chaukiddrs. 

Patlir {Patur Shaikh Babu). — Town in Balapur tdluk, Akola Dis- 
trict, Berar. Situated in lat. 20° 27' n., and long. 76° 59' e., 18 miles 
south of Akola town, on the high road from Akola to Basim, and under 
the hills up which a pass leads to the Balaghat. Population (1881) 
7219, namely, Hindus, 4994; Muhammadans, 2002; Jains, 221 ; and 
* others,' 2, A rock-hewn Buddhist monastery is situated in the hill- 
side east of the town. Two other shrines in the vicinity, one Muham- 
madan and the other Hindu, are much resorted to. An annual Hindu 


fair is held in January-February, lasting upwards of a month. A 
Musalman fair, lasting for three days, is held at the shrine of Shaikh 
Uabii. Weekly market, post-office, and inspection bungalow. 

Paumben. — Town in INIadura District, Madras Presidency. — See 
Pa Mi; AM. 

Paunar {Powndr). — Ancient town in Wardha tahsil^ Wardha Dis- 
trict, Central Provinces ; situated in lat. 20° 47' n., and long. 78° 42' 
30" E., on the river Dham, 5 miles north-east of Wardhd town. Popu- 
lation (1881) 2495, chiefly agricultural. Hindus number 2268; 
Muhammadans, 189; Jains, 35; and non-Hindu aborigines, 3. The 
village contains a ruined fort in a strong position, and one of the large 
stone gateways of the old wall yet remains. Paunar forms the scene 
of some curious legends, which will be found in the article on Wardha 
District. It was formerly the chief seat of the Musalman Govern- 
ment east of the river Wardha ; and under the Mardthas became the 
head-quarters of a kamdvisddri or revenue district. In 1807 the 
Pindari's plundered the town. Anglo-vernacular school. 

Paung-deh {Pomig-day). — Township in Prome District, Lower 
Burma; situated to the west of the Myit-ma-ka stream, which traverses 
the township from north to south, leaving a narrow strip between it and 
the In-daing, the name given to the long stretch of In (Dipterocarpus 
tuberculatus) forest land lying between the Prome hills and the Myit- 
ma-ka. The country is undulating, and the eastern portion consists of 
a plain highly cultivated and under rice. The great high road from 
Rangoon to the northern frontier, and also the Irawadi Valley State Rail- 
way, traverse this tract. I'he chief river is the Myit-ma-ka, the head- 
waters of the Hlaing river, which carries off nearly the whole drainage 
of the country. Its main tributaries are the Shwe-lay or Weh-gyi and 
the Kantha or Taung-nyo. Paung-deh now includes In-ma, once an 
independent jurisdiction. The In-ma lake is an extensive marsh about 
10 miles long and 4 broad in the rains, with a depth of 12 feet. The 
Myit-ma-ka enters it in the north as the Zay. The township comprises 
39 revenue circles, with a population in 1881 of 34,287, and a gross 
revenue of about ^^8400. 

Paung-deh {Poiwg-day). — Chief town of Paung-deh township, 
Prome District, Pegu Division, Lower Burma; situated in lat. 18^ 28' 
20" N., and long. 95° 33' 40" e., on the main road from Rangoon 
northwards, 32 miles south of Prome town. Contains a court-house, 
market, police station, lock-up, charitable dispensary, the reformatory 
for the Province, school, etc. Station on the Irawadi Valley State 
Railway. Population (1881) 6727. 

Paung-laung {Poimg-Zoufig). — Range of hills in Tenasserim Division, 
Lower Burma, forming the eastern boundary of Shwe-gyin District. 
The mountains are steep and densely wooded, and many rivers take 


their rise here. Three principal passes cross the range— the northern 
runs up the valley of the Baw-ga-ta, and across the Thayet-pin-kin-dat 
hill to Kaw-lu-do, the northern police post in the Salwin Hill Tracts ; 
the central passes up the valleys of the Mut-ta-ma and Meh-deh, and 
debouches at Pa-pun ; and the southern route is from the Mut-ta-ma 
river to Pa-wa-ta on the Bi-lin. 

Paiing--lin (i^^z^^/,?--//-^). — Township of Hanthawadi (formerly 
Rangoon) District, Pegu Division, Lower Burma. Population (1881) 
49,526; gross revenue, ^26,154. The Sittaung Valley State Railway 
traverses Paung-lin. — See Hpaung-lin. 

Pauni. — Town and municipality in Bhanddra District, Central 
Provinces; situated in lat. 20° 48' n., and long. 79° 40' e., 32 miles 
south of Bhandara town. Population (1881) 9773, namely, Hindus, 
8760; Kabirpanthis, 29; Muhammadans, 838; Jains, 7; non-Hindu 
aborigines, 139. Municipal income (1882-83), ;£397, of which ^342 
was derived from taxation ; average incidence of taxation, 8|d. per 
head. The town is surrounded on three sides by high ramparts of earth, 
in some parts crowned with stone battlements, and by a ditch ; along 
the fourth side, to the east, runs the scarped bank of the Wainganga 
river. Two or three handsome stone ghats lead down to the river, 
which supplies the water used for domestic purposes ; that drawn from 
the wells being generally brackish. The dense jungle in and around 
the town renders the place very unhealthy; and this fact, with the 
consequent removal of many of the wealthier inhabitants to Nagpur, 
has caused Pauni to decay. A considerable trade still takes place, 
however, in cotton cloth and silk pieces ; and the finer fabrics manu- 
factured at Pauni are exported to great distances. The town contains 
many old shrines, but the great temple of Murlidhar, though com- 
paratively modern, is the only one of repute. Pauni has a large and 
flourishing Government school, police outpost station, post-office, 
dispensary, and small rest-house for travellers on the bank of the river. 

Pauri {Faori), — Village and administrative head-quarters of Garh- 
wal District, North-Western Provinces. Lat. 30° 8' 10" n., long. 78° 
48' 15" E. Residence of an extra-Assistant Commissioner and of a 
civil judge {Sadr Amin), Station of the American Baptist Mission. 
Anglo-vernacular school. 

Pavagada. — Tdhik in Chitaldriig District, Mysore State. Area, 567 
square miles, of which 163 are cuhivated. Population (1871) 66,250 ; 
(1881) 45,513, namely, 23,400 males and 22,113 females. Hindus 
number 44,586; Muhammadans, 842; Jains, 2>2 ; and Christians, 3. 
Land revenue (1881-82), exclusive of water rates, ^7504, or is. 4d. 
per cultivated acre. Soil sandy, and abounding with talpargis or sub- 
surface springs of water. Crops — rice, ragi, navane, and horse-gram ; 
exports — iron and rice. In 1883 the taluk contained i civil and i 


criminal court; police circles {thdfids), 7; regular police, 54 men; 
village watch {c/iaukiddrs), 132. 

Pdvagada (or Fdmu^^onda, ' Snake-hill "). — Village in Chitaldriig 
District, Mysore State; situated in lat. 14° 6' 23" n., and long. 77° 
19' 8" E., 60 miles east of Chitaldriig town, at the southern base of 
Pavagada hill, 3026 feet above sea-level ; head-quarters of Pavagada 
td/uk. Population (188 1 ) 1591. The residence of a line of /^V.f^i.w^, 
whose founder lived towards the close of the i6th century. The 
existing fortifications were erected by Haidar All in 1777. 

Pawagarh (or ' Quarter Hiir).—Y{'\\\ fort in the Panch Mahals 
District, Bombay Presidency; situated in lat. 22° 31' n., and long. 
73° 36' E., about 28 miles east of Baroda. An isolated hill surrounded 
by extensive plains, from which it rises abruptly to the height of about 
2500 feet, being about 2800 feet above the level of the sea. The 
base and lower slopes are thickly covered with rather stunted timber. 
But its shoulders and centre crest are, on the south, west, and north, 
cliffs of bare trap, too steep for trees. Less inaccessible, the eastern 
heights are wooded and topped by massive masonry walls and bastions 
rising with narrowing fronts to the scarped rock that crowns the hill. 
To the east of Pawagarh lie the vast Baria State forests, and the hill 
seems to form the boundary between the wild country to the east and 
the clear open plain that stretches westward to the sea. On the east 
side of the north end of the hill are the remains of many beautifully 
executed Jain temples ; and on the west side, overlooking a tremendous 
precipice, are some Musalman buildings of more modern date, supposed 
to have been used as granaries. The southern extremity is more un- 
even, and from its centre rises an immense peak of solid rock, towering 
to the height of about 250 feet. The ascent to the top of this is by a 
flight of stone steps, and on its summit stand a Hindu temple and a 
Musalman shrine. 

The fortifications consist of a lower fort, a massive stone structure 
with strong bastions stretching across the less precipitous parts of the 
eastern spur. This line of fortification is entered by the Atak gate, 
once double, but now with its outer gate in ruins. Half a mile further 
is the Mohoti or Great Gate, giving entrance to the second line of 
defence. The path winds up the face of the rock through four gates, 
each commanding the one below it. Massive walls connect the gates 
and sweep up to the fortifications that stretch across the crest of the 
spur. Beyond the Mohoti Gate, the path for about 200 yards lies over 
level ground with a high ridge on the left, crowned by a strong wall 
running back to the third line of defence. This third line of defence 
is reached through the Sadan Shah Gate, a winding passage cut through 
the solid rock, crowned with towering walls and bastions, and crossed 
by a double Hindu gateway. 


In old inscriptions, the name of the hill appears as Pawakgarh, or 
' Fire Hill.' The first historic reference to it is in the writings of the 
bard Chand (102 2-1 07 2), who speaks of Ram Gaur the Tuar as lord 
of Pawa. The earHest authentic account is about 1300, when it was 
seized by Chauhan Rajputs, who fled from Me war before the forces of 
Ala-iid-din Khilji. The Musalman kings of Ahmadabad more than 
once attempted to take the fort, and failed. In 1484, Sultan Mahmiid 
Begara, after a siege of nearly two years, succeeded in reducing it. 
On gaining possession, he added to the defences of the upper and 
lower forts, and for the first time fortified the plateau, making it his 
citadel. In spite of its strength, it was captured in 1535 by the 
Emperor Hamayiln by treachery. In 1573 it fell into the hands of the 
Emperor Akbar. In 1727 it was surprised by Krishnaji, who made it 
his head-quarters, and conducted many raids into Gujarat. Sindhia 
took the fort about 1761; and from Sindhia Colonel Woodington 
captured it in 1803. In 1804 it was restored to Sindhia, with whom 
it remained until 1853, when the British took over the management of 
the Panch Mahal District. 

The constant cool winds that prevail during the hot-weather months 
make the hill at that season a favourite resort for the European 
residents of Baroda. 

Pawangarh. — Hill fort in Kolhapur State, Bombay Presidency. 
Lat. 16° 48' N., long. 74° 10' 15" E. The fort was stormed by a British 
force on ist December 1844. 

Pawayan. — Northern iahsiloi Shahjahanpur District, North-Western 
Provinces, comprising the pargands of Pawayan, Jamaur, and Kant. 
Area, 598 square miles, of which 358 are cultivated. Population 
(1872) 261,494; (1881) 245,454, namely, males 131,221, and lemales 
114,233. Classified according to religion, there were in 1881 — 
Hindus, 223,408; Muhammadans, 22,028; and 'others,' 18. Of the 
654 villages in the tahsil, 508 contain less than five hundred inhabitants ; 
108 Irom five hundred to a thousand; 37 from one to three thousand; 
and I upwards of five thousand inhabitants. Government land 
revenue, ;£"34,5i8, or including local rates and cesses levied on land, 
;£'39,438. Rental paid by cultivators, ^56,304. In 1883, Pawayan 
tahsil contained i civil and i magisterial court ; strength of regular 
police, 61 men; besides a village watch or chai/kidd?'i force. 

Pawayan. — Town in Shahjahanpur District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces, and head-quarters of Pawayan tahsil. Situated in lat. 28° 4' 
10" N., and long. 80° 8' 25" e., 4 miles south of the Bhainsi river, 
and 17 miles north of Shahjahanpur town. Population (1881) 5478, 
namely, Hindus, 4038; Muhammadans, 1423; and 'others,' 17. The 
sanitation, conservancy, and police of the town are provided for by a 
small house-tax. Charitable dispensary. 


Pd-wi Mul^ndd,. — Zaminddri or chiefship in Chandd District, 
Central Provinces, 16 miles east of Chamursi ; comprising an area of 
87 square miles, with 23 villages and 332 houses. Po])ulation (1881) 
1681. Supplies excellent iron-ore; and the forests yield teak, ebony, 
and bijesdl. 

Pd,yanghdt. — The valley of the Purna river, in P.erar, lying between 
20" 27' and 21' 10' N. lat., and between 76^ 10' and 78° e. long., and 
running eastward between the Ajanta ringe and the Gawilgarh Hills 
like a long backwater or inlet, varying in breadth from 40 to 50 miles, 
and becoming wider towards the east. The surface of the valley rises 
and descends by very long low waves, the intermediate valleys lying 
north and south. At a point just beyond Amraoti, this formation is 
broken by a chain of low hills crossing the plain in a north-westerly 
direction, and changing the watershed from west to east. The Payan- 
ghat contains the best land in Berar — the deep black alluvial soil, 
of almost inexhaustible fertility, called regar. Here and there are 
barren tracts, where the hills spread out their skirts far into the plain ; 
or where a few outlying flat-topped hills, often crowned with huge 
cairn-like mounds, stand forward beyond the ranks to which they pro- 
perly belong. Except the Purna, which is the main artery of the river 
system, scarcely a stream in this tract is perennial. The Payanghat is 
very scantily wooded, except close under the hills. In the early autumn 
it is one sheet of cultivation, but in the hot season the landscape is 
desolate and depressing. 

Payidipala. — Village in Golconda taluk, Vizagapatam District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 17° 38' n., long. 82° 47' e. Attached to 
the village are 10 hamlets, scattered over 5 square miles. Population 
(1871) 7797 and (1881) 6896, dwelling in 1490 houses. Hindus 
number 6805 ; Muhammadans, 88 ; and ' others,' 3. 

Peddapur. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Godavari District, Madras 

Presidency. Area, 552 square miles. Population (1871) 111,489; 

(1881) 124,314, namely, 62,088 males and 62,226 females, dwelling in 

I town and 187 villages, and occupying 25,282 houses. Hindus 

I number 122,400; Muhammadans, 1901 ; and 'others,' 13. In 1883 

I the tdluk contained i civil and 2 criminal courts ; police circles {t/uinds), 

[11; regular police, 178 men. Land revenue, ;£"22,65o. The region is 

1 mostly jungle. Rice, sugar-cane, cotton, and gram are grown. Trade 

; is carried on with Coconada. 

I Peddapur {Peddpur). — Head-quarters town of Peddapur tdluk, 
! Godavari District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 17° 4' 55" n., long. 82° 
10' 35" E. Population (187 1) 9202; (1881) 11,278, namely, 5573 
males and 5705 females, occupying 2169 houses. Hindus number 
10,664, and Muhammadans 614. The town lies 30 miles from Rajd- 
mahendri (Rajahmundry). Sub - magistrate's and District munsifs 


courts; post-office, bungalow, and good market. Peddapurwas formerly 
the head-quarters of a large zaminddri. 

Peerpointee. — Town in Bhagalpur District, Bengal. — See PiR- 


Pegu (Fai-gu). — Division of Lower Burma, comprising Rangoon 
Tow'N, the Districts of Hanthawadi (formerly Rangoon District), 
Tharawadi, and Prome, each of which see separately ; also British 
Burma and Pegu Town. The Division lies between 16° i' 40" and 
^9 55' 20" N. lat, and between 95° 12' and 96° 54' e. long. Area, 
9159 square miles. Number of towns, 5 ; villages, 4425 ; houses, 
205,416. Total population (1881) 1,162,393, namely, males 635,368, 
or 54*8 per cent., and females 527,025, or 45-2 per cent. Average 
density of population, i26'9 persons per square mile; towns and 
villages per square mile, 0*48 ; persons per town or village, 262 ; 
occupied houses per square mile, 22^5; persons per house, 57. 
Nearly the entire population, namely, 1,058,960, or 91 per cent., 
are Buddhists. Hindus number 46,742; Muhammadans, 28,159; 
Christians, 19,815; Nat- worshippers or non- Buddhist indigenous 
races, 8468; Brahmos, 11; Jews, 172; and Parsis, 66. Of the 
total number of Christians, European British and other European 
and American subjects number 3642; Eurasians, 3068; and Native 
converts, 13,105. Of the Native converts, 9643 are Baptists. The 
boat population numbers 23,851 persons, living in 4638 boats. As 
regards occupation, the male population were distributed into the follow- 
ing six main groups: — (1) Professional class, including State officials 
of every kind and members of the learned professions, 18,024; (2) 
domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, 8688 ; (3) commer- 
cial class, including bankers, merchants, carriers, etc., 44,882 ; (4) 
agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 196,818; (5) 
industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 59,458; and 
(6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising labourers, male 
children, and persons of unspecified occupation, 307,498. 

The total population dependent on the soil is 759,130, or 65*31 
per cent, of the Divisional population. Total cultivated area, 2043 
square miles, or an average of 172 acres per head of the agricultural 
population. The total area of cultivable land is 3973 square miles. 
Amount of Government land revenue assessment, including local 
rates and cesses paid on land, ;£"29 1,838, or an average of 4s. 4|d. 
per cultivated acre. Chief crops of the Division in 1882-83 
— rice, covering an area of 1,371,329 acres; oil-seeds, 4681 acres; 
pulses, 1884 acres; cotton, 3097 acres; tobacco, 6255 acres; vege- 
tables, 2457 acres; fruit-trees, 46,351 acres; dha7ii palm, 1433 acres; 
chillies, 1051 acres. Taungya or nomadic tillage occupies 15,010 


Total number of civil and revenue courts, Ty(i ; criminal courts, 41. 
Strength of regular police, 1605 men. Total length of navigable 
rivers, 716] miles, and of canals 37 J miles ; of made roads, 508^ miles ; 
of the Irawadi Valley State Railway, 116 miles; and of the Sittaung 
Valley State Railway, 65 miles. Total number of schools under public 
management, missionary, indigenous, and private (1882-83), 2030; 
scholars, 53,047. The Census Report of 1881 returned 71,963 boys 
and 10,943 girls as under instruction; besides 251,817 males and 
10,684 females able to read and write, but not under instruction. 
The principal towns are— Rangoon (134,716), Prome (28,813), ^^^ 
Pegu (5891). Gross revenue (1S82-83), ^{^997, 319. 

Pegu {Pai-gu). — North-eastern township of Hanthawadi District, 
Pegu Division, Lower Burma. Population (1877-78), 49,655; gross 
revenue, ^27,116: in 1881, the population was 79,099, and the 
revenue ^44,380. The north-western portion is mountainous and 
forest-clad ; towards the south, the hills gradually sink into undulating 
ground, and end in level tracts partially cultivated with rice. The princi- 
pal river is the Pegu, which flows first south-east and then south-west 
through the township. Its valley has an elevation of 1500 feet, and is 
intersected by deep ravines. The country north of the valley on both 
banks of the river is covered with dense evergreen forest. The centre 
of the township is traversed by the Paing-kyun, an artificially widened 
and deepened creek, communicating on the east with the Sittaung, and 
by a new locked canal with the town of ]\Iyit-kyo. A good road runs 
from Pegu to Rangoon, and another is being constructed from Pegu to 
Taung-gnu, to replace the old 'Royal road' made by the Peguan 
king, Ta-bin-shwe-ti, in the i6th century. The Sittaung Valley State 
Railway from Rangoon to Taung-gnu traverses the northern and western 
portions of the township. The villages are connected by good fair- 
weather tracks. The township is divided into 6 revenue circles ; the 
chief town is Pegu. This township comprises the old Burmese juris- 
I dictions of Pegu on the north-east, Zaing-ga-naing on the north-west, and 
Zweh-bun on the south. 

! Pegu. — Head-quarters town of Pegu township, Hanthawadi District, 

j Pegu Division, Lower Burma; situated in lat. 17° 20' n., and long. 96" 

j 30' E., on the Pegu river, 20 miles west of the Sittaung (Tsit-toung), 

;and 46 miles north-east of Rangoon. Population (1881) 5891, namely, 

Buddhists, 5315 ; Hindus, 247; Muhammadans, 307 ; and Christians, 

1 22. Contains court-houses, police station, market, post-office, and 

Government school. Modern Pegu lies close to the river bank. The 

ancient town was founded in 573 a.d., by emigrants from Tha-tun, 

headed by the two princes Tha-ma-la and Weh-ma-la, and was formerly 

the capital of the Talaing kingdom ; the sovereigns of which at one time 

reigned over the whole valleys of the Sittaung and of the Irawadi (Irra- 


waddy), — including Taung-gnu and Prome, — conquered Ava and the 
sea-coast as far as the Pak-chan, and successfully invaded Siam and 
Arakan. Across the river, and connected with the Pegu quarter by a 
substantial wooden bridge, over which runs the Rangoon and Taung- 
gnu road, is Zaing-ga-naing. Inside the old walls stands the great 
Shwe-maw-daw pagoda, an object of greater veneration to the Talaings 
than even the Shwe Dagon at Rangoon. The town is laid out with 
broad and well-metalled streets crossing each other, generally at right 
angles. The market is on the bank of the river, a little above the 
brido-e. The court-houses are situated on the wall, which has been 
levelled east of the town. The houses are built of wood and bamboos, 
and are thatched or tiled. The town has more than once been burned 

Pegu is described by European travellers in the i6th century as of 
great size, strength, and magnificence. C^sar Frederick, who was here 
in the latter portion of the i6th century, according to the account given 
in Purchas, wrote : — ' By the help of God we came safe to Pegu, which 
are two cities, the old and the new. In the old citie are the Merchant 
strangers and Merchants of the Countrie, for there are the greatest 
doings and the greatest trade. This citie is not very great, but it hath 
very great suburbs. Their houses be made with canes and covered 
with leaves or with straw ; but the Merchants have all one House or 
Magazon which house they call Godon, which is made of bricks, and 
there they put all their goods of any value to save them from the often 
mischances which happen to houses made of such stuffe. In the new 
citie is the Palace of the King and his abiding place with all his barons 
and nobles and other gentlemen ; and in the time that I was there they 
finished the building of the new citie. It is a great citie, very plaine 
and flat, and foursquare, walled round about and with ditches that 
compass the walls round about with water, in which ditches are many 
Crocodiles. It hath no Drawbridges, yet it hath 20 gates, five for every 
square : on the walls there are many places made for Centinels to 
watch, made of wood and covered or gilt with gold. The streets 
thereof are the fairest that I have seen, they are as straight as a line 
from one gate to another, and standing at one gate you may discover 
the other ; and they are as broad as that ten or twelve men may ride 
abreast in them. And those streets that be thwart are faire and large: 
the streets both on the one side and on the other are planted at the 
doores of the houses with nut-trees of India, which make a very com- 
modious shadow; the houses be made of wood and covered with a 
kind of tiles in forme of cups very necessary for their use. The King's 
Palace is in the middle of the Citie made in forme of a walled castle, 
with ditches full of water round about it. The lodgings within are 
made of wood, all over gilded, with fine pinnacles and very costlie 

PEGU TOnW. 127 

worke covered with plates of gold ; truly it may be a king's house. 
W^ithin the gate there is a fine large courte, from the one side to 
the otlier wherein are made places for the strongest and stoutest 

\Vhen Alaung-paya (Alompra) conquered Pegu in the middle of 
the 18th century, he used every effort to annihilate all traces of 
Talaing nationality. He destroyed every house in the town, and 
dispersed the inhabitants. His great-grandson, Bo - daw Paya, who 
succeeded in 1781, pursued a different policy; and in his time the 
seat of the local government was for some time transferred from 
Rangoon to Pegu. Symes, who visited it in 1795, ^'^^^^ describes it : ^ 
— 'The extent of ancient Pegu may still be accurately traced by the 
ruins of the ditch and wall that surrounded it. P>om these, it appears to 
have been a quadrangle, each side measuring nearly a mile and a half; 
in places the ditch has been choked up by rubbish that has been cast 
into it, and the falling of its own banks ; sufficient, however, still 
remains to show that it was once no contemptible defence ; the breadth 
I judged to be about 60 yards, and the depth 10 or 12 feet; in some 
jxirts of it there is water, but in no considerable quantity. I was 
informed that when the ditch was in repair, the water seldom in the 
hottest seasons sunk below the depth of 4 feet. The wall was a work 
of magnitude and labour; it is not easy to ascertain what was its exact 
height, but we conjectured it at least 30 feet, and in breadth at the 
base, not less than 40. It is composed of brick, badly cemented with 
clay mortar. Small equidistant bastions, about 300 yards asunder, are 
still discoverable ; there had been a parapet of masonry, but the whole 
is in a state so ruinous, and so covered with weeds and briers, as to 
leave very imperfect vestiges of its former strength. 

' In the centre of each face of the fort there is a gateway about 30 
feet wide ; these gateways were the principal entrances. The passage 
over the ditch is over a causeway raised on a mound of earth that 
serves as a bridge, and was formerly defended by an entrenchment, of 
which there are now no traces.' After describing how ineffectual 
seemed to have been the endeavours to repopulate Pegu, Colonel 
Symes continues : ' Pegu in its renovated and contracted state seems 
to have been built on the plan of the former city, and occupies about 
one-half of its area. It is fenced round by a stockade from 10 to 12 feet 
high, on the north and east sides its borders are the old wall.^ The 
plan of the town is not yet filled with houses, but a number of new 
ones are building. There is one main street running east and west, 
crossed at right angles by two smaller streets not yet finished. At each 
extremity of the principal street there is a gate in the stockade, which 

^ Embassy to Ava, p. 182 et Stq. 

^ It thus included the Shwc-niaw-daw pagoda. 


is shut early in the evening ; after that hour, entrance during the night 
is confined to a wicket. . . . There are two inferior gates on the north 
and south sides of the stockade. 

* The streets of Pegu are spacious. . . . The new town is well paved 
with brick, which the ruins of the old plentifully supply ; on each side 
of the way there is a drain to carry off the water.' 

After the capture of Rangoon during the first Anglo-Burmese war, 
the Burmese commander-in-chief retired to Pegu ; and his forces be- 
coming thinned by desertion, the inhabitants rose against him and 
handed the place over to the British, who garrisoned it with a small 
body of troops. During the second war it was more stubbornly 
defended. Early in June 1852, the defences were carried by a force 
under Major Cotton and Commander Tarleton, R.N., the granaries 
destroyed, and the guns carried away. Without assistance, however, 
the inhabitants, at whose request the expedition had been sent, were 
unable to hold the town for a week, and the Burmese reoccupied the 
pagoda platform, and threw up strong defences along the river. In 
November of the same year, a force under Brigadier M'Neill was sent 
from Rangoon to retake the town, which was achieved after considerable 
fighting, and with some loss. The main portion of the troops were then 
withdrawn, and a garrison left of 200 men of the Madras Fusiliers, 200 
of the 5th Regiment M.N. I., some European artillery, and a detail of 
Madras sappers, the whole being placed under the command of Major 
Hill of the Fusiliers. Hardly had Brigadier M'Neill retired when the 
Burmese attacked the garrison, but were driven off. The attacks 
continued ; and in the beginning of December the enemy appeared in 
force, and Major Hill with difficulty held the position. A small rein- 
forcement was despatched from Rangoon ; but this was driven back, 
and forced to retire without communicating with the besieged. General 
Godwin, the commander-in-chief, then moved up the Pegu river in 
person with 1200 men, upon which, after some skirmishing, the 
Burmese retired; but as they remained in the neighbourhood, the force 
moved out against them and finally defeated them, driving them out of 
a strong position in the plains, where they had thrown up extensive 

Pegu. — River in Hanthawadi District, Pegu Division, Lower Burma; 
rises in lat. 18° n., and long. 96° 10' e., on the eastern slopes of the 
Pegu Yoma Mountains, and flows first south-south-east, past the town 
of Pegu, then south-south-west, and finally joins the Rangoon or 
Hlaing River, in lat. 16° 45' n., and long. 96° 11' e., near Rangoon 
after a total course of 180 miles. At its mouth it is about i mile 
broad, and can be ascended by large vessels as far as the Pu-zon-daung, 
where they take in cargoes of rice, cleaned in the steam mills on the 
banks of that stream. At neaps, the tide is felt as high as Pegu, and 


during springs a bore rushes up the river almost as far. In the rains, 
the Pegu is practicable for river steamers up to Pegu town. It taps a 
country rich in teak and other valuable kinds of timber; and in 
the lower part of its course, it irrigates a considerable area under rice 

Pegu Yoma. — Mountains in Lower Burma. — See Yoma, 

Pehoa {Pihcwd). — Ancient town and place of pilgrimage in Ambdla 
(Umballa) District, Punjab ; situated in lat. 29° 58' 45" n., and long. 
76° 37' 15" i^., on the sacred river Saraswati (Sarsuti), 13 miles west of 
Thaneswar. Pehoa was anciently known as Prithiidaka, or ' Broad 
AVater,' in allusion to the fact that when the Saraswati is in flood, the 
low lands surrounding the town are covered with water. The place 
stands within the boundary of the Kurukshetra, and ranks second in 
sanctity to Thaneswar alone. Tliere are no buildings with any claim 
to antiquity in the modern town. The old temples were probably 
destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in the expedition in which he sacked 
Thaneswar. There are some very curious remains of old pillars, and 
the people point out places where they say that digging would result in 
the discovery of ancient sculptures. There is one curious old door- 
way profusely covered with male and female figures sculptured in high 
relief, and the remains of a much larger gateway in the same style, 
but much simpler in design. These probably belonged to a great 
temple of Krishna, whose image occupies the centre position in the 
lintel of both doorways. 

The town was apparently forgotten as a place of pilgrimage until the 
establishment of the Sikh power in Kaithal. It then revived, and the 
present temples have all been built within the last fifty or sixty 
years. The population of Pehoa town in 1881 numbered 3408, 
namely, Hindus, 2960 ; Muhammadans, 442 ; and Sikhs, 6. Number 
of houses, 481. Municipal income (1883-84), ^£351, or an average 
of 2S. ofd. per head. The palace, formerly occupied by the Kaithal 
Raja, is now used as a travellers' rest-house. A large annual fair for 
bathing in the Saraswati ordinarily attracts from 20,000 to 25,000 
pilgrims ; but in 1873 as many as 100,000 attended. Widows assemble 
at the fair to bewail their husbands. The Saraswati contains little water, 
but is dammed up to secure a sufficiency for the bathers ; it, is, how- 
ever, extremely filthy, and the stench at the close of the season becomes 
almost unendurable. 

Peint. — Formerly a Native State, and now a Sub-division of Nasik 
District, Bombay Presidency. Lying between 20^ i' and 20° 27' n. lat., 
and between 72° 58' and 73° 40' e. long. Area, 458 square miles, con- 
taining 221 villages. Bounded on the north by Surgana in Khandesh 
District ; on the east by the Sahyadri Hills, which separate it from the 
Dindori and Nasik Sub-divisions of Nasik District ; on the south by the 



District of Thana ; and on the west by Dharampur in Surat. Popu- 
lation (1881) 55,144 persons, namely, 28,546 males and 26,598 females, 
occupying 9524 houses. Hindus number 54,551; Muhammadans, 
540 ; and ' others,' 53. A maze of hill and valley, except for some 
rice-fields and patches of rough hillside cultivation, Peint is over 
its whole area covered with timber, brushwood, and grass. Towards 
the north, a leading range of hills, passing westwards at right angles to 
the main line of the Sahyadri, gives a distinct character to the land- 
scape. But over the rest of the country, ranges of small hills starting 
up on all sides crowd together in the wildest confusion, with a 
general south-westerly direction, to within 20 miles of the sea-coast, 
dividing the valleys of the Daman and Par rivers. The heavy rainfall, 
the thick forest vegetation, great variations of temperature, and a 
certain heaviness of the atmosphere, combine to make the tract 
unhealthy. The prevailing diseases are fever and ague. The population 
consists almost entirely of forest and hill tribes, nominally Hindus, 
poor and ignorant, unsettled in their habits, and much given to the use 
of intoxicating spirits. Their language is a corrupt Marathi with a 
large mixture of Gujarathi words. A large part of Peint is well 
suited for grazing, and considerable numbers of cattle and sheep 
are exported. The chief products are timber of various kinds (in- 
cluding bamboos), rice, ndchni, oil-seeds, beeswax, honey, elk-horn, 
and hides. 

The ruling family, by descent Rajputs of the Powar tribe, adopted 
many generations back the family name of Dalvi. During the Maratha 
supremacy, their estates were for a long period placed under attach- 
ment by the Peshwas. In reward for services rendered in 1818, 
as it was important, in so difficult and turbulent a country, to have 
a ruler of undoubted friendliness, the family were reinstated in their 
former position by the British Government. 

The last chief, Abdul Momin alias Lakshadir Dalpat Rao in., died 
in 1837, leaving only a legitimate daughter, Begam Niir Jahan, who 
died in 1878. The State was placed under British management on 
the death of the last male chief, but the Begam was allowed a life 
pension of ;£6oo a year, in addition to one-third of the surplus 
revenues of the State. On the death of the Begam in 1878, the 
State finally lapsed to the British Government, and now constitutes 
a Sub-division of Nasik District. 

Harsiil, the former place of residence of the Begam, lies in lat. 
20° 9' N., and long. 73° 30' e. In 1880-81, Peint Sub-division con- 
tained 3816 holdings, with an average area of 48 J acres, and paying 
an average assessment of 15s. 9d. The area under cultivation in 
1880-81 was 149,120 acres; the principal crops being — grain crops, 
90,827 acres, of which 62,258 were under ndchni (Eleusine corocana); 



pulses, 29,571 acres, of which 18,215 ^^'*^'^^ under urid (Phaseolus 
mungo) ; and oil-seeds, 28,722 acres. In 1883 the Sub-division 
contained i criminal court ; i police circle {tluind) ; regular police, 
^2 men; village watch {chauk'iddrs)^ 155. Land revenue, ;£^3393. 

Peint. — Chief town of Peint Sub-division, Nasik District, Bombay 
Presidency ; the capital of the former chiefs of Peint State, which 
lapsed to Government on the death of the late Begam in 1878, but at 
present a very small place, and the head-quarters of the mdmlatdar. 
Situated in lat. 20° 16' 30" N., and long. 73° 29' 35" e., 32 miles north- 
west of Nasik, and 10 miles north of Harsiil. Population (1881) 
2644. Post-office, dispensary, and travellers' bungalow. 

Pen. — Sub-division of Kolaba District, Bombay Presidency; 
situated in the north-east corner of the District ; bounded on the 
north by Thana District ; on the east by Poona ; on the south by Roha ; 
and on the west by Alibagh. The chief river is the Amba, of which 
the water is sweet and drinkable from June until September. The 
soils are reddish and black. A large area of tidal swamps is used as 
salt-pans. Area, 290 square miles, containing i town and 198 villages. 
Population (1872) 63,363 ; (1881)70,200, namely, males 36,221, and 
females 33,979, occupying 12,757 houses. Hindus number 66,670; 
Muhammadans, 2345; and 'others,' 1185. Land revenue, ;^i5,524. 
The rainfall averages 100 inches. In 1881 the number of holdings was 
7471, with an average area of 9I acres, paying an average assessment 
of ;^i, 19s. 2d. The survey rates were in 1858 fixed for a term of 
thirty years. The average rates are — for rice land, 7s. 9f d. per acre ; 
for garden land, 6s. 2|d. ; for upland, 4id. Of the Government area, 
namely 289J square miles, 76,970 acres are returned as cultivable, 
of which 416 acres are alienated lands : 40,346 acres as uncultivable ; 
2749 acres as under grass; 17,378 acres as under forest ; and 20,219 
acres of village sites, etc. Total cultivated area in 1880-81, 41,259 
acres, of which 325 were twice cropped. Principal crops — grain, 
I 40,613 acres, of which 32,653 were under rice; pulses, 595 acres; oil- 
seeds, 311 acres; fibres, 26 acres; and miscellaneous, 39 acres. In 
1883, the Sub-division contained i civil and 3 criminal courts ; 
police circles {thdnds), 6 ; regular police, 60 men. 

Pen. — Chief town of the Pen Sub-division of Kolaba District, 
Bombay Presidency; situated 16 miles east by north of Alibagh, in 
lat. 18° 43' 50" N., and long. 73° 8' 40" e. Population (1872) 6514 ; 
(1881) 8082. Hindus number 7302 ; Muhammadans, 458 ; Jains, 
109; Christians, 8; Parsis, 4; and 'others,' 201. Pen is a munici- 
pality, with an income in 1883-84 of;£"624 ; incidence of taxation, is. 5d. 
per head. Sub-judge's court, post-office, dispensary, public library, and 
Anglo-vernacular school. Pen is connected with the Deccan by the 
Konkin road and the Bor Pass. Steamers from Bombay call daily at 


Dhammtar ferry on the Amba river, 5 miles distant ; and cargo boats 
up to 50 tons burthen come to Auturli or Pen Bandar, \\ mile distant, 
at spring tides. The neap tide port, Bang Bandar, is 4 miles below 
Pen. Average annual value of trade for the eight years ending 
1881-82 — exports, ^^66,991 ; imports, ^£33,493. In 1881-82 the 
exports amounted to ^63,491, and the imports to ^30,172. Pen is 
one of the two ports forming the Sakse (Sankshi) Customs Division. 
New water-works have been recently constructed at a cost of ^£"2800. 

Pena. — Town in Gorakhpur District, North-Western Provinces. — 
See Pain A. 

Pench. — River of the Central Provinces; rising in lat. 22° 20' n., 
and long. 78° 37' e., on the Motiir plateau in Chhindwara District. 
It flows south-east to Machagora, noted for its fishery, thence south to 
the village of Chand, near which it turns north-east, until stopped by 
the hills dividing Seoni and Chhindwara Districts. It then flows 
nearly due south, till, after a total course of 120 miles, it joins the 
Kanhan river in Nagpur District (lat. 21° 17' n., long. 79° 13' e.). 
Principal affluent, the Kolbira. 

Penchalakonda.— Peak in the Veligonda Hills, Nellore District, 
Madras Presidency, and the highest point in the Eastern Ghats within 
that District. Lat. 14° 17' n., long. 79° 28' 45" e. ; elevation above sea- 
level, 3000 feet. Ancient pagoda on the hill, resorted to by numerous 
pilgrims and visitors. 

Pendhat. — Village in Mainpuri District, North-Western Provinces; 
distant from Mainpuri town 29 miles north-west. Population (1881) 
2419, namely, Hindus, 2238; Muhammadans, 86; and 'others,' 95. 
Noted for a great religious gathering, held on a movable date, at the 
shrine of Jokhaiya. Pilgrims come for the purpose of obtaining off- 
spring and easy child-birth. 

Pendra. — Northernmost chiefship or zaminddri of Bilaspur District, 
Central Provinces ; situated on the Vindhyan uplands. Though inter- 
sected by hills, it consists mainly of an extensive plateau. Area, 
585 square miles, of which 40,000 acres are cultivated, and 300,000 
returned as cultivable. Number of villages, 200, with 9888 houses. 
Population (1881) 43,868, namely, males 22,323, and females 21,545 ; 
average density of population, 75 persons per square mile. The chief 
is a Raj-Gond, and obtained the grant more than three centuries ago 
from the Haihai-Bansi rulers of Ratanpur. Pendra, the head-quarters 
(lat. 22° 47' N., long. 82° E.), lies on the direct road from Bilaspur to 
Rewa, along which a constant flow of traffic takes place in the cold 
months ; it contains the ruins of a fort. A magnificent grove of 
mango trees, with spreading tamarinds here and there, affords a 
pleasant camping ground. 

Penganga {Paiugangd). — River of Berar, having its source in the 

PENNER, 133 

hills beyond Dewalghat, on the west border of Buldana District, 
in lat. 20° 31' 30" N., long. 76° 2' e. After its course through Buldana, 
it forms the southern boundary of the Districts of Basim and Wun, 
as well as of Berar itself. A legend tells that it owes the sudden 
change in its direction to the north (up to that point easterly), which it 
takes near Mahur, to Parasuram, son of the sage Jumdagni, who drove 
an arrow into the ground here. The spot is still held in great venera- 
tion ; the falls there are known as Sahasra Kiind or 'the thousand 
water caves,' and the river takes the name of Bandganga. The 
vicinity is densely wooded, and before the British administration it was 
the resort of numerous plundering gangs. When the river takes a 
northerly direction, after a series of straight reaches, at rather steep 
angles, it rushes through a deep rugged channel, broken by rocks and 
rapids. At last it forces its way through the barriers of basalt into 
the open country, and joins the Wardha at Jagad (lat. 19° 53' 30" n., 
long. 79° 11' 30" E.). It has many tributaries, the most important of 
which are the Aran (100 miles long) and the Arna (64 miles). The 
total course of the Penganga exceeds 200 miles. The Sewandhri 
hills in the Nizam's Dominions are situated on its right bank. 

Penner (or Pindkini ; Ponnaiydr ; Pcnndr ; Pennair). — The name 
of two rivers in South India, which both rise near the hill of Nandidriig 
in Mysore State, and flow eastwards through the Karnatik into the Bay 
of Bengal. Penner or Pennair is the name adopted by European 
geographers ; but Pinakini, apparently derived from the bow of Siva, is 
that by which these rivers are known to the Kanarese inhabitants of 

(i) The Northern or Uttar Pinakini has its source in the Chenna 

Kesava Hill north-west of Nandidriig, and after flowing in a northerly 

direction through the District of Kolar in Mysore, and the Madras 

Districts of Bellary and Anantapur, turns due east and passes through 

the Districts of Cuddapah (Kadapa) and Nellore, falling into the sea 

by several mouths 19 miles below Nellore town. Total length, 355 

miles ; area of drainage basin, 20,000 square miles ; principal tributaries, 

the Papaghni and the Chitravati. The stream is useless for navigation, 

being liable to sudden freshets, one of which carried away an important 

, railway bridge in 1874, and sent 18 feet of water over the crest of the 

i Penner anicut or weir. The water is largely utilized for purposes of 

I irrigation. In Kolar District, it is estimated that about 85 per cent. 

of the total drainage is intercepted by means of tanks and minor 

: channels. 

In Cuddapah District, a canal, constructed by the Madras Irri- 

: gation Company, connects the North Penner with the Kistna river. 

This canal, which was purchased by Government, and transferred 

' on the 6th July 1SS2, has proved a financial failure. An anicut 


or dam was erected across the river opposite Nellore town in 1855, in 
order to irrigate the fertile delta at the river mouth. In October 1857 
the river rose to the height of 16 feet above the anicut, and did such 
damage that the anicut had to be rebuilt. The present structure, de- 
signed by Sir A. Cotton, was completed in 1863. The length of the anicut 
was increased by 150 yards in 1876, to lessen its liability to damage. 
This dam is 677 yards long, with a crest 9 feet above the bed, and 37 J 
feet above mean sea-level ; it is capable of supplying 150 square miles, all 
on the right or south bank. The irrigation of the northern bank will 
be effected by the Sangam anicut. The greatest area yet irrigated 
(1S82-83) is 63,653 acres, or nearly two -thirds of the whole area 
commanded. Total cost of Penner anicut up to 1882, ^122,588; 
total receipts, ^136,111. Outlay in 1882, ^7465 ; receipts, ;£"i2,o62. 
In November 1883, the Penner rose 19-3 feet above the anicut, the 
highest flood yet recorded. During the famine of 1877, it was proposed 
to construct a similar work at Sangam, about 30 miles higher up the 
river, and the work is now being carried out. Up to 1882-83, ^£80,207 
had been expended out of a sanctioned expenditure of ;^356,904. 

(2) The Southern or Dakshin Pinakini also rises in the hill of Chenna 
Kesava. It flows first in a southerly direction through the District of 
Bangalore in Mysore State, and then likewise turns east, and, after 
crossing the Madras Districts of Salem and South Arcot, falls into the 
Bay of Bengal, near Fort St. David, a few miles north of Cuddalore 
(Kadaliir) town. Total length, 245 miles; area of drainage basin, 6200 
square miles. In Bangalore District, its waters are freely utilized 
for irrigation, being stored in large tanks. It is estimated that in its 
basin also about 85 per cent, of the total supply is thus intercepted. 
The Hoskot tank alone is 10 miles in circumference. 

Pentakota. — Fishing village in Sarvassiddhi tdluk^ Vizagapatam 
District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 17° 19' n., and long, 82° 
35' 30" E. Population (1871) 1610 ; (1881) 1313, living in 248 houses. 
In 1875, 16 ships, with an aggregate burthen of 7000 tons, took 
on board produce, chiefly grain, to the value of ^"22,500. In 1879-80, 
3 small native craft, of a burden of 143 tons, carried away exports 
to the value oi jQ2^o, since which date the port seems to have been 
entirely abandoned as a seat of export trade. A bar closes the 
mouth of the river during the shipping season, and a wide stretch of 
marsh and sand impedes the landing of goods. The manufacture of 
salt, which till recently gave the place some importance, has likewise 
been discontinued. 

Penukonda. — Tdhik or Sub-division of Anantapur District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 655 square miles. Population (1881) 73,023, 
namely, 37,266 males and 35,757 females, dwelling in i town and 
98 villages, containing 15,865 houses. Hindus number 68,006; 


Muhammadans, 4983; Christians, 28; and 'others,' 6. The idliik 
contained in 1883, i civil and 3 criminal courts; police circles {thdnds), 
8 ; regular police, 62 men. Land revenue, ^£8291. Penukonda taluk 
is hilly ; mixed and gravelly soils predominate. About 60 per cent, 
of the area is fit for cultivation. 

Penukonda.— Head-quarters town of Penukonda taluk, Anantdpur 
District, ^Madras Presidency. Lat. 14° 5' 15" N., long. 77° 38' 10" e. 
Population (1881) 5331, inhabiting 1133 houses. Hindus number 
4149; Muhammadans, 1160; Christians, 17; and ' others,' 5. Once 
an important fortress, to which the Vijayanagar prince retired after the 
battle of Talikot (1565). It was a first-class Paldyam, and was dealt 
with as such in the Partition Treaty of 1799, and in early British 
revenue settlements. The fort is built on granite rocks, and the remains 
of its former greatness under Hindu and Musalman rulers are still very 
striking. ' Dilapidated palaces,' writes Meadows Taylor, ' and other 
architectural remains, both Musalman and Hindu, are here thrown 
together in strange confusion ; and in some cases the most grotesque 
instances of these incongruous styles are found in the same structure. 
An ancient palace, called the Ganga Mahal, exhibits some strange 
tokens of these reverses. The basement is of plain massive Hindu 
construction, and of great antiquity, coeval apparently with some 
temples of Mahadeo, which stand close by it. The next storey is of 
more recent date, and is built in the best style of Muhammadan archi- 
tecture, elaborately ornamented. Since its erection, it is evident that 
attempts have been made by the Hindus to alter the Musalman devices 
into something which should assimilate with their own work. The 
very cupolas have been surmounted with inelegant pyramidal work ; 
and a beautiful Saracenic screen, carved in white marble, has been 
mutilated, and in some parts replaced by some miserable representations 
of dragons and other grotesque monsters. The mosque of Sher All is 
perhaps the handsomest building in Penukonda, and, if erected by the 
chief whose name it bears, must be nearly 300 years old. It is of dark- 
grey granite, with mouldings of jet-black stone resembling hornblende. 
Behind this mosque the hill rises precipitously to the height of 500 or 
600 feet, presenting a rugged and apparently inaccessible face, partially 
overgrown with stunted bushes and jungle. In other places, agam, 
the naked rocks lie piled heap upon heap, with here and there perched 
on some giddy point a tomb, an altar, or a line of battlements, without 
an indication of the path by which it is to be approached.'— (Captain 
Meadows Taylor, Oriental Amiual, 1840.) Some well-cultivated 
gardens lie near the town, in which grapes have been successfully 
grown. Head-quarters of an Assistant Collector. Post-office. 

Pepali (or i^Y?/^//).— Town in Pattikonda taluk, Karniil (Kurnool) 
District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 15° 15' n., and long. 77' 


48' E., on the road from Gooty (Gilti) to Karniil. Population (1881) 
3535) dwelling in 746 houses. Deputy Collector's head-quarters; post- 

Perambakam. — Town in Conjevaram tdluk^ Chengalpat (Chingle- 
put) District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12° 54' 30" n., long. 80° 15' 
40" E. Population (1881) 415, all Hindus, dwelling in 43 houses. Four- 
teen miles north-west of Conjevaram. A place of mournful memory, 
where the Madras army encountered its most serious disaster. In 1780, 
Colonel Baillie, marching from the north with a force of 3700 men, 
was here surrounded by Haidar's army, and his troops all but 
annihilated. The troops of Haidar were on this occasion guilty of the 
most barbarous atrocities, sparing neither the wounded nor the women 
and children with the defeated forces. In the following year. Sir Eyre 
Coote defeated Haidar Ali on the same spot, and drove him back on 

Peramballir. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Trichinopoli District, 
Madras Presidency. Peramballir tdluk is generally flat. The soil of the 
northern half is black clay, with large tracts of stiff black soil ; in the 
southern half, as a rule, the soil is poor and the country rocky. The 
tdluk is chiefly irrigated from tanks. The principal grains cultivated are 
ragi (Eleusine corocana), varagu (Panicum miliaceum), and kamhu 
(Pennisetum typhoideum). Cotton covers an area of about 20,000 
acres, or more than half the total area on which the crop is raised in 
Trichinopoli District. Area, 686 square miles. Population (1881) 
172,281, namely, 83,052 males and 89,229 females, dwelling in 214 
villages, and occupying 23,719 houses. Hindus number 164,607; 
Muhammadans, 4892; and Christians, 2782. In 1883 the tdluk con- 
tained i civil and 2 criminal courts ; police circles {thdnds)^ 8 ; regular 
police, 59 men. Land revenue, ;£'2 69. 

Peramballir. — Town in Trichinopoli District, and head-quarters of 
Peramballir tdluk^ Madras Presidency. Situated almost in the centre of 
the tdluk, on the old road from Trichinopoli to Madras. Population 
(1881) 3062, dwelling in 530 houses. Peramballir is also the head- 
quarters of a District inunsif. The water-supply is indifferent. Post- 
office ; w^eekly market. 

Perambur. — Suburb of Madras city. — See Madras City. 

Periakulam. — Tdluk or Sub-division of INIadura District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 1169 square miles. Population (1881) 232,123, 
namely, 112,251 males and 119,872 females, dwelling in i town and 
85 villages, and occupying 36,369 houses. Hindus number 216,671; 
Muhammadans, 9885; and Christians, 5567. In 1883 tht tdluk con- 
tained 2 criminal courts ; police circles \thdnds), 1 1 ; regular police, 86 
men. Land revenue, ;£26,332. 

Periakulam. — Town in Madura District, Madras Presidency, and 

PERIM. 137 

head-quarters of Periakulam taluk. Population (1871) 15,339; (1881) 
16,446, namely, 7670 males and 8776 females, dwelling in 2889 houses. 
Hindus number 14,564; Muhammadans, 1233; and Christians, 649. 
Periakulam consists of three villages or hamlets — Tenkarai, Vadakaria, 
and KaikkuLinkulam ; situated on both banks of the Varahanadi, about 
45 miles west of Madura town, and about 35 south-west of Dindigal. 

Perim.— Island, situated in lat. 12° 40' 30" n., and long. 43° 23' e. 
(King), in the narrowest part of the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb ; distant 
from the Arabian coast nearly \\ mile, and from the African coast 
between 9 and 10 miles; greatest length, 3J miles; average width, 
about \\ mile; circumference (following the sinuosities of the coast- 
line), probably more than 30 miles. 

This island is under the Government of Aden ; and the following 
account of it is taken from Captain F. M. Hunters Statistical Account 
of Aden {iSj'j), pp. 171, 172 : — 

' Perim is called by the author of T/ie Periplus the island of Diodorus, 
and is known among the Arabs as Mayoon. The formation is purely 
volcanic, and consists of long, low, and gradually sloping ranges of 
hills, surrounding a capacious harbour, about a mile and a half in 
length, half a mile in breadth, and with a varying depth of from 
4 to 6 fathoms in the best anchorages. The hills were formerly inter- 
sected by bays and indentures, which in the course of time have been 
filled up with coral and sand, and are now low plains, scantily covered 
with salsola, sea-lavender, wild mignonette, and other plants which 
delight in a soft sandy soil. These plains occupy about one-fourth of 
the island, and occur principally on the north side. The rocks, which 
are all igneous, are nowhere exposed, save where they dip perpendi- 
cularly into the sea ; they are covered with a layer of volcanic mud of 
from 2 to 6 feet in depth, above which is another layer of loose 
boulders, or masses of black vesicular lava, in some places so thickly 
set as to resemble a rude pavement. The highest point of the island is 
245 feet above the level of the sea. All endeavours to find water 
have failed, and but a scanty supply is procurable from the adjacent 
coasts. Water tanks were constructed, which used to be chiefly supplied 
from Aden, and it was proposed to erect reservoirs to collect the rain : 
but, as at Aden, a condensing apparatus was found more suitable. 
i ' Perim has never been permanently occupied by any nation save 
I the British. Albuquerque landed upon it in 15 13 on his return from 
I the Red Sea, and, having erected a high cross on an eminence, called 
' the island Vera Cruz. It was again occupied for a short time by the 
! pirates who frequented the mouth of the Red Sea, and who amassed 
I considerable booty by plundering the native vessels engaged in the 
' Indian trade. They formed a project of settling here and erecting 


strong fortifications ; but having with much labour dug through the 
soHd rock to a depth of 15 fathoms in a fruitless search for water, they 
abandoned their design, and removed to Mary's Island, on the east 
side of Madagascar. 

' In 1799, Perim was taken possession of by the East India Company ; 
and a force under Lieutenant-Colonel Murray was sent from Bombay 
to garrison it, with the view of preventing the French troops, then 
engaged in the occupation of Egypt, from proceeding to India to effect 
a junction with Tipii Sahib. But it was deemed untenable as a military 
position, and the Straits were too broad to be commanded by any 
batteries on the shore ; the troops were accordingly withdrawn. 

' In consequence of increasing steam navigation in the Red Sea, the 
attention of the Indian Government was directed to the necessity of a 
lio;hthouse to facilitate the navig;ation of the Straits. Perim was conse- 
quently re-occupied in the beginning of 1857. The lighthouse was 
completed in 1861, and quarters were also built for a detachment of 
native infantry, 50 strong, who now garrison the island under the 
command of a European officer. The detachment is relieved every 
two months when practicable.' For a complete account of the island, 
see Dacription and History of the British Outpost of Perim ^ by Lieutenant 
J. S. King, Bombay Staff Corps (1877). 

Perim (The Baidnes island of the Periplus). — Low rocky island, 
about 1800 yards long, and from 300 to 500 broad; situated in the 
Gulf of Cambay, in lat. 21° 36' n., and long. 72° 23' 30" e., 2 J miles 
off shore, and 4^ miles distant from Gogo. The island is surrounded 
by an extensive rocky reef on all sides, except the south, and rises 
so sheer from the bottom of the sea, that in some places, a few yards 
from the shore, there is a depth of 11 and 12 fathoms of water at 
low-water springtides. The channel between Perim and a rocky reef in 
the centre of the gulf, only 1200 yards wide, has the extraordinary 
depth of 360 feet, the bottom being yellow clay. The island is com- 
posed of tertiary strata ; at the south-south-east end is a cliff showing 
horizontal beds of pudding - stone, separated by sandy clay. None 
of the beds appear to dip, and none preserve a uniform thickness 
throughout the cliff, in one part of which the sandstone disappears 
altogether. The dry reef surrounding the island consists of confused 
heaps of rock mixed with mud, sand, and clay ; the rock is chiefly 
yellow pudding-stone, in which, on. the south-east end of the island, 
numerous fossil remains of large mammals are found. The coast is 
lined with sand-hillr. The island has a lighthouse, erected in 1865. 
It is situated 8 miles south of Gogo, and consists of a brick masonry 
round tower with a spiral stone stair inside. The light has eight 
burners; height of lantern above high water, 100 feet. It is a single 
white fixed dioptric light of the fourth order, and is visible from the 


deck of a ship 20 miles distant. For fuillicr nautical details, see Taylor's 
India Saili)!^::; Directory^ part i, p. 362. 

Perindurai (' Great Lord'). — Group of hamltts in Erode taluk, 
Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency, with a station on the south- 
west line of the Madras Railway; distant 252 miles from Madras city. 
Lat. 11^ 15' 30" N., long. 77° 37' 30" E. Population, 6347 in 1871; 
and 4948 in 1881, inhabiting 1131 houses. Formerly hcad-c^uarters 
of a taluk, now included in Erode taluk. The number of hamlets 
forming the group, which takes its name from the railway station of 
Perindurai, is 29, scattered over an area of 17 square miles. Perin- 
durai has a court, post-office, police station, travellers' bungalow, and 
large market. The railway station is 4 miles distant from the hamlet 
of the same name. 

Periya. — Ghdt or pass in Malabar District, Madras Presidency, over 
which the road from Cannanore to ]Manantavadi (Manantoddi) is 
carried. Lat. 11° 51' x., long. 75° 50' 20" e. 

Periyakulam. — Town in ATadura District, Madras Presidency. — See 

Periyapatna (now called Hunsur). — Taluk in INIysore District, 
Mysore State. Area, 447 square miles, of which 157 are cultivated. 
Population (187 1) 116,334; (i88r) 113,050, namely, males 56,008, and 
females 57,042. Hindus number 106,909; Muhammadans, 5790; 
and Christians, 351. The Kaveri (Cauvery) forms a great part of the 
western and some of the northern boundary. The Lakshmantirtha 
flows through the south-eastern portion. The highest hill is Bettadpur, 
4350 feet above mean sea-level. The taluk is undulating and not well 
adapted for irrigation from channels ; but the soil being generally of 
a rich red description, ragi and other dry crops thrive remarkably on 
it. Special crops — tobacco, areca-nut, and plantains. Land revenue 
(1883-84), ^13.459. In 1883-84 the taluk contained i criminal 
court ; police stations {thdnds), 8 ; regular police, 66 men ; and village 
watch {chaukiddrs), 401. Since 1865, the head-quarters have been at 

Periyapatna. — Village in iMysore District, iMysore State. Lat. 
12° 20' 40" N., long. 76° 7' 25" E., no miles south-west from Ban- 
galore, and 90 miles south-east of Mangalore. Until 1865, the head- 
quarters of Periyapatna (now called Hunsur) tdluk. Population (1871) 
132 1. Not separately returned in the Census Report of 1881. An 
ancient place, with which the earliest Hindu traditions are connected, 
and formerly called Singa-patna. A king of the Chola dynasty is said 
to have constructed a tank and a temple here in the 12th century. In 
1659, a mud fort was erected by a Coorg chief, which was shortly 
afterwards captured by Periya Wadeyar, a general of the Hindu Raja 
of Mysore. He built the large stone fort, which still exists in 


ruins, and changed the name from Singa-patna to its present desig- 
nation. During the reign of Tipii the town figures frequendy in 
mihtary history. It witnessed several contests between the Coorgs and 
the Mysore forces. On three occasions it was occupied by the British ; 
and in 1791 many houses were burned by Tipil, in order to obstruct 
the advance of General Abercromby. It is chiefly inhabited by traders, 
who export cotton and tobacco to Coorg and the west coast. 

Periyar. — The most important river in Travancore State, Madras 
Presidency, rising in lat. 10° 40' n., and long. 76° 56' e. It flows first 
north, and afterwards west, a total distance of 142 miles, falling into 
the sea near Kodungaliir. In its course to the low country, the Periyar 
is increased by innumerable tributary streams, of which the Mallai, 
Sherdhoni, Peringakotai, Mudrapalli, Kiindanpara, and Eddamalai are 
the most considerable. Its progress is often impeded by rocks and 
narrow gorges in the hills, with occasional falls, rendering the passage 
quite impracticable for boats above Narramangalam. The greater 
portion of the teak-wood, which is cut annually in the mountains, is 
floated down this river to the coast. On reaching Alwaye, the Periyar 
separates into two branches, the northern proceeding to Pallipur, while 
the southern branch, after leaving Varanpulai, again separates into two 
streams, one of which, however, is speedily lost in the estuary to which 
it flows through numerous channels ; the other, continuing in a southerly 
direction, falls into the lake south of Tripunathorai. Sixty miles of 
this river may be considered as navigable, small craft ascending as high 
as Narramangalam ; and on that branch of it which is formed by the 
Eddamalai, river boats find a ready passage to Iddirarmaud. With 
the exception of the last 35 miles, the course of this stream lies through 
a complete wilderness, the populated tracts not extending beyond the 
town of Mulliatur. A scheme, known as the Periyar project, for 
diverting the course of this stream across the watershed of the Ghats 
into the Vaigai river, in Madura District, is now (1884) being carried 
into effect. 

Peruah. — Ruined town in Maldah District, Bengal.— 5^^ Pan- 


Perumakal (' Great Travail; so called because Sita bore twins here ; 
the Periimacoil of Orme). — Village in Tindevanam tdliik, South Arcot 
District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 12° 12' 10" n., and long. 
79° 46' 30" E. Population (1881) 1844, dwelling in 217 houses. It 
has a small fort, which is perched on a rocky hill, about 370 feet high. 
The summit is only 400 by 200 yards in area, and the ascent on all 
sides is difficult. After the defeat at Wandiwash (1759)5 the French, 
retreating on Pondicherri, threw a detachment into the Perumakal fort ; 
Coote, following up the retreat, attempted to storm the place, but was 
repulsed from the upper fort; he led the attacks himself, and was 


wounded, the native troops behaving with great gallantry. On the 
commencement of a more regular attack, the defenders, who had 
neither food nor ammunition, surrendered. The English held the 
post for twenty years, and in 1780 Haidar All besieged it unsuccess- 
fully. Two years later it surrendered to him, only to fall before British 
trooi)s in 17S3. It was then dismantled, but remained a post of 
observation till 1790, when it was taken by Tipu. The nearest town is 
Tindevanam, 5 miles to the west. 

Perungudi. — Town in Nanguneri tdluk^ Tinnevelli District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 8° 17' N., long. 77° 38' 20" e. Population (188 i) 
5575, occupying 1193 houses. Hindus numbered 2655; IMuham- 
madans, 56 ; Christians, 2862; and 'others,' 2. 

Periir. — Village in Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 
10° 58' N., long. 77° K. Sometimes called Mel or Upper Chedam- 
baram, to distinguish it from Kil or Lower Chedambaram in South 
Arcot. Notable for its temple. 

Perzagarh. — Hill range in Chanda District, Central Provinces, 
dividing the QX'iiWiAx paj-gand from Brahmapuri ; 13 miles long by 6 
broad, and ending on the south in a scarped cliff, which can be seen 
40 miles off. This cliff is called Perzagarh, and also Sat Bahini, from 
seven sisters who lived in religious seclusion on its summit. Some of 
the valleys have patches of rice cultivation. 

Peshawar. — A Division or Commissionership under the jurisdiction 
of the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, lying between lat. 32° 47' 
and 35° 2 N., and between long. 70° 34' and 74° 9' e. It comprises 
the three British Districts of Peshawar, Hazara, and Kohat, all of 
which see separately, together with the control of the semi-independent 
hill tribes inhabiting the Khaibar Pass as far as Lundi Kotal. Area, 
8381 square miles. Population (1881) 1,181,289, besides 8173 tribes- 
men of the Khaibar Pass. Peshawar Division is bounded on the 
west and north by independent mountain tribes, and by Afghanistan ; 
on the east by Kashmir State ; and on the south by Rawal Pindi and 
Bannu Districts. 

Population. — The population of the three Districts of the Peshawar 
Division, which in 1868 was returned at 1,033,891, amounted in i88r 
to 1,181,289, showing an increase of 147,398 persons, or 14*3 per 
cent., in thirteen years. Much of this increase is more apparent than 
real, and is due to temporary immigration caused by the extraordinary 
demand for labour that existed at the time of the last Census, owing to 
the Kabul campaign, and the railway and Swat canal works. The 
results of the Census of 1881 may be summarized as follows: — 
Area of the Division, 8381 square miles ; number of towns, 16, and 
of villages, 2224; houses, 177,574; families, 275,335. Total popu- 
lation, 1,181,289, namely, males 649,509, and females 531,780. 


The proportion of males is 54 "8 per cent., the unequal ratio between 
the sexes being mainly due to the large military element in the popu- 
lation. Average density of population, 140 persons per square mile, 
varying from 237 per square mile in Peshawar, to 64 per square mile 
in Kohat District; persons per town or village, 527; inmates per 
house, 6 •6, Classified according to sex and age, the Census shows 
— under 15 years of age, males 258,550, and females 215,909; total 
children, 474,459, or 40*2 per cent, of the population: 15 years 
and up\vards, males 390,959, and females 315,871; total adults, 
706,830, or 59-8 per cent. 

Religion. — The great bulk of the population, namely, 1,101,095, 
or 93*4 per cent., are Muhammadans by religion. Hindus number 
68,992, or 5*8 per cent; Sikhs, 6724; Christians, 4390: Jains, 44; 
Parsis, 39 ; and ' others,' 5. The Muhammadans by race, as apart 
from religion, include Pathans, 457,782; Sayyids, 27,526; Kashmiris, 
27,195; Shaikhs, 19,102; and Mughals, 9988. Brahmans number 
9290, of whom 290 are Muhammadans by religion. Of the Rajputs, 
9845 in number, 8086 are descendants of Hindu converts to Muham- 
madanism, as against 1755 Hindus and Sikhs. Of 21,228 Khattris, all 
but 36 are Hindus or Sikhs by religion. The other important tribes 
and castes, all containing a more or less mixed religious element, 
include the following — A wan, 179,214 ; Giijar, 74,668 ; Tanaoli, 41,384, 
and Baghban, 27.926, two Muhammadan clans or castes confined to 
the Peshawar Division; Julaha, 29,038; Tarkhan, 24,390; Arora, 
21,021; Lohar, 14,794; Kumbhar, 12,456; Nai, 12,068; Chuhra, 
11,153; Karral, 10,294; Dhund, 20,091 ; Dhobi, 9180 ; and Jat, 6902. 
Of the Christian population, numbering 4390, Europeans number 
4235; Eurasians, 74; and natives, 81. By sect, the Christians 
include — Church of England, 2693 ; Protestants undistinguished by 
sect, 129; Roman Catholics, 1150; Presbyterians, 121; and 'others,' 

Town and Rural Population. — The Peshawar Division contains three 
towns wdth upwards of ten thousand inhabitants, namely, Peshawar 
city and cantonments, 79,982; Kohat, 18,179; and Naushahra, 
12,963 ; or a total of 111,124 for the three towns. Besides these, the 
Census returns thirteen other minor towms, with a population of 
54,618 ; making an aggregate urban population of 165,742, or i4'03 
per cent, of the whole population of the Division. Seven of the 
towns are municipalities, with an aggregate population of 110,811. 
Total municipal income (1883-84), ^22,147, or an average of 3s. iifd. 
per head. The 2240 villages and towns are thus classified according 
to size — 983 contain less than two hundred inhabitants ; 665 from two to 
five hundred; 333 from five hundred to a thousand; 156 from one to 
two thousand; 61 from two to three thousand; 2)Z ^o^^^ three to five 



thousand ; 6 from five to ten thousand ; and 3 ten thousand and 
upwards. As regards occupation, the Census Report classifies the 
male population of over 15 years of age as follows — (i) Professional 
class, including civil and military, 38,293 ; (2) domestic and menial 
class, 13,098; (3) commercial class, including bankers, traders, carriers, 
etc., 12,206; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 
201,709; (5) industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 
71,936; (6) indefinite and non-productive class, including general 
labourers, 32,470 ; and (7) occupations not specified, 21,247. 

Agricultia-e, etc. — Of a total assessed area of 831 1 square miles, or 
5.319.359 acres, in 1883-84, the area under cultivation was returned at 
1,488,055 acres, of which 245,924 acres were irrigated, entirely by 
private enterprise. Of the remaining 3,831,304 acres, 191,427 acres 
are returned as grazing lands; 759,865 acres as still available for 
cultivation ; and 2,880,012 acres as uncultivable waste. The principal 
crops cultivated in 1883 were — Rabi, or spring harvest — wheat, 499,689 
acres; barley, 317,892 acres: gram, 26,217 acres; other pulses, 7579 
acres; drugs and spices, 1830 acres; oil-seeds, 45,756 acres; and 
vegetables, 3154 acres. Kharif, or autumn harvest — rice, 24,249; 
jodr, 57,883 acres; bjjra, 72,874 acres; Indian corn, 317,003 acres ; 
other cereals, 7915 acres; pulses, 77,383 acres; drugs, 1036 acres; 
oil-seeds, 10,047 acres; cotton, 28,233 acres; sugar-cane, 10,680 acres; 
and vegetables, 2436 acres. The total amount of Government revenue 
assessment in 1883-84, including all local rates and cesses levied on 
the land, was ^130,478, equal to an average of is. 6Jd. per acre of 
cultivation, or 5|d. per acre of total assessed area. The Kohat salt 
mines, 14 in number, are all situated in the Peshawar Division. The 
only five mines, however, which are worked at present, are those at 
Jalta, Malgin, Nari, Kharrak, and Bahadur Khel, which yielded a 
Government revenue of ;2{^i 1,090 in 1883-84. There are 98 miles of 
metalled and 1389 miles of unmetalled roads in the Division, besides 
47 miles of the Northern Punjab State Railway, which has its terminus 
at Peshawar city. Water communication is afforded by 151 miles of 
j navisfable rivers. 

I Admmistration. — The civil administrative staff consists of the 

] Commissioner of the Peshawar Division, who is the principal local 

I officer under the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, and whose 

head-quarters are at Peshawar city. Under him are three Deputy 

! Commissioners in charge of Districts ; 2 Judicial Assistant Com- 

I missioners ; 10 Assistant or Extra-Assistant Commissioners; 12 tahsil- 

ddrs ; 3 mimsifs ; and 4 honorary magistrates. These officers preside 

; over 40 civil and revenue and 47 criminal courts. For administrative 

and police purposes, Peshawar Division is divided into 1 1 tasJiils or 

Sub-divisions, and 43 thdtids or police circles. The total imperial 


revenue in 1883-84 was ^135,963, of which ^£94,5 25 was derived 
from the fixed land revenue. 

Peshawar. — A British District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of 
the Punjab, lying between 33° 43' and 34° 31' n. lat., and between 
71° 25' and 72° 47' E. long. Peshawar is the central District in the 
Division of the same name, and forms the extreme north-western 
corner of the Indian Empire, extending from the river Indus to the 
Khaibar mountains. Area, 2504 square miles. Population (1881) 
592,674. It is bounded on the north by the ranges which link the 
Sufed Koh to the Hindu Kiish ; on the west and south by continuations 
of the same mountains ; on the south-east by the Indus ; and on the 
north-east by the hills of Boner and Swat. It is thus almost entirely 
surrounded by independent hill tribes, all of whom are of Pathan 
origin. Peshawar District is divided into six tahsils, of which three 
lie to the east, and three to the west of the Swat and Kabul rivers. 
Of the former, Utman Bulak lies to the east, Mardan in the centre, and 
Hashtnagar to the west. Of the three western tahsils, Doaba Daiidzai 
includes the Doab of the Swat and Kabul rivers and the plains on the 
right bank of the latter down to its junction with the former ; Peshawar 
tahsil comprises all the western portion of the District ; and Naushahra 
iahsil, the territory on the right bank of the united Swat and Kabul 
rivers. The Mardan and Utman Bulak tahsils constitute the Sub- 
District of Yusafzai, which is in the separate charge of an Assistant 
Commissioner stationed at Hoti Mardan. Peshawar stands twentieth 
in order of area, and seventeenth in order of population among the 
thirty-two British Districts of the Punjab, comprising 2*35 per cent, of 
the total area; 3*16 per cent, of the total population: and 5*28 per 
cent, of the urban population. The administrative head-quarters are at 
the city of Peshawar. 

Physical Aspects. — The Peshawar valley forms an irregular amphi- 
theatre, shut in by hills on every side but one, with its base resting upon 
the banks of the Indus, into whose basin it opens through the narrow 
passage of the Kabul river. Its geological origin best explains the 
existing physical features, as the whole valley forms the abandoned bed 
of a great post-tertiary lake, whose outlet has slowly worn a way for 
itself through the barrier of hills which once shut it off from the Indus. 
At the present day, Peshawar consists of a central hollow, filled up by 
alluvial deposits of silt and gravel, interspersed with water-worn 
boulders ; while the Kabul river, which formerly supplied its deep 
mountain lake, now flows through a marshy level to its debouchure into 
the Indus, opposite the fort of Attock. At Nisatha, 24 miles from the 
point of exit of the Indus from the hills, that river receives through 
the Kabul the Swat river, which leaves the hills 21 miles north of the 
Indus. Opposite Naushahra, about the centre of the valley, the Indus 

•- J 


further receives, also through the Kabul, the Kalpani, by which the 
drainage of Swat is carried across the Yusafzai plain in the south of 
Peshawar. From the south, the main affluent of the Kabul is the 
Bdra, a stream which, passing close by the city of Peshawar, enters the 
main river a few miles above its junction with the Swat. Hie depth 
of water in the Indus at Attock varies from 40 feet in the winter 
months to 75 feet in flood. The volume of the stream varies greatly 
according to the season of the year. It is crossed by three ferries, and 
also by a drift gallery excavated underneath the river bed. Both ferries 
and tunnel have, however, been superseded by the Punjab Northern 
State Railway bridge across the Indus at Attock, which was opened 
in June 1883, and which carries a cart road and footway within its 
girders. On the southern frontier, the Khattak hills rise to a general 
height of 3000 feet, while the bolder eminences sometimes reach 
an elevation of more than 5000. Westward, a still loftier range, reach- 
ing to between 6000 and ycoo feet in height, extends across the valley 
of the Kabul, and is threaded by the Khaibar Pass, the gate of North- 
western India. Mulla Ghar, the principal peak in this portion of the 
chain, has a height of 7060 feet. North of the Kabul comes the 
Hindu Kiish system, here represented by bare and irregular hills of 
trap and limestone. Between them and the Indus, the barrier line is 
completed by the mountains of Swat, a labyrinth of intricate valleys, 
hemmed in by lofty precipices, amid whose mazes the villages of the 
occupying clans nestle, each in its separate nook. To the south of 
these uplands lies the plain of Yusafzai, where cultivated valleys run 
up into the hills on every side; but elsewhere, the tilled lands of 
the central hollow are separated from the mountains by a wide strip of 
stony country, some 3 or 4 miles in breadth. In Yusafzai Sub-District 
are two small isolated hills standing out from the plain. Karamar, the 
highest, lies north-east of Hoti Mardan, about 3480 feet above sea-level 
and 2280 above the plain. On its northern slope are a few fir trees; 
and the appearance of the hill on that side is green and pleasing, 
with a sloping plateau on the summit which, if water tanks were con- 
structed, might be utilized as a sanitarium during the summer months. 
Panjpir, the smaller hill, rises to a height of 2130 feet above the sea, or 
940 feet above the level of the surrounding plain. 

The western and central portions, along the course of the Kabul and 
the Swat, are highly cultivated ; while the remainder of the District, 
though unirrigated, produces excellent crops in ordinary seasons. The 
scenery of the western half is wild and beautiful ; it abounds in craggy 
passes, crowned by ancient towers, and commanding prospects over 
fields of luxuriant vegetation. The numerous canals in the foreground 
give evidence of careful cultivation, and the background is formed by 
the snowy peaks of the distant ranges beyond the border. The eastern 



extremity, consisting of the plains of Yusafzai and the slopes of the 
Khattak hills, is comparatively bleak and barren. The drainage of the 
entire valley is carried off by the Kabul river, the shrivelled represen- 
tative of some mighty stream which once burst its way through the 
rocky barriers on the east into the main channel of the Indus. Its 
principal tributaries have b^en enumerated above, and it itself falls into 
the Indus opposite Attock. There are no lakes in the District ; but 
owing to extensive percolation, large marshes are formed in many 
low-lying tracts in the neighbourhood of the Swat and Kabul rivers. 
There is also a large marsh near Peshawar city. 

Gold is found in both the Indus and Kabul rivers above Attock, and 
numbers of boatmen work as gold-washers. About 300 men are 
estimated to be thus employed, and they frequently work under a 
system of advances from gold purchasers in the city. The work is 
carried on during March and April, and September and October, the 
average earning of each man varying from 3d. to 6d. per diem. The 
proprietors of the villages within whose boundaries gold-washing is 
carried on, receive a small share in recognition of their right. Besides 
gold, kankar is the only mineral product of any value found in the 
Peshawar valley, though the surrounding hills supply iron and anti- 
mony. The iron of Bajaur, brought for sale to the Peshawar market, 
is of fine quality, and is used in the manufacture of gun barrels. 
Good antimony ore from Bajaur sells in Peshawar for about jQi^ los. 
a cwt. A yellow description of marble, found near Maneri, in 
Yusafzai, is used for the manufacture of beads, charms, and orna- 
ments. Crude chalk is found in Lundkhwar. Millstones are brought 
from Pallodheri, in Yusafzai, and fetch 2s. per pair. 

The distribution of trees is singularly uneven in different parts of the 
valley. In Yusafzai and Hashtnagar, the mulberry {tut) sissu {shiwd) 
and Melia sempervirens, with occasionally the tamarisk {gaz)^ are found 
in clumps round the village wells ; and here and there groves of the 
Acacia modesta {pulosd) cover village graveyards, whilst the waste 
lands support a bare and stunted jungle of Butea frondosa, different 
species of zizyphus, Capparis aphylla, and other thorny bushes; but 
otherwise the tract is bare of trees. In Daiidzai and Doaba, on the 
other hand, where the land lies low, and the cultivation is entirely 
from irrigation, trees are abundant, particularly the tamarisk and in some 
parts the siris. Here are numerous fruit-gardens and orchards, especially 
in the western suburbs of Peshawar city, where the vine, fig, plum, 
apricot, peach, and quince, with cucumbers, melons, and other fruits 
and vegetables, are produced in great plenty. 

Peshawar is perhaps one of the worst Districts in India as regards 
sport, owing to the custom of hawking, the use of firearms by all classes, 
and the absence of forest and scrub. There are a few ravine deer in 


the Yusafzai and Hashtnagar plains and also under the Khattak hills 
on the south-east. Hog abound in the Khattak hills, a few iiridl (wild 
sheep) and a stray leopard are now and then heard of. On the Pajja 
hill there are Jjuirkhor (wild goat) ; but they are getting more and more 
scarce every year, and the ground is such that only good cragsmen can 
successfully follow them. The small game consists of a few hares and 
partridges still left in parts of the valley. ChaJzor and sissi are plentiful 
in and close under the hills, where the people cannot use their hawks. 
In the spring and autumn, large flights of quail settle down and remain 
for a short time on their way to India, and again when returning to 
the steppes of Central Asia. ]\Iany thousands are netted by men 
who make a trade of it ; they are collected in one place by means of 
tame quail used as call-birds. Water-fowl are plentiful on the rivers 
during the winter months, and snipe also for two or three weeks in 
March. Wild swans are very occasionally shot. In Yusafzai, Nau- 
shahra, and under the hills all round the District during the winter 
months, flocks of sandgrouse are to be seen ; but they are shy, and the 
only way of shooting them is by driving. The obara, or bastard 
bustard, is also found during the winter months; they are usually 
hawked and often noosed by the natives. Wolves and hyoenas are less 
numerous than they used to be, and rarely attack children or other 
human beings. Foxes and jackals are also scarcer than they were a 
itw years ago. The leopard has now almost disappeared from the 
District. Very large fish {inahsir and rohji) are caught by the natives 
in the rivers with hook and line, and the fly and minnow w^ould give 
good sport. Otters are occasionally seen on the islands of the Indus. 

History. — In the earliest days of Aryan colonization, the Peshawar 
valley is said to have been occupied by a prince of the great Lunar 
race, whose name was perpetuated in that of Gandhara, by w^hich 
the valley is known in Sanskrit literature. Its capital, Peukelas (or 
Pushkalavati), is mentioned by Arrian as a large and populous city, 
captured by Hephaistion, the general of Alexander, after the loss of 
its chieftain Astes. The site of Pushkalavati has been identified 
with the modern cluster of the Hashtnagar, or eight cities, on the left 
bank of the Swat, where vast ruins of ancient edifices are still to be 
seen. During the epoch of Buddhist supremacy in Northern India, 
Pushkalavati became famous as the seat of a stupa^ erected on the 
spot where Buddha was fabled to have made one of his numerous 
alms-offerings in the shape of his own eyes. It is mentioned in the 
Itineraries of Fa Hian and Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese pilgrims of the 
5th and 7th centuries, though by that time the capital of Gandhara had 
been transferred to Parashawara or Peshawar. 

Until the middle of the 7th century, linguistic evidence would lead 
us to suppose that the population remained entirely Indian. But before 


the beginning of the 8th century, a new race, the Afghans or Pathans, 
make their appearance in the local annals; and the history of the 
Peshawar valley becomes thenceforth that of a debateable ground, 
fluctuating between the eastern kingdom of Delhi and the western 
kingdom of Afghanistan. The Afghans, who were still ' infidels ' at 
this date, first effected a settlement in the hill country to the south of 
the Kabul river, by the aid of the Ghakkars of Hazara and Rawal 
PiNDi ; while the Hindu tribes continued to retain possession of 
Peshawar itself, and of the Hashtnagar and Yusafzai plains. In 978 a.d., 
Jaipal, Raja of Lahore, advanced from Peshawar to attack Sabuktigin, 
governor of Khorasan, under the titular sway of the Samani princes. 
Jaipal was utterly defeated, and Sabuktigin took possession of Peshawar, 
which he garrisoned with 10,000 horse. On his death in 997, his son 
Mahmiid succeeded to his dominions, and, throwing off his nominal 
allegiance on the Samani dynasty, assumed the title of Sultan in 999. 
Mahmiid was the first Musalman conqueror of Hindustan, and fought 
many of his greatest engagements in the valley of Peshawar. He 
succeeded in converting the Pathans to the religion of the Prophet; 
and they remained his firm alhes in his subsequent struggle with Anang 
Pal, the last champion of the Hindu creed and nationality in the north, 
whose defeat on the plains of Chach in Rawal Pindi laid all Upper 
India at the feet of the Muhammadan conqueror. After that event, 
Mahmiid made Peshawar the basis of operations in his later invasions, 
and throughout the following century it continued to be a Province of 
the Ghaznivide empire. When the dominions of Ghazni extended as 
far as Lahore, Peshawar became a half-way stage of great importance ; 
but the devastations of Mahmiid seem to have left its northern plains a 
depopulated waste, occupied only by the tiger and the rhinoceros. 

The first settlement of undoubted Afghan tribes in the central valley 
took place, apparently, about the 15th century; though a race of 
spurious Pathans, known as the Dilazaks, took possession of the plains 
not long after the time of Mahmiid. Meanwhile, the Pathans of Ghor 
had thrown off their allegiance on Ghazni, and after the death of 
Shahab-ud-din (1206 a.d.) the provincial governors of India declared 
their independence, making the Indus their western boundary, so that 
the Peshawar valley was again cut off from the eastern kingdom. The 
Pathans of the Khaibar hills retained their autonomy, while Peshawar 
itself v/as held by the Dilazaks. But about the close of the 15th 
century, the great tide of Afghan immigration flowed into the District 
under the following circumstances : — The Khakhai Pathans were a 
body of roving adventurers, who first came into notice in the time of 
Timur, and made themselves useful to his descendant Ulugh Beg. 
The latter treacherously, expelled them from Kabul, whereupon they 
entered the Peshawar valley in three main clans — the Yusafzai, Gigianis, 


and Muliammadzai — and obtained permission from the Dilazaks to 
settle on a portion of their waste lands. Soon after, the new immi- 
grants found or invented some cause of quarrel against their hosts, 
whom they attacked, and drove precipitately into the neighbouring 
District of Hazara. The Gigianis settled in the fertile strip of land 
about the confluence of the Swat and the Kabul ; the Muhammadzais 
took Hashtnagar as their share of the spoil ; while the Yusafzais were 
relegated to the northern plain, which still bears their name. 

The division of the territory thus carried out, subsists undisturbed to 
the present day. For a while, the tribes remained independent ; but in 
15 19, Babar, who had used the Khaibar Pass in previous incursions, 
allied himself with the injured Dilazak chieftains, and subjugated the 
Pathan tribes who held these important mountain tracts. It would be 
tedious to follow the fortunes of Peshawar through all the vicissitudes 
of the struggle between the dynasties of Babar and Sher Shah. Enough 
will be said in the simple statement that Peshawar remained in the 
power of the Delhi court during the reign of Akbar, and that the 
remnant of the Dilazaks had been completely ousted in the previous 
reign. During the flourishing times of Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and 
Aurangzeb, the valley rendered an unwilling allegiance to Delhi ; but 
under the last-named Emperor, a national insurrection was successful 
in freeing the Pathan tribes from the Mughal supremacy. 

In 1738 the District fell into the hands of Nadir Shah; and under 
the succeeding Durani dynasty, Peshawar was often the seat of the 
Kabul court. On the death of Timiir Shah in 1793, Peshawar shared 
the general disorganization of the Afghan kingdom ; and the Sikhs, who 
were then in the first fierce outburst of revenge upon their Muhammadan 
enemies, advanced into the valley in 18 18, and overran the whole 
country to the foot of the hills. In 1823, Azim Khan made a last 
desperate attempt to turn the tide of Sikh victories, and marched upon 
Peshawar from Kabul; but he was utterly defeated by Ranji't Singh, 
and the whole District lay at the mercy of the conquerors. The Sikhs, 
however, did not take actual possession of the land, contenting them- 
selves with the exaction of a tribute, whose punctual payment they 
ensured or accelerated by frequent devastating raids. After a period of 
renewed struggle and intrigue between Sikh and Afghan, Peshawar fell 
at last into the hands of the Sikhs, who appointed General Avitabile as 
governor, and ruled with their usual fiscal severity. 

In 1848, Peshawar District came into the possession of the British; 
but the details of the war of occupation belong rather to the general 
history of India and of the Punjab than to the narrower annals of the 
Peshawar valley. During the Mutiny of 1857, the Native regiments 
stationed at Peshawar showed signs of insubordination, and were 
accordingly disarmed with some little difficulty in May 1857. But the 


55th Native Infantry, stationed at Naushahra and Hoti Mardan, rose in 
open rebellion ; and on a force being despatched against them, marched 
off towards the Swat Hills across the frontier. General Nicholson was 
soon in pursuit, and scattered the rebels with a loss of 120 killed and 
150 prisoners. The remainder sought refuge in the hills and defiles 
across the border, but were hunted down by the friendly clans, till they 
perished of hunger or exposure, or were brought in prisoners, and 
hanged or blown away from cannon. This stern but necessary example 
prevented any further act of rebellion in the District. 

Population. — The Census of 1868, which was the first trustworthy 
enumeration of the people, disclosed a total population of 523,152 
persons, inhabiting an aggregate of 654 villages or towns, containing 
121,256 houses. At the last enumeration in 1881, Peshawar District 
was found to contain a total population of 592,674, showing an increase 
of 69,522, or 13-3 per cent., in thirteen years. 

The results of the Census of 1881 may be summarized as follows: 
— Area of District, 2504 square miles; number of towns, 11, and 
of villages, 679; houses, 87,720; families, 123,563. Total popula 
tion, 592,674, namely, males 329,524, and females 263,150. The 
excessive proportion of males to females (5 5 '6 per cent.) is mainly 
attributable to the large military element in the population, and also to 
the fact that at the time of the Census, an extraordinary demand for 
labour in connection with the Kabul campaign, the Northern Punjab 
State Railway, and the Swat Canal works, caused a large influx of 
labourers. Average density of population, 237 persons per square 
mile, or excluding large towns, 185 per square mile ; average number of 
persons per town or village, 858, or excluding the towns, 683 ; inmates 
per house, 67. Classified according to sex and age, the population 
consists of — under 15 years of age, boys 123,920, and girls 101,070; 
total children, 224,990, or 37-9 per cent, of the population : 15 years 
and upwards, males 205,604, and females 162,080 ; total adults, 367,684, 
or 62*1 per cent. 

In religion, the Peshawar valley is almost entirely Musalman, as 
might naturally be expected from its early conversion and its close 
connection with the Afghan kingdom. The Census returns show 
546,117 Muhammadans, or 92-1 per cent.: while the Hindu faith 
has only 39,321 adherents, or 67 per cent. The remainder is made 
up by 3103 Sikhs, 4088 Christians, 39 Parsis, 3 Jains, and 3 'others.' 
By far the largest tribe in the District is that of the Pathans, who 
number in all 276,656 souls, or 46-8 per cent, of the total popula- 
tion. In the Yusafzai tract the Pathan population retain all the 
individual freedom, patriarchal institutions, and jealousy of personal 
aggrandizement, which are the original characteristics of the Afghan 
mountaineers. The Pathans to the south of the Kabul river, who 


were more completely subjugated by the Sikhs, have lost many of their 
native traits ; their chieftains have acquired a more feudal character, 
and the liberty of the Afghan freeman has been lost in the political 
supremacy of the chief. In their original state, the Yusafzai Pathans 
were divided into countless minor clans, each of which had a separate 
organization, and was often at feud with its neighbours; and the 
constant intestinal warfare compelled the men to plough their fields 
with a matchlock slung across their backs. Though British rule has 
altered this condition of affairs, it has not obliterated from the minds of 
the Pathans the lawless instincts produced by their ancestral customs. 
The Sayyids number 4515 souls, and their sacred character and descent 
gives them great influence amongst the fanatical Pathan population. 
Other tribes who are Muhammadans by race, as apart from Muham- 
madans by rehgion, include— Shaikhs, 9576; Mughals, 453^; and 
Kashmiris, 13,082. Of the Hindkis, or persons of original Indian 
descent, Awans number 97,445; Baghbans, 21,240; Julahas, 15,372; 
Gujars, 13,514; Tarkhans, 12,504; Kumbhars, 7583; Chuhras, 
7653; Lobars, 6521; Dhobis, 5467; Chamars, 4156; Mochis, 3263; 
Jhinwars, 3956; Telis, 3250; Rajputs, 3181 ; and Sonars, 3079. 
Nearly the whole of these are jMuhammadans by religion and the 
descendants of Hindu converts. The principal Hindu castes, still 
retaining the faith of their fathers, are the Brahmans, 3745; Khattri?, 
9578 ; and Aroras, 13,333 ; they form the chief trading community in 
Peshawar and the other towns, while in each agricultural village a few 
of them carry on the business of money-lenders. Slavery still lingers 
on in the remoter villages under the guise of hereditary serfdom, in spite 
of the theoretical prohibitions of British law ; and a recognised class, 
named Ghulam (slave), is returned in Peshawar to the number of 3347> 
who are said to be the descendants of captives taken in war. They 
are still chiefly employed in domestic service, and are generally attached 
to their hereditary masters, though some of them have taken to shop- 
keeping and other occupations. 

The Christian community includes 3954 Europeans, consisting 
principally of the troops comprising the garrison, and the civil officers 
of the District ; 64 Eurasians ; and 70 natives. Classified by sect, there 
are— Church of England, 2584 ; Roman Catholics, 1 128 ; Presbyterians, 
102; Episcopal Church of Scotland, 71; Wesleyans, 42; Protestants 
not distinguished by sect, 95 ; and 'others,' 66. Peshawar has been a 
station of the Church Missionary Society since 1855, with a mission- 
house, church, fine collegiate school, and library. The mission also 
maintains vernacular schools both for boys and girls in Peshawar city 
and in the District. 

Tow7i and Rural Population. — The Census Report of 1881 returns 
five towns in Peshawar District as containing upwards of five thousand 


inhabitants— viz. Peshawar City and Cantonment (population 79,982), 
Naushahra (12,963), Tangi (9037), Maira Parang (8874), and 
Charsadda (8363). Six other places with less than five thousand 
inhabitants were also returned as towns, namely, Utmanzai (4823), 
Mardan (2766), Shankargarh (1367), Fort Abazai (220), Fort 
MiCHNi (208), and Fort Mackeson (170). The total urban population 
thus disclosed amounts to 128,773, or 217 per cent, of the District 
population. Of the 690 towns and villages, 197 contain less than two 
hundred inhabitants; 211 from two to five hundred; 135 from five 
hundred to a thousand ; 77 from one to two thousand ; 46 from two to 
three thousand; 19 from three to five thousand; 3 from five to ten 
thousand; and 2 upwards of ten thousand inhabitants. As regards 
occupation, the Census Report classifies the adult male population as 
follows: — (i) Professional class, including civil and military, 22,622; 
(2) domestic and menial class, 7994; (3) commercial class, including 
merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 7678 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral 
class, including gardeners, 93^785; (S) industrial class, including all 
manufacturers and artisans, 42,532 ; (6) indefinite and non-productive 
class, including general labourers, 22,831 ; and (7) occupations not 
specified, 8162. 

Village Life. — In every Pathan village, a separate quarter {kandi) is 
apportioned to each different khel or clan, the kandi being a collection 
of separate tenements of the individual families forming the clan. Each 
ka7idi has its own mdlik or chief, whose authority is confined to it. His 
duties are to maintain order, settle disputes among the householders, 
collect the revenue, and see to the fair distribution of the crops, etc. 
Each vidlik is subordinate to the chief or khan of the tribe ; to him he 
makes his reports, and from him receives his orders. Each kandi has 
its own mosque, its own assembly-room or hujra, and (in villages 
beyond the border) its own tower of defence or burj. The priests 
attached to the mosques are supported by rent-free lands, besides daily 
suppHes of food from the residents of their kandi ; and by presents of 
money, cattle, food, or clothes, on the occasion of a marriage or other 
special ceremony. The hujra is a public room with court-yard and 
stables attached, where the ??idlik meets the residents of the kandi for 
the discussion and settlement of matters of public business, where 
guests are entertained, and where the residents and visitors assemble to 
smoke, gossip, and learn the news of the day. The burj or watch-tower 
now chiefly exists in villages beyond the border. It is always attached 
to the house of the mdlik, and is in constant use as a place of refuge 
and observation in case of feuds between the different khels of a village 
community, as well as against outside enemies. They are, however, 
still to be found in British territory as survivals from days gone by, when 
one ward was pitted against another in deadly feud, or when the whole 


village had to guard against the attack of a neighbouring clan, or of 
Sikh officials. Many of them have now been converted into cattle 
sheds or ordinary dwelling-houses. 

The villages have, for the most part, an air of great comfort, the 
court-yards being large, with, in most instances, a patch of vegetables or 
a clump of mulberry trees in the enclosure ; the mosques and hujras 
are chiefly in the outskirts, with wells and groves in the vicinity. The 
houses in the plains villages are mostly constructed of mud, one-storied, 
and not more than ten feet high. In the Khattak hills, however, stone 
is plentiful, and is used for building purposes. The ordinary furniture 
of a house consists of a clay corn-bin, containing the grain required 
for immediate consumption ; a few rough beds and stools, a wooden 
clothes chest, and a number of earthen dishes. The houses of the 
village head-men are generally distinguished by their greater privacy 
and more substantial look ; many hdve small flower or fruit gardens 
attached to them. 

The food of the common people is plain and simple, and consists 
almost entirely of the produce of their cattle and lands, such as wheat 
and barley cakes, milk, vegetables, pot-herbs, and edible wild fruits, but 
seldom meat. The richer classes, however, frequently indulge in meat, 
fowls, and rice, and occasionally tea. Sugar, and in some parts wild 
honey, is much used, but spirituous liquors are unknown. Tobacco for 
chewing, smoking, and snuffing, is largely used. The dress of the 
agriculturists consists of a turban ox pagri of white cloth, a loose coat 
or shirt, and a loose pair of cotton drawers, tied round the body by a 
running string ; the whole is of coarse country cotton cloth, costing 
from 4s. to 5s. The coats are often coloured blue to hide the dirt and 
save washing, and are worn sometimes till they drop to pieces. The 
chiefs and well to-do classes wear the same pattern of clothes, but made 
of finer materials. In winter, the poorer classes wear sheepskin coats ; 
and the better classes woollen chogas. As a whole, the Pathans are 
singularly indifferent to cleanliness, either in their clothing or persons. 

Ag)-icultii7'e. — Of a total assessed area of 1,600,993 acres, 847,390 
acres were returned as under cultivation in 1883, while 330,959 acres were 
shown as cultivable, and 422,644 acres as uncultivable waste. The staple 
crops, and the area under each, in 1883-84 were as follows : — Rabi or 
spring harvest — wheat, 277,730 acres; barley, 233,044 acres; pulses, 
4583 acres ; oil-seeds, 31,602 acres; vegetables, 2157 acres: Khar'if 
or autumn harvest — maize, 98,359 acres ; millets, 56,913 acres ; pulses, 
25,756 acres; rice, 9959 acres; cotton, 16,849 ^cres ; sugar-cane, 
9496 acres ; oil-seeds, 7761 acres; vegetables, 2013 acres. It will be 
seen that food-stuffs form the principal products, and that the raw 
materials of manufacture are little grown. Agricultural knowledge is 
very backward; rotation of crops being only known in its simplest 


elements. Irrigation is practised to a considerable extent, as niauy as 
180,286 acres being supplied with water from private works in 1883 ; 
while the lands in the neighbourhood of the Swat and Kabul rivers are 
saturated with moisture from numerous channels. The out-turn per 
acre of the principal staples was returned as follows in 1883-84: — 
Rice, 960 lbs. ; cotton, 120 lbs. ; tobacco, 124 lbs. ; wheat, 620 
lbs. ; inferior grains, 400 lbs. ; oil-seeds, 560 lbs. The tenures of land 
belong to the standard Punjab tyi es, that oi pattiddri^ pure or mixed, 
immensely preponderating. Mott of the soil is held by tenants-at-will, 
only about one-sixth of the cultivators having acquired rights of 
occupancy. The total amount of Government land revenue assessment 
in 1883-84 amounted to ^86,604, equal to an average of 2s. o^d. per 
acre of cultivated area, or is. o|d. per acre of total area. Rents vary 
in accordance with the nature of the crop for which the soil is suited, 
as well as according to the productive qualities of the soil itself; in 
1883-84 they ruled as follows: — Rice lands from los. to ^2, 8s.; 
cotton lands, from 6s. to ^2, 8s. ; w^heat lands, irrigated, from los. 
to ^r, los. — unirrigated, from 4s. to j[^\, 2s. ; inferior grains, irrigated, 
from 4s. to 18s. — unirrigated, from 2s. to i8s. In the same year, 
wages were returned at the following rates : — Unskilled workmen, 
from 4jd. to yd. per diem ; skilled workmen, from is. 6d. to 2s. per 
diem. In 1883, prices of food-stuffs ruled as follows : — Wheat, ighsers 
per rupee, or 5s. Qd. per cwt. ; Indian corn, 37 sers per rupee, or 3s. 
per cwt. ; jodr, 36^ sers per rupee, or 3s. id. per cwt. As the rivers 
are fed by the melting snows of the Hindu Kiish and other mountain 
ranges, Peshawar is not entirely dependent on the local rainfall, and is 
consequently to a great extent secure from the danger of famine. 

Commerce a?id Irade, etc. — The trade of the District centres in 
the town of Peshawar, and is far less extensive than might be ex- 
pected from its position on the great highway between India and the 
Central Asiatic kingdoms. The principal foreign markets with which 
the District deals are Kabul and Bokhara ; but the greater part of the 
traffic merely passes through Peshawar, and is not arrested on its 
direct course to the Punjab. An endeavour was made some years since 
to constitute Peshawar its main entrepot, by means of a yearly fair ; but 
the enterprise did not prove successful. The imports from Kabul consist 
of horses, raw silk, worsted, cochineal, drugs, and other miscellaneous 
goods, for re-exportation to the south and east. Bokhara supplies gold 
bullion and gold or silver thread, the latter of which is handed on to 
the traders of Kashmir (Cashmere), while the bullion goes to Bombay. 
The return trade from Hindustan includes English piece-goods, cambrics, 
silk, sugar, and spices ; while that from Kashmir is confined to 
the single item of shawls. The local manufactures comprise cutlery, 
and weapons, scarves, copper chasing, plain embroidery, snuff, and 



coarse cloth. The Peshawar scarves are celebrated lhroii<;hout India 
for their fine texture and tasteful colouring. Peshdwar is one of the 
Districts at which trans-frontier trade is registered. At five registration 
stations along the frontier in 1882-83 imports were registered of the 
value of ;^2i9,57i ; and exports of the value of ;£"4i7,9i i. The chief of 
these is the Khaibar route, which is the great highway of the trade with 
Kabul and Central Asia. In 1882-83, the imports via the Khaibar 
amounted to ^185,127, and the exports to ^367,403. 

Roads and Means of Conunnnication. — By the completion of the 
Punjab Northern State Railway, Peshawar has been brought within 
the range of the whole Indian railway system. The Punjab Northern 
State Railway enters the District from the south, crossing the Indus 
at Attock by a magnificent railway bridge with a sub-way for ordinary 
foot and carriage traffic, and running westwards through the District for 
47 miles, with stations at Khairabad, Akora, Naushahra, Naushahra 
tahsil, Pabbi, Peshawar city, and Peshawar cantonment. The Grand 
Trunk road, entering Peshawar from Lahore District opposite Attock, has 
a total length of 55 miles, bridged and metalled throughout. The 
bridge of boats formerly maintained across the Indus at Attock was 
abolished on the opening of the railway bridge. The other roads of 
importance are — (1) Peshawar to Hashtnagar, 25 miles; (2) Peshawar 
to Doaba Daudzai, 18 miles ; (3) Peshawar to Kohat, via Fort Mackeson 
and the Kohat pass, 37^ miles; (4) Peshawar to Kohat, via Bala and 
the Jawaki pass, 66 miles; (5) Peshawar to Cherat, via Jaluzai and 
Shahkot, 30 miles ; (6) Peshawar to Mardan, via Abbarpurand Nisatta, 
32^ miles ; (7) Peshawar to Abazai Fort, via Prang and the east bank 
of the Swat, 32-i miles; (8) Peshawar to Shabkadr, 18 miles; (9) 
Peshawar to Michni, 14J miles; (10) Peshawar to Kabul, 77<7 Jamrud 
and the Khaibar pass, 190 miles; (11) Peshawar to Bara Fort, 8 miles ; 
(12) Naushahra to Mardan, 15 miles; (13) Naushahra to Mir Kalan, 
16 miles; (14) Mardan to Abbottabad, via Tarbela on the Indus, 82 
miles; (15) Jaluzai to Mir Kalan pass in the Khattak hills; (16) 
Jaluzai to Kanakhel pass in the Khaltak hills; and (17) Jaluzai to 
Kakakhel Ziarat, 13 miles. These roads are all unmetalled and un- 
bridged, and are often mere tracks. The Indus, Swat, and Kabul rivers 
are navigable throughout the valley at all seasons ; but within the hills, 
except at certain points where there are ferries, the current is too strong 
for the use of boats. Total length of navigable water communication, 
67 miles. A line of telegraph runs along the length of the railway, 
with an oftice at each station. There is also an imperial telegraph 
office at Peshawar cantonment, with branches to Jamrud, Mardan, and 

Administration. — The ordinary civil staff of Peshawar comprises a 
Deputy Commissioner, a Judicial Assistant Commissioner, 2 Assistant 


Commissioners, a Cantonment Magistrate, a Judge of the Small Cause 
Court, and 3 extra-Assistant Commissioners, besides the usual minor 
officials, with a bench of honorary magistrates. In 1883-84 the 
District contained 19 civil and fiscal and 25 criminal courts. In 
1851-52 the total imperial revenue amounted to, £83, 891 ; by 1871-72 
it had decreased to ^78,412. At the latter date, the sum contributed 
by the land-tax was ;£"62,32 7, or rather more than three-fourths of the 
whole. In 1883-84 the total revenue of the District was returned at 
;^9o,995, of which ^63,029, or upwards of two-thirds, was made up by 
the fixed land-tax. The other principal items of revenue are stamps, 
assessed taxes, and excise. For police purposes, Peshawar is divided 
into 19 circles {thdnds\ besides frontier and outpost stations. The 
imperial police numbered 664 men of all ranks in 1883 ; and this force 
was supplemented by a municipal constabulary of 265 men, besides a 
special cantonment police of 177 constables, and a punitive police of 
29 men. There was also a rural body of 999 village watchmen 
{chaukiddrs). The total machinery, therefore, for the protection of 
person and property consisted of 2134 men, being at the rate of i 
pohceman to every 277 of the population and to every i"2 square mile 
of the area. The criminal statistics show a total of 5358 persons 
convicted of some offence, great or small, during the year 1883, being 
at the rate of i offender to every no inhabitants. The more heinous 
crimes, such as murder, robbery, and housebreaking, are still common, 
and the wild habits of the Pathan tribes have not yet been brought into 
harmony with our industrial regime. Cattle-poisoning and rick-burning 
are also common, being the usual means of gratifying private malice. 
There is one jail in Peshawar, the total number of prisoners in which 
amounted to 1033 in 1883. The daily average was 512. 

Educatio7i. — In 1872-73, the total number of children under instruction 
was returned at 1858; while the sum expended upon education from 
public funds amounted to ^1047. In 1883-84, Peshawar District 
contained 40 schools, with 2197 pupils either supported or assisted 
by Government, and under the Education Department. There are 
also a number of indigenous uninspected village schools, where the 
pupils are taught the Kuran and other religious works by the vmllas. 
In some villages, girls are taught at home privately by women who have 
learnt the Kuran. The Census of 1881 returned 8183 males and 321 
females as under instruction, besides 18,065 males and 649 females 
able to read and write, but not under instruction. The principal 
educational institution of the District is the Edwardes Collegiate Aided 
School of the Church Missionary Society, established in 1855. The 
pupils, of which there are about 500, many of them the sons of the 
neighbouring gentry, receive instruction in English, Persian, and 
Hindustani, up to the matriculation standard of the Calcutta and Lahore 


Universities. The Church of England Zandna Mission supports two 
vernacular girls' schools, one for Muhammadans, and one for Hindus, 
in Peshawar city ; and another school with about 50 pupils at Utmanzai, 
in the Hashtnagar Sub-division. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of the Peshawar valley naturally varies 
much with the elevation and other physical peculiarities. In the high 
and open uplands of Yusafzai, the air is fresh and buoyant ; but in the 
low-lying central hollow, the land is saturated with the overflow of the 
Swat and the Kabul, so that the atmosphere becomes heavy and damp, 
chilling in winter, and laden with warm moisture in the hot season. 
In the greater part of the valley, shut in by high walls of rock, the 
air is singularly stagnant and motionless. The city itself has a bad 
reputation for fever and cholera. The chief endemic disease is fever, 
which is very prevalent in the Peshawar cantonments. Besides the city 
hospital at Peshawar, there are 4 Government charitable dispensaries, 
two at Peshawar, and one each at Mardan and Shab-kadar; patients in 
1883, 55,930, of whom 3105 were in-door patients. 

Climate. — The average annual and monthly mean temperature at 
Peshawar city is returned by the Meteorological Department as fol- 
lows : — January, 49'8° F. ; February, 52-8°; March, 62*8°; April, 71° ; 
May, 8o-8° ; June, 88-5° ; July, 89*2° ; August, 867° ; September, 8i-i° ; 
October, 71°; November, 58*2° ; and December, 50-6" : yearly average, 
70-2° F. The temperature in May 1883 varied from a minimum of 
62'8^ F. to a maximum of 110°, with a mean of 85'5'' : July, minimum, 
70*2° F. ; maximum, 111*5°; niean, 90° : December, minimum, 32-2° F. ; 
maximum, 71*7°; mean, 5i'9°. The average annual and monthly rain- 
fall is thus returned — January, i"53 inch ; February, 1*48 inch; March, 
i'52 inch; April, 2*02 inches; May, 070 inch; June, 0*34 inch; 
July, 1-69 inch ; August, 2*47 inches ; September, 0-69 inch; October, 
0*28 inch; November, o'9i inch; December, 072 inch: total 
annual average, i4'35 inches. In 1883, only 9*8 inches of rain fell in 
Peshawar, namely, 3*8 inches from January to May; 4*3 inches from 
June to September; and 17 inch from October to December. Snow- 
seldom falls in the valley, and only remains unmelted for a very 
short time. In the hills surrounding the valley, reaching to upwards 
of 3000 feet, there are generally repeated falls of snow each winter ; 
while in the loftier ranges behind snow lies sometimes for weeks at a 
time from the middle of November till the middle of May. Slight 
shocks of earthquake are frequently experienced, usually in the spring. 

Peshdwar {Peshawur). — Tahs'il of Peshawar District, Punjab; 
extending from Peshawar city to the Khaibar Hills, together with the 
Jvlohmand country in the south-eastern corner of the District. Area, 
374 square miles, with 139 towns and villages, 24,849 houses, and 
38,330 families. Population (188 1) 172,031, namely, males 99,581, 


and females 72,450; average density of population, 460 persons 
per square mile, or excluding Peshawar city, 246 per square mile. 
Classified according to religion, Muhammadans number 147,232; 
Hindus, 20,025 ; Sikhs, 1739 ; Christians, 2991 ; Parsis, 39; Jains, 3, 
and 'others,' 2. Of the 139 towns and villages, 79 contain less 
than five hundred inhabitants ; 30 from five hundred to a thousand, 
29 from one to five thousand ; and only i (Peshawar city) has 
upwards of five thousand inhabitants. Principal crops — Indian corn, 
wheat, barley, with a little rice, cotton, vegetables, sugar-cane, and 
inferior food-grains. Revenue of the tahsi/, ^^19,272. The admini- 
strative staff, including the Divisional and District head-quarters 
officers, comprises the Commissioner and Judicial Commissioner of 
the Division, the Deputy Commissioner and Judicial Assistant 
Commissioner of the District, Cantonment Magistrate, and Small 
Cause Court Judge, 5 Assistant or Extra-Assistant Commissioners, 
I tahsilddr, i munsif, and 2 honorary magistrates ; besides a staff of 
subordinate village officials. These officers preside over 12 civil and 
13 criminal courts. Number of police stations, 6, namely, at Peshawar 
city and cantonments, Badhber, Mattani, Burj Hari Singh, and Mathra ; 
strength of regular police, 321 men ; village police {chaukiddrs), 197. 

Peshawar. — City, municipality, and administrative head-quarters of 
Peshawar Division and District, Punjab. Situated in lat. 34° i' 45" n., 
and long. 71° 36' 40" e., in a small plain near the left bank of the Bara 
stream, 13I miles south-east of the junction of the Swat and Kabul 
rivers, and io| miles from Jamrud fort near the entrance of the 
Khciibar (Khyber) Pass. Distant from Lahore 276 miles, from Kabul 
190 miles. Ancient capital of Gandhara Province, and historically 
important at all later periods {see Peshawar District). Buddhist 
remains still mark its early greatness. The modern city has but slight 
architectural pretensions, the houses being chiefly built of small bricks 
or mud, held together by a wooden framework. It is surrounded by 
a mud wall, built in Sikh times by General Avitabile. The city is 
entered by 16 gates, which are closed every night at gunfire. The main 
street, entered from the Kabul gate (recently re-erected as a memorial to 
Sir Herbert Edwardes), is a broad roadway 50 feet in width, consisting 
of a double row of shops, the upper rooms of which are generally let 
out as lodgings ; the street is well paved, and at busy times presents a 
very picturesque sight. The remainder of the city proper consists of 
octagons, squares, markets, with narrow and irregular streets and lanes. 
A masonry canal runs through the centre of the city, which supplies 
ample water for washing and watering the streets. Drinking water 
is procured from wells which are numerous in all quarters of the city. 
The sanitary and conservancy arrangements are described as very 
good, and all the drains are paved. There are now very few old houses 


of architectural importance, most of them having been destroyed at the 
time of the capture of the city by the Sikhs from the Duranis. Several 
handsome mosques ornament the city ; and a large building known as 
the Ghor Khattri, once a Buddhist monastery, and then rebuilt into a 
Hindu temple, is now used as a sardi, and contains the tahsili courts 
and offices. Just without the wall, on the north-western side, a quadri- 
lateral fort, the Bala Hissar, crowns a small eminence, completely domi- 
nating the city. Its walls of sun-dried brick rise to a height of 92 feet 
above the ground, with 2. faicsse-braye of 30 feet ; bastions stand at each 
corner and on three of the faces, while an armament of guns and 
mortars is mounted above. 

South-west of the city, stretching from just outside the walls, are the 
suburbs of Bhana Mari and Baghban, where there are gardens noted 
for their fruit, producing quinces, pomegranates, plums, limes, peaches, 
and apples in abundance. These gardens form a favourite pleasure- 
ground of the people ; north of the city is another public pleasure- 
ground, the Bagh Shahi, or old royal gardens. Two miles west of 
the city lie the cantonments, where most of the civil offices are also 

Population. — Peshawar city and suburbs, comprising the municipality, 
has a total population (1881) of 59,292, namely, males 33,089, and 
females 26,203. The cantonments contain a population (1881) of 
20,690, namely, males 17,233, and females 3457. Including the city 
proper, suburbs, and cantonments, Peshawar contains a total population 
of 79,982, namely, males 50,322, and females 29,660. Classified accord- 
ing to religion, Muhammadans number 57,378 ; Hindus, 18,105 i Sikhs, 
1465; Christians, 3028; Jains, 3 ; and 'others,' 3. The municipal 
income (chiefly derived from octroi duties) amounted in 1883-84 to 
^18,616, or an average of 6s. 3|d. per head (59,292) of municipal 

Trade and Mafiufadiires. — The larger commercial transactions are in 
the hands of Hindu Khattri and Arora merchants, although there are 
also many Muhammadan merchants of position and importance. The 
mass of the town population is sub-divided into petty trade guilds, 
recruited from miscellaneous tribes of every race to be found in Northern 
India or in Afghanistan and the neighbouring countries to the south 
and west. Peshawar forms the great commercial market for Central 
Asia, for Afghanistan, and for the neighbouring independent States and 
tribes adjoining the British frontier, collecting wheat and salt from 
Kohat, rice and ghi from Swat, oil-seeds from Yusafzai, and sugar and 
oil from the Punjab and North-Western Provinces. These articles find 
their market principally in Bokhara, Kabul, and Bajaur ; in return for 
which are imported from Bokhara gold coin and bullion, gold and 
silver thread and lace, and prepared skins ; and from Kabul horses 


mules and donkeys, fruits, sheepskin coats {poshtins), woollen em- 
broidered coats {chogas\ etc. Indian tea and English piece-goods are 
also exported in considerable quantities to Kabul. 

histiiiitions, etc. — The Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner's 
courts, and the District offices generally, are situated in the cantonments. 
Within the city are the Sub-divisional offices and courts in the Ghor 
Khatri, the large sardL The Edwardes gate, a newly constructed 
entrance to the city in place of the old Kabul gate, leads to the main 
business street ; a clock tower stands in front of the city police station. 
The principal local institutions are the Church Mission Collegiate 
School, the Egerton Hospital, and the Martin Lecture Hall and Institute, 
with its reading room and library, also maintained by the Peshawar 

Peshawar. — Large military cantonment in Peshawar District, 
Punjab; situated 2 miles west of Peshawar city {m'de supra), from 
whence it is separated by a slight depression occupied by the civil 
bazar ; lat. 34° o' 15" N., long. 71° 34' 45" e- The cantonments were 
occupied by British troops soon after the annexation of the Punjab in 
1848-49. There are no old buildings of note, except the Residency. 
This was formerly the garden retreat of Ali Mardan Khan, one of the 
Durani chiefs, and is now used as the record-room and the treasury of 
the District. Among the modern buildings are St. John's Church, 
double-storied barracks, etc. The site of the cantonment, a curved 
elevation looking towards the Khaibar hills, is one of the best and 
highest points in the valley, the only objection to it being its proximity 
to the city. To the south-east are barren and stony plains intercepted 
by occasional watercourses ; to the north lies a marshy tract extending 
in the direction of the Kabul river. 

The cantonments contained in 1881 a total population of 20,690, 
namely, males 17,223, and females 345?- The fighting strength con- 
sisted in 1885 of a battery of Royal artillery, 2 regiments of European 
infantry, a regiment of Bengal cavalry, and three regiments of Native 
infantry. The cantonments of Naushahra, Jamriid, and Cherat are 
subordinate to Peshawar, which also supplies garrisons to the frontier 
forts and military stations. 

The cantonment buildings are arranged in three main blocks— right, 
centre, and left, forming together an irregular oblong 8 miles and 540 
yards in circuit, 3 miles and 925 yards in length from north-west to 
south-west, and i mile 1650 yards in breadth at its widest point. The 
right (or eastern) block contains the artillery lines, and barracks for two 
regiments of Native infantry, the commissariat stores, the District 
court-house and treasury, the jail and police lines, and other public 
buildings. The centre block contains lines for a regiment of Native 
infantry. It contains also the church, Roman Catholic chapel, post- 


office, staging bungalow, and the cantonment magistrate's office. The 
left (or western) block contains lines for a regiment of British infantry, 
two companies of sappers, a regiment of Native infantry, and one of 
Native cavalry. In front of this block are the race-course, grand parade, 
and burial-ground. In the rear are a large cricket-ground and public 
garden. The appearance of the place during the cold and rainy 
seasons is pleasing and picturesque. The gardens attached to the 
officers' bungalows, which line the main roads, are well planted 
with trees, and in most cases are well kept. Much public energy 
and good taste also have been displayed in certain improvements 
recently carried out. Add to this description the fact of a considerable 
society brought together by the presence of so large a force, and it will 
be seen that the place combines the principal qualifications for a 
pleasurable station. The whole, however, is marred by the excessive 
unhealthiness for which the cantonment is proverbial throughout 
Northern India, fever of a very bad type being prevalent at all seasons 
of the year. Much has recently been done to remove the causes of 
this unhealthiness ; a large marsh near the fort has been drained, and a 
belt of trees planted between it and the cantonments ; a pure supply 
of filtered water through iron pipes from the Bara river has been intro- 
duced; and lastly, the sanitation of Peshawar city has been vastly 
improved. Moreover, a large proportion of sickly men are now 
annually withdrawn from the valley during the hot months to the 
comparatively healthy site of Cherat. The result of these measures is 
said to have been a very marked decrease in the former insalubrity of 
the station. 

Pet Budhwara. — Village in Katol tahsil, Nagpur District, Central 
Provinces. Population (1881) 2361, namely, Hindus, 1893; Muham- 
madans, 378 ; Jains, 34 ; non-Hindu aborigines, 56. 

Peth. — Head - quarters of Walwa Sub-division, Satara District, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 17° 3' n., long. 74° 17' e. Population 
(1881) 5672. Hindus number 5367; Muhammadans, 239; and Jains, 
C6. Situated 45 miles south-east of Satara town, Peth is one of the local 
trade centres ; the chief articles of trade being grain and cattle. A 
yearly fair, attended by about 5000 people, is held in the village in 
February. Post-office, and school with in pupils in 1883-S4. 

Pethapur. — Native State within the Agency of Mahi Kantha, 
Bombay Presidency. Population (1881) 7081. Agricultural products 
— millet, pulse, and wheat. Cotton cloth is imported and dyed, for 
exportation to Siam. The chief is descended from a branch of the 
Hindu dynasty of Anhilwcira Patan, whose power was destroyed by 
Ala-ud-din in 1298. Siramshi or Sarangdeo, one of the two sons of 
the last king of Patan, was granted the town of Kalol and surrounding 
villages. Descended from him in the tenth generation was Herutaji, 



who in 1445 slew his maternal uncle, Pitaji, of the Gohel tribe, and 
took possession of the State called after him, Pethapur. The chief has 
enjoyed semi-independent power since the establishment of his family 
in Mahi Kantha. The present (1885) chief, Thakur Gambhir Singh, a 
Hindu of the Waghela clan of Rajputs, succeeded his father, Himat 
Singh, in December 1878, and being a minor, the State is now under 
Government management. Revenue (1882), ;£i725. An annual tribute 
of ;£"863 is paid to the Gdekwar of Baroda. The family do not hold 
a title authorizing adoption, and they follow primogeniture in matters 
of succession. Transit dues are levied in the State. One school, with 
205 pupils in 1882-83. 

Pethapur. — Principal town in Pethdpur State, Mahi Kantha, Gujarat 
(Guzerat), Bombay Presidency, and the residence of the chief; situated 
in lat. 23° 13' 10" N., and long. 72° 2i2) 3°" ^-t ^"^ the west bank 
of the Sabarmati. Noted for the brilliancy of its dyes. Considerable 
quantities of cloth are brought into the town to be coloured, and are 
then exported to Siam. Population (1881) 7081. 

Petlad. — Sub-division of Baroda State (Gaekwar's territory). Area, 
280 square miles, of which 88,087 acres are under cultivation. Popu- 
lation (1881) 138,292. Number of holdings, 16,159; average size of 
holding, 6 acres. Gross revenue, ;2{^87,8i4, of which ;zf 77,666 is derived 
from land. Ninety-three per cent, of the people are supported by 
agriculture. The region is famous for its tobacco cultivation. 

Petlad. — Town in Baroda State, head - quarters of Petlad Sub- 
division. Lat. 22° 29' N., long. 72° 50' E. Population (1881) 14,418, 
namely, 7226 males and 7192 females. Thriving trade in tobacco, and 
considerable weaving manufacture, in which hand-looms are employed. 
Post and police offices, jail, dispensary, customs house, and schools. 
Twenty-one sardis for travellers. 

Pettai. — Town in Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency. — See 

Phaeton. — Small shoal off the mouth of the Bassein river, Lower 
Burma; on which H.M.S. Phaetoft struck on the i6th of February 
1810, and w^as obliged to put into Calcutta for repairs. It bears south- 
west by south from Diamond Island (distant 4 miles), and north by 
east (distant 2,2 miles) from the Alguada Reef, having 9 fathoms of water 
close to, and 2 fathoms upon it. 

PhagU. — Halting -place, with good Government rest-house of 
several rooms, in Keunthal State, Punjab, 1 2 miles east of Simla on 
the pony route to Kotgarh. Lat. 31° 6' n., long. 77° 21' e. Roman- 
tically situated between 8000 and 9000 feet above sea-level, and 
frequently resorted to by Simla residents as well as travellers. The 
noble forests which clothed the mountain slopes have been in great 
part burned down, and have given place to potato cultivation. Formerly 


a chief source of charcoal fuel for Simla. Of late, game has become 
very scarce. 

Phagwara.— Town in Kapurthala State, Punjab. Population (1881) 
10,627, namely, Hindus, 6889; Muhammadans, 3133; Sikhs, 496; 
and Jains, 109. Number of houses, 2065. 

Phalalum {Phalut). — One of the loftiest peaks in Darjiling District, 
Bengal, in the Singalila spur of the Himalayas; 12,042 feet in height. 
Lat. 27° 12' 30" N., long. 88° 3' e. The view of the great northern 
Snowy Mountains from this hill is said by the District officer to be 
one of ' indescribable grandeur. A jagged line of snow connecting 
the two highest mountains in the world, Everest and Kanchanjanga, 
dazzles the eye ; and while the deep silence around impresses itself 
upon the spectator, the thick clumps of pine forest, with their wide- 
spreading arms, add a weird solemnity to the scene.' The range is 
crossed by the Nepal frontier road ; and a staging bungalow has been 
recently erected on the Singalila spur, which is available to travellers 
on application to the Deputy Commissioner of Darjiling. 

Phalauda. — Town in Muwana tahsil, Meerut (Merath) District, 
North-Western Provinces. The town is said to have been founded by 
Phalgu, a Rajput of the Tuar clan, whose descendants held possession 
of it till they were ousted by the Aluhammadans. The place was 
abandoned for nearly two centuries, on account of a curse uttered by 
Kutab Shah, ^ fakir ; and no one would cultivate it at the settlement 
in 1836. Some Jats were afterwards induced to occupy the village at 
a progressive revenue commencing from ^-^3. It is now again in a 
high state of cultivation, and at the last land revenue settlement was 
assessed at a revenue of ^99. Population (1881) 5163, namely, 
Hindus, 3076; Muhammadans, 2050; and Jains, 37. Aluhammadans 
still refuse to live in the town, as they say they are immediately seized 
with disease. 

Phalgu. — River of Gaya District, Bengal ; formed by the union, a 
few miles above Gaya town, of two hill torrents, the Lilajan and the 
Mohana, which both enter the District from the south. When the 
Phalgu reaches the high and rocky shores of Gaya, it is above 500 
yards wide, and for the next half-mile is remarkable for its sanctity. 
During the hot weather it dries up, but water can always be obtained 
by digging a few feet below the surface. After leaving Gaya, the river 
runs in a north-easterly direction for about 17 miles. When opposite 
the Barabar Hill, it divides into two branches, which flow eventually 
into a branch of the Piinpun. 

Phalian. — Western tahsil of Gujrat District, Punjab ; consisting of a 
plateau bordering on Shahpur District; lying between 32° 10' 30" and 
32° 44' N. lat., and between 73° 20' and 73° 55' 30" e. long. Area, 
772 square miles, with 308 towns and villages, 20,665 houses, and 


35,753 families. Population (1881) 174,704, namely, males 92,425, 
and females 82,279; average density of population, 226 persons per 
square mile. Classified according to religion, Muhammadans number 
150,946; Hindus, 21,898; Sikhs, 1858; and Christians, 2. Of the 
308 towns and villages, 178 contain less than five hundred inhabitants ; 
84 from five hundred to a thousand ; and 46 from one thousand 
to five thousand, there being no place with upwards of five thousand 
inhabitants. Average area under cultivation for the five years 1877-78 
to 1881-82, 317 square miles, or 202,891 acres; the area under 
the principal crops being — wheat, 100,464 acres ; bdjra, 24,234 acres ; 
barley, 14,686 acres; moth, 4642 acres; gram, 4318 acres; Indian 
corn, 2226 acres; rice, 1653 acres; cotton, 5750 acres; sugar-cane, 
2887 acres; tobacco, 1247 acres; vegetables, 10,284 acres, etc. 
Revenue of the tahsil, ;£'i5,783. The local administrative staff consists 
of a tahsilddr ^nd d^mimsif, presiding over i criminal and 2 civil courts; 
number of police circles {thdnds), 3; strength of regular police, 51 
men ; village police {chaukiddrs), 204. 

Phaljar. — Village in the Jaintia plains in the north of Sylhet District, 
Assam; containing a celebrated Hindu temple. A human sacrifice at 
this temple led to the British annexation of Jaintia in 1837. 

Phaltan. — Native State under the iVgency of Sc4tara, in the Deccan, 
Bombay Presidenc}', lying between 17° 56' and 18° 6' x. lat., and between 
74° 16' and 74° 44' E. long. Bounded on the north by Poona (Piina) 
District, and on the east, west, and south by Satara District. Area, 397 
square miles. Population (1872) 59,124; (1881) 58,402, namely, 29,199 
males and 29,203 females, occupying 7082 houses in i town and 71 
villages. Hindus number 55,389; Muhammadans, 1670; and 'others,' 
1343. Gross revenue, inclusive of import and export duties, ;if 12,902. 
The country is chiefly flat ; lines of stony hills divide it from Satara 
District. The prevailing soil is black, and the rest is red. About 
9000 acres of garden cultivation are irrigated, for the most part from 
wells. Extensive grazing lands. Indian millet, salt, gram, and timber 
are the chief products ; and oil, weaving of cotton and silk goods, and 
carving of stone idols are the chief manufactures. The climate is hot, 
and the rainfall scanty. The State suffered severely during the famine 
of 1876-77 ; much land was abandoned, and has not yet been brought 
under cultivation. In 1882-83 the State had 3 civil courts, besides 
criminal and sessions courts. Regular police, 52 men ; watchmen 
{i-akhvdlddrs)^ 43. Schools, ] 6, with 719 pupils. 

The Phaltan family is of Rajput origin. One Padakla Jagdeo entered 
the service of the Emperor of Delhi ; and on his death in battle, in 1327, 
the Emperor gave the title of Nayak and a grant of lands to his son 
Nimbrdji, who died in 1349. In 1825 the State was attached by the 
Raja of Satara. In 1827, Banaji Nayak was permitted to succeed on 


payment of a relief of ^^3000. On his dcaili in tlie following year, 
Phaltan was again attached by the Satara Government till 1841, when 
the widow of the deceased chief was allowed to adopt a son — the 
l)resent chief of Phaltan — on payment of a relief of ^3000. The 
present (1SS2) ruler, who ranks as a ' First-Class Sardar' in the Deccan, 
is Madhavji Rao Nayak Nimbalkar, Desmukh Jagirdar. He is a Hindu 
of the Kshattriya caste, forty-four years of age, and administers his estate 
in person. He pays a tribute of £,^(io, in lieu of a contingent of 75 
horse. The family hold a sanad authorizing adoption. In matters of 
succession they follow the custom of primogeniture. 

Phaltan. — Chief town of Phaltan State, in the Deccan, Bombay 
Presidency; situated in lat. 17° 59' 40" n., and long. 74° 28' 20" e., 37 
miles north-east of Satara. Population (1872) 9741 ; (1881) 10,842, 
namely, 5438 males and 5404 females. Hindus in 1881 numbered 
8854; Muhammadans, 794; and Jains, 1194. The town was founded 
by Ximbraj in the 14th century. The streets are well ke[)t and clean, 
and the road round the town well shaded by trees. Municipality 
established in 1868; income (1882), ^£"580; incidence of taxation, 3d. 
per head. 

Phallit. — Lofty peak in Darj fling District, Bengal. — See Phalalum. 

Phaphlind. — Central eastern tahsil of Etaw^ah District, North- 
western Provinces ; consisting of a level upland plain, traversed by the 
East Indian Railway, and watered by the Etawah branch of the Ganges 
Canal. Area, 228 square miles, of which 124 are cultivated. Popula- 
tion (1872) 97,574; (1881) 111,585, namely, males 61,193, ^"^ females 
50,392, show^ing an increase of population since 1872 of 14,011, or 
1 2 '5 per cent, in nine years. Classified according to religion, there 
were in 1881 — Hindus, 105,142; Muhammadans, 6433; and 'others,' 
10. Of the 240 towns and villages in the ta/isil, 1S7 contain less 
than five hundred inhabitants ; 38 from five hundred to a thousand; 14 
from one to five thousand; and i upwards of five thousand inhabitants. 
Government land revenue assessment, ;£"2 1,391, or including local 
rates and cesses levied upon land, ;£23,972 ; estimated rental paid by 
cultivators, ;2{?39,i34. In 1883, Phaphiind /^/^i-// contained i civil and 
I magisterial court ; number of police circles (//lanas), 3 ; strength of 
regular police, 37 men; village police (e/iaiikiddrs), 223. 

Phaphlind. — Town in Etawah District, North-Western Provinces, 
and head-quarters of Etawah fa/isU. Situated in lat. 26' 35' 30" n., 
and long. 79° 30' 25" e., on an old mound, 36 miles east of Etawah 
town. Population (1881) 7796, namely, Hindus, 531 1 ; Muhammadans, 
2480 ; and Christians, 5. Area of town site, 118 acres. For conservancy 
and police purposes, a house-tax is levied. Phaphund contains several 
good brick-built houses ; wide, busy Msdr ; open modern quarter known 
as Hume-ganj ; handsome sardi] with large enclosure shaded by trees. 


TahsUi, police station, Anglo-vernacular school. The Phaphiind railway 
station is situated 6 miles north-east of the town, with telegraph office ; 
post-office in the town. Ruins of great tanks and temples surround the 
site on every side. Two mosques, masonry well, 4 tanks. The town 
was twice plundered and burnt during the Mutiny of 1857. Annual 
fair, attended by 10,000 persons, at the tomb of Shah Bukhari, a 
]\Iusalman ascetic. 

Pharamgiri (or Fardiugiri). — Village in the south-east of the Garo 
Hills District, Assam ; on the southern slope of the Mimanram Mountain, 
3952 feet above sea-level. The inhabitants of this village perpetrated 
the massacre of the survey coolies in 1871, which led to the Garo 
expedition of the following year, and the British annexation of the 

Pharha (Fharhiya). — Town in Mustafabad tahsil, Mainpuri District, 
North-Western Provinces. Distant from Mainpuri town 39^ miles, and 
from Mustafabad 8 miles. Population (1881) 4268, namely, Hindus, 
3043; Muhammadans, 663 ; and 'others,' 562. The conservancy and 
police arrangements of the town are met out of the proceeds of a small 
house-tax. Trade in indigo, cotton, grain, and country produce, which 
has declined since the opening of the railway. Police station, post- 
office. Branch indigo factory of the Umargarh establishment. 

Pheni {Fomy). — Sub-division of Noakhali District, Bengal. Area, 
343 square miles; number of villages, 636 ; number of houses, 23,273. 
Population (t 881), males 118,332, and females 123,643; total, 241,975. 
Classified according to religion, Muhammadans numbered 166,751; 
Hindus, 75,209; Christians, 3; and Buddhists, 12. Density of popu- 
lation, 705 persons per square mile; villages per square mile, i'85; 
persons per village, 380; houses per square mile, 71; persons per 
house, 10-4. The Sub-division comprises the two police circles (thdnds) 
of Pheni and Chhagalnaiya. In 1883 it contained i criminal court, 
namely, the Sub-divisional officers' court at Pheni ; and 2 civil munsifs 
courts, both at Diwanganj. 

Pheni. — River of Eastern Bengal. Rising in lat. 23° 20' n., and 
long. 91° 49' 30" E., in Hill Tipperah, it flows south-west, marking 
the boundary between Hill Tipperah and the Chittagong Hill Tracts, 
which it leaves at Ramghar. Thence it flows west and south, divid- 
ing Chittagong from Noakhali on the north, and ultimately falls 
into the Sandwip Channel, an arm of the Bay of Bengal, in lat. 
22° 46' N., and long. 91° 31' e. During its course through the hills, it 
is of little use for navigation ; its banks are abrupt, and covered with 
heavy grass and bamboo jungle. The Pheni is of considerable depth 
during the rains, but is rendered dangerous by rapid currents, whirling 
eddies, and sharp turns ; at every full and new moon, especially at the 
time of the equinox, there is a bore in the Sandwip Channel, which is 


liigliest at the mouth of the Pheni river. It is navigable by large boats 
throughout the year for a distance of 30 miles. 

Phillaur.— Central southern /^^// of Jalandhar (Jullundur) District, 
Punjab, lying between 30° 57' 15" and 31° 13' n. lat., and between 
75° Zo ^"d 76' E. long., along the bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj). Area, 
294 square miles, with 220 towns and villages, 23,813 houses, and 
38,058 families. Population (1881) 168,269, namely, males 92,871, 
and females 75,398 ; average density of population, 573 persons per 
square mile. Classified according to religion, Hindus number 85,016; 
Muhammadans, 58,620; Sikhs, 24,532; Christians, 98; and Jains, 3. 
Of the 220 towns and villages, 127 contain less than five hundred 
inhabitants; 57 from five hundred to a thousand ; 31 from one to five 
thousand ; and 5 upwards of five thousand inhabitants. Average 
cultivated area for the five years 1877-78 to 1881-82, 261 square miles, 
or 166,998 acres, the principal crops being — wheat, 55,165 acres; 
gram, 16,638 acres; Indian corn, 18,193 acres ;y^ir, 22,509 acres; 
moth, 4837 acres; barley, 2222 acres; rice, 1125 acres; sugar-cane, 
10,488 acres; cotton, 5793 acres; tobacco, 76 acres, etc. Revenue 
of the tahsil, ;^30jOi7- T-'he local administrative staff consists of 
I tahs'ilddr and i imi?ishi, presiding over i criminal and 2 civil courts ; 
number of police circles {thdnds), 2, with head-quarters at Phillaur 
and Niirmahal ; strength of regular police, 45 men ; village watch 
{chaukiddrs), 307. 

Phillaur. — Town and municipality in Jalandhar (Jullundur) District, 
Punjab, and head-quarters of Phillaur tahsil. Situated in lat 31° o' 
38" X., and long. 75° 49' 55" e., on the right bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj), 
27 miles south-east of Jalandhar town. The modern town dates from 
the reign of Shah Jahan, when its site, then covered with ruins, was 
selected for one of the sard is or resting-stages on the imperial route 
from Delhi to Lahore. It was seized on the rise of the Sikh power by 
one Sudh Singh, who made it the capital of a considerable estate ; and 
fell into the hands of Ranjit Singh in 1807, w^ho converted the sardi 
into a fort to command the passage of the Sutlej. After the British 
occupation, the fort was occupied as an important artillery arsenal and 
magazine ; and a cantonment was formed in the neighbourhood, which 
continued to be occupied till the Mutiny of 1857, when the detachment 
in garrison rebelled. The cantonment was not reoccupied after the 
pacification. Phillaur owes its modern importance to the Sind, Punjab, 
and Delhi Railway, on w'hich it forms one of the depot stations. Large 
colony of railway employes. Population (1881) 7107, namely, 
Muhammadans, 4022; Hindus, 2749; Sikhs, 260; Christians, 75; 
and Jain, I. Number of houses, 1 137. Municipal income (1883-84), 
;^5i7, or IS. 5^d. per head of the population. Tahsili, police 
station, branch dispensary, middle-class school, post-ofifice. The town 


is also the head-quarters of a forest division, and is a great wood mart, 
large quantities of timber being floated down the Sutlej and stored and 
sold here. 

Phingeswar {Fmges^var). — Zaui'inddri or chiefship attached to 
Raipur District, Central Provinces, about 30 miles south of Raipur 
town; containing 80 villages, and valuable forests. Area, 208 square 
miles, with 84 towns or villages, and 4834 houses. Population (1881) 
16,325, namely, males 81 18, and females 8207; average density of 
population, 78*5 persons per square mile. The chief claims to be a 
Raj - Gond ; and the chiefship is said to have been granted to his 
ancestor in 1579. Phingeswar villag^e lies in lat. 20° 58' n., and long. 

82° 5' E. 

Phulaguri {Fuldguri). — Village in Nowgong (Naugaon) District, 
Assam. A fair, attended by about 5000 persons, is held here for one 
day in March, and is said to have been introduced in the reign of the 
Aham kings. Its primary object is the performance of religious plays 
in honour of certain deities. 

Phuljhar. — Zai?ii?idd7'i or chiefship attached to Sambalpur District, 
Central Provinces, formerly one of the Hill States known as the 
Athdra Garhjdt^ or the Eighteen Forts. Area, 787 square miles, two- 
thirds of which are cultivated. The soil is light and sandy, except here 
and there in the valleys. In the west, some fine strips of sdl jungle 
fringe the main road between Raipur and Sambalpur, especially near 
the river Jonk ; the tigers which infested them have been of late nearly 
exterminated. Wild buffaloes are found near the Jonk, and bears, 
leopards, etc., among the hills. Rice forms the staple crop, but pulses, 
cotton, oil-seeds, sugar-cane, and gram are also grown. Excellent iron- 
ore has been found. Population (1881) 65,878, namely, males 33,395, 
and females 32,483, inhabiting 436 villages and 17,010 houses; average 
density of population, 837 persons per square mile. The school in 
Phuljhar, the chief town (lat. 21° 13' n., long. 82° 53' e.), has about 50 
pupils. This chiefship is sub-divided into eight estates — Phuljhargarh, 
Kelinda, Boitari, Basna, Balada, Borsara, Singhora, and Sankra. About 
250 villages are held by the farmers direct from the chief, who is a Raj- 
Gond. His annual income is estimated at ;£i362, and he pays an 
annual tribute of ^100. The chiefship was granted to his ancestor 300 
years ago by the Patna Rajas, for service in the field. 

Phlilpur. — Tahsil of AUahdbad District, North-Western Provinces, 
lying on the north bank of the river Ganges, and comprising the 
pargaiids of Sikandra and Jhusi. Area, 285 square miles, of which 
i6i*3 are returned as under cultivation. Population (1872) 160,305; 
(1881) 173,001, namely, males 86,221, and females 86,780, showing 
an increase of 12,696, or 7-9 per cent, in nine years. Classified 
according to religion, there were in 18S1 — Hindus, 151,618; Muham- 


madans, 21,378; and 'others,' 5. Of the 4S8 towns and villages in 
the tahsil, 391 contain less than two hundred inhabitants; 71 from 
five hundred to a thousand; 25 from one to five thousand; and i 
upwards of five thousand inhabitants. Government land revenue 
assessment, ;£^3o,o69, or including local rates and cesses levied upon 
land, ;z{?34,5So. In 1883, Phiilpur tahsil contained i civil and 
revenue and i criminal court ; number of police circles {thdnds), 2 ; 
strength of regular police force, 28 men ; village police force {cJiauhiddrs)^ 
■> -■ o 

Piali. — River in the District of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal. 
A cross stream from the Bidvadhari to the Matla ; it branches off 
from the former river in lat. 22° 25' n., and long. 88° 35' e., near 
Bhagirathpur, and flows a southerly and south-westerly course till it 
falls into the Matla about 15 miles below Port Canning. The river is 
bridged at the point where the Calcutta and South-Eastern Railway 
crosses it. The Piali is a deep stream, about 100 yards in breadth 
where it leaves the Bidyadhari, increasing to about 250 yards on its 

Pigeon Island. — Island off the coast of Vizagapatam District, 
Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 17° 33' n., and long. 83° 14' e., 
about 7 leagues eastward of Wattada. It lies low, and is not discernible 
from a distance. 

Pigeon Island (also known as Netrdni or Nitrdn). — Island ten 
miles off the coast of North Kanara District, Bombay Presidency ; 
situated in lat. 14' i' x., and long. 74° 19' e., about 15 miles north-west 
of Bhatkal. The island is about 300 feet high and half a mile broad. 
It is well wooded, and has 2;ood landing on the west side. In clear 
weather it is visible 25 miles off. Its shores abound in white coral and 
quicklime, which are taken by boats to the mainland. The numbers of 
pigeons that haunt its caves have given the island its name. Besides 
pigeons, the island is frequented by the swiftlet, CoUccalia unicolor, 
whose nests the Chinese esteem a delicacy. It also contains one of the 
largest known colonies of the white-bellied sea eagle. 

Pihani. — Pargand in Shahabad tahsil, Hardoi District, Oudh ; 
bounded on the north by Kheri District, on the east by Kheri and 
Sitapur Districts, on the south by Gopamau and ]Mansurnagar/<7/y^//<7i", 
and on the west by Mansiirnagar and Alamnagar. Area, So square 
miles, of which 43 are cultivated. Population (1881) 37,463, namely, 
30,283 Hindus and 4180 Muhammadans. Government land revenue, 
;£402 8. Number of villages or townships {maiizds), 81. The 
proprietary class consists of Brahmans, Rajputs, Kayasths, and Musal- 

Pihani. — Town and municipality in Shahabad ta/isii, Hardoi 
District, Oudh, and head-quarters of Pihani pargand ; situated in lat. 


27° 37' 15" N,, and long. 80° 14' 25" e., on the road l^etween Sitapur 
and Shahjahanpur. Population (1881) 7540, namely, 4458 Hindus and 
3082 Muhammadans, residing in 327 brick and 1493 rnud houses. 
Municipal income (1883-84), £,2\^^ of which ;!^io3 was derived from 
taxation ; average incidence of taxation, 4jd, per head. A place of 
considerable importance during native administration, but now in a 
state of decay. A handsome mosque and tomb marks the resting-place 
of Akbar's celebrated chancellor, Sadr Jahan. Pihani was formerly 
noted for its manufacture of sword-blades of the finest temper, and of 
woven turbans {dastdr). Both these industries have now died out. 
Police station ; Government school. 

Pihej. — Town in Baroda Division, Baroda State (Gaekwar's territory). 
Population (1881) 6294. 

Pihewa. — Town in Ambala (Umballa) District, Punjab. — See 

Pilibhit. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the North- 
western Provinces, lying between 28° 8' and 28' 53' 30" n. lat., and 
between 79° 41' and So"" 3' e. long. Area, 13 71 '6 square miles. Popula- 
tion (1881) 451,601. Pihbhit is a District of the Rohilkhand Division; 
bounded on the north by the Tarai District ; on the east by the 
independent territory of Nepal, and by Shd-hjahanpur District ; on the 
south by Shahjahanpur ; and on the west by Bareilly (Bareli) District. 
The administrative head-quarters are at the town of Pilibhit. 

Physical Aspects. — Pilibhit District, though only separated by the 
narrow belt of the Tarai from the lower spars of the Himalayas, con- 
sists chiefly of a level plain, modified by gentle undulations and inter- 
sected by several streams. In the south, the country is well wooded, 
nearly every village possessing groves of mango and other fruit trees. 
The total area under fruit groves is returned at 15,612 acres. In the 
north and east, a large area of forest land fringes Pilibhit and Puranpur 
pargands, a small portion of which is the private property of zaminddrSy 
while the remainder is Government property, and is conserved and 
managed by forest ofticers. In Puranpur pargajid, the cultivators 
are allowed to cut wood for their domestic consumption free of duty, 
but in the Pilibhit forest tract, their privileges in this respect are much 

The Sarda and the Deoha, with their affluents, are the principal 
rivers of the District. The former river, after a course of some 150 
miles w^ithin the Kumaun hills, debouches upon the plains at Barmdeo, 
and marks the boundary between Nepalese and British territory. For 
about nine or ten miles, as far as the old fort of Banbasa in the Tarai 
District, it flows in a southerly and south-easterly direction, generally 
in one bed, between tolerably high and picturesquely wooded banks. 
On nearing the plains, the river soon changes its character ; every mile 

riLIBHIJ, 171 

rapids become rarer, the bed less strewn with boulders, and sandbanks 
ai)i)ear. Near Banbasa, the river separates into two main streams, 
which reunite about 14 miles lower down, enclosing the island known 
as Chandni Chauk. Within living memory, the western channel 
carried the main stream of the Sarda. But of late years the current 
has been steadily tending towards the eastern channel, and the 
western now carries little more than a few inches of water during the 
summer months. The western channel marks, however, the Nepalese 
boundary. About a mile below the reunion of the two branches is 
Mandiyaghat, an important station on the main road between 
Bareilly, Pilibhit, and Nepal. From Mandiyaghat, the Sarda flows 
south-eastwards through Pilibhit District, marking at parts the boundary 
between British and Nepalese territory, but with many bifurcations and 
interlacing channels, till it passes into Kheri District, where it receives 
the Kauriala; and the united river is thence known as the Sarju or 
(jogra, the great river of Oudh, down to its confluence with the Ganges 
at Chapra, in the Bengal District of Saran, in lat. 25'' 43' n,, long. 
84° 43' 30" E. Ferries are maintained across the Sarda at Sherpur 
and Jatpura. The principal affluent of the Sarda is the Chauka, a 
considerable stream, which, after a long course through the Tarai 
District and the Puranpur pargand of Pilibhit, almost parallel with 
the Sarda, falls into that river on its right bank near Dhanaura- 

The Deoha, known to the neighbouring mountaineers as the Nanda, 
rises in the Bhabar tract of Kumaun. Here its waters, like that of 
other streams to the eastward, contains large quantities of lime in 
solution, and blanch after rain to a milky whiteness. The springs 
from the hills, below which the river debouches on to the plains, are 
similarly impregnated, and deposit their lime either pure or in stalac- 
tites. Such lime is exported to Bareilly, Pilibhit, and Shahjahanpur, 
where its excellent quality commands a ready sale. The Deoha enters 
Pilibhit from the north in the centre of the District, and flowing a 
tortuous southerly course, marks the boundary between Jahanabad and 
Y'i^\\:i\\\\. pargafids^ till it passes into Bareilly, and ultimately into Shah- 
jahanpur and Hardoi Districts, in the latter of which it joins the 
Kamganga under the name of the Garra. Swollen by violent floods 
from the mountains, the river is at times very broad and deep, with 
a maximum flood discharge of 26,000 cubic feet per second; its hot- 
weather discharge does not exceed 200 feet per second. Pilibhit town 
is situated on the left bank of the Deoha, and below this point the 
river is navigable during the rains by boats of four tons burthen, while 
logs may be floated down it for most of the year. The affluents of the 
Deoha in Pilibhit District are the Kailas, Absara, Lohiya, and Khakra. 
A good deal of water for irrigation is supplied from these streams ; but 

172 FI LIB II IT. 

the Deoha itself having a wide bed much below the level of the 
surrounding country, cannot prove similarly useful. The Giimti river 
takes its rise near Mainakot in the Puranpur forest tract. Its course in 
Pilibhit District before entering Shahjahanpur consists of a series of 
swamps, all bearing a bad reputation for malaria. A similar line of 
swamps, forming the upper part of the Mala, is of a particularly 
malarious character, and renders the country-side uninhabitable for 
miles around. 

Generally speaking, it may be said that on the western and southern 
portions the District is populous, well cultivated, and undistinguish- 
able in general character from the adjacent fertile Districts of Bareilly 
and Shahjahanpur; while to the north and east in Puranpur /^rg-^/z^ it 
lapses more or less abruptly into a tract of malarious swamp, forest, and 
grassy waste, interspersed with clumps of miserable huts and patches 
of poor cultivation. It would be hard to find a stronger dissimilarity 
than exists between Puranpur ' and its neighbouring pargands of 
Pilibhit and Jahanabad, either in soil, produce, water-supply, or even 

In the wilder parts of Puranpur, especially along the line of the 
Mala swamp, tigers and leopards are numerous, but elsewhere scarce. 
The damage done by them in the open country is small, and their raids 
on cattle are forgiven in consideration of their services against the 
husbandman's more serious enemies — the wild hog and the deer, who 
commit serious depredations among the crops. Of wild beasts that are 
not game, the jackal and the wolf are the most conspicuous. Both are 
respected as pet dogs of the goddess Kah, and as such are rarely 
molested. The superstition is strongest in the case of the wolf, whom, 
in spite of the rewards set on his head, it is considered extremely 
unlucky to kill. Tne principal game birds consist of the black and 
grey partridge, quail, sand-grouse, jungle-fowl, pea-fowl, geese, ducks, 
teal, snipe, and floriken. 

History. — Authentic history of Pilibhit District may be said practi- 
cally to commence with the ascendency of the Rohilla Pathans. 
Previous to their time, and from a very early date, the country was 
occupied by tribes of Ahirs, Banjaras, and Rajputs of the Bachhal 
and Katheriya clans, who predominated in turn, and have left 
behind them as sole relics of their occupation, ruins of nmd forts, 
irrigation tanks, and in one instance a canal, with a stone inscription 
900 years old commemorating its construction. These tribes were 
afterwards ousted by successive irruptions of Muhammadans, who 
gradually possessed themselves of the w^iole country. Local history, 
however, does not commence before the i8th century, when Pilibhit 
fell into the hands of a Rohilla chief, Hafiz Rahmat Khan, who has 
left his mark on the history of all Rohilkhand, and to whom Pilibhit, 



wliich he selected for a time as his residence, is indebted for its pubh'c 
buildings, markets, and all that distinguished it before the advent of 
British rule. 

On the permanent establishment of Rahmat Khan's supremacy in 
1754, Pilibhit became the recognised capital of Rohilkhand. Hafiz 
Rahmat Khan surrounded the city first with a mud, and afterwards 
with a brick wall. The latter was demolished after his death, but traces 
of the long lines of curtains and bastions still mark the city boundaries 
on the northern and eastern sides. The Jama Masjid or cathedral 
mosque which he built in imitation of the great Jama Masjid at Delhi, 
is the chief architectural ornament of the city; and the hainmajji or 
public bath which he established, is still maintained and resorted to 
by the people. 

Hafiz Rahmat Khan was killed in the battle of Miranka Katra in 
1774, fought between the Rohillas and the Nawab Wazir of Oudh, 
who was aided by a European force lent by Warren Hastings. Pihbhit 
was occupied without resistance, and became a part of the new 
dominions added to the territories of the Nawab Wazi'r. In i8or, 
with the rest of Rohilkhand, it passed to the British, being ceded in lieu 
of the payment of tribute. Pilibhit was made the head- quarters of a 
tahsilv^ i'^2)Z^ when it became the capital of a separate District known 
as the Northern Division of Bareilly. In 1842, Pilibhit again became a 
Sub-division of Bareilly District. 

At the time of the outbreak of the IMutiny in 1857, Pilibhit Sub- 
division was under the charge of Mr. C. P. Carmichael, Joint Magis- 
trate. Tidings of the rising of the troops at Bareilly reached Pilibhit on 
the I St June, and tumults at once broke out among the population. 
Tlirongs of excited and fanatical Muhammadans, low castes, and 
bad characters, besieged the tahsili for the purpose of plunder. The 
leading citizens, who had been charged by the Joint Magistrate with 
the duty of dividing and removing the treasure to a place of safety, fell 
out among themselves, and the whole city became a scene of uproar 
and bloodshed. Mr. Carmichael, finding it impossible to allay the 
tumult, and that his continued presence could serve no useful purpose, 
was forced to retire to Naini Tal, whither he had previously despatched 
his family for safety. Until the restoration of British authority in 
1858, the villages of the Pilibhit Sub-division remained a prey to the 
rapacity and extortions of rival zafnUiddrs, while the city nominally 
submitted to the authority of Khan Bahadur Khan, the rebel Nawab 
of Bareilly, grandson of Hafiz Rahmat Khan. Since the restora- 
tion of British authority, the only occasion on which order has been 
disturbed was in 187 1, when a riot, which was not suppressed without 
bloodshed, occurred between the Muhammadan and Hindu fiictions on 
the occasion of a Hindu festival. 

174 PI LIB HI 1. 

Pilibhi't continued to remain a Sub-division of Bareilly until 1879, 
when the three tahsils of PiHbhit, Puranpur, and Baheri were separated 
from Bareilly, and erected into the separate District of Pilibhi't. In the 
following year (1880), Baheri tahsilwdiS restored to Bareilly, and Bisalpur 
tahsil added to Pilibhit, thus constituting the District as it at present 

Population. — The population of Pilibhit District, as now constituted, 
was returned in 1872 at 492,098. The last Census in 1881 disclosed 
a total population of 451,601, showing a decrease of 40,497, or 8*2 
per cent., in nine years. The decrease is ascribed to the severe scarcity 
of 1878-79, and the consequent heavy mortality. The results of 
the Census of 1881 may be summarized as follows: — Area of the 
District, i37i*6 square miles; number of towns and villages, 1053; 
number of occupied houses, 64,625. Total population, 451,601, 
namely, males 239,787, and females 211,814; proportion of males in 
total population, 53*1 per cent. Average density of population, 329 
persons per square mile; towns and villages per square mile, 76; 
persons per town or village, 429 ; houses per square mile, 47'i ; persons 
per occupied house, 6*9. Classified according to sex and age, there are 
— under 15 years of age, boys 94,806, and girls 79,805 ; total children, 
1 74.611, or 387 per cent, of the population: 15 years and upwards, 
males 144,981, and females 132,009; total adults, 276,990, or 61 "3 per 

ReIigio7i. — Hindus number 377,003, or 83-5 per cent, of the popula- 
tion ; Muhammadans, 74,580, or 16-5 per cent. The remainder con- 
sists of 18 Christians, of whom 12 are Europeans, 2 Eurasians, and 4 
natives. Among the higher classes of Hindus, Brahmans number 
25,028; Rajputs, 9756; Baniyas, 7356; and Kayasths, 5148. The 
lower castes include the following — Kiirmi, the principal agricultural 
class, and most numerous caste in the District, 98,427 ; Lodhi, 33,953; 
Chamar, 30,025; Kachhi, 24,063; Kahar, 13,689; Ahir, 13,250; 
Pasi, 10,712; Barhai, 10,524; Teli, 10,101; Dhobi, 8774; Lobar, 
7372; Kori, 7080; Nai, 7014; and Gadaria, 6445. The Muham- 
madans, who are almost without exception Sunnis by sect, include 1642 
descendants of Hindu Mewatis. 

Town a?id Riwal Population. — Pilibhit District contains only two 
towns with a population exceeding five thousand, namely, Pilibhit, 
29721, and Bisalpur, 8903; total, 38,624, or 8-5 per cent, of the 
District population. These are also the only municipalities ; total 
municipal income (1883-84), ^3893, of which ^3069 was derived 
from taxation; average incidence of taxation, is. 7d. per head of town 
population. Of the 1053 towns and villages, 353 contain less than two 
hundred inhabitants ; 441 from two hundred to five hundred ; 198 from 
five hundred to a thousand; 42 from one to two thousand; 14 from 

PI LIB HIT. 175 

two to three thousand ; 3 from three to five thousand ; and 2 upwards 
of five thousand inhabitants. As regards occupation, the male popula- 
tion is dividetl into the following six main classes — (i) Professional 
class, including civil and military, 2527; (2) domestic class, 602; (3) 
commercial class, including bankers, traders, carriers, etc., 5316; (4) 
agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 116,964; (5) 
industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 23,500; (6) 
indefinite and non-productive class, comprising general labourers and 
male children, 90,878. 

Agriculture. — In 1883-84, out of a total area assessed for Govern- 
ment revenue amounting to 12 20 J square miles, or 781,109 acres, 
419,164 acres were returned as under cultivation, 287,792 acres as 
cultivable waste, and 74,153 acres as uncultivable. The three tahsils 
of which the District is composed differ widely in soil, products, and 
climate. In the northern tahsil of Pilibhit, with its clayey soil and 
heavy rainfall, rice forms the predominant crop ; but owing to the 
canals which have been constructed west of the Deoha, and to a 
more laborious system of cultivation now^ generally observable, a con- 
siderable area has of late years been devoted to wheat and barley; and 
the cultivation of the sugar-cane is rapidly extending. The cultivated 
portion of the eastern tahsU of Puranpur consists mainly of a level 
plateau of light sandy loam, producing chiefly urd and bdjra for the 
autumn, and wheat and barley for the spring harvests. The large 
uncultivated area in Puranpur tahsil is mostly utilized as pasture land ; 
and the cattle bred here, although of small size, are noted for their 
hardiness and endurance. In the southern tahsil of Bisalpur, where 
irrigation from wells is the rule, as elsewhere it is the exception, every 
variety of crop common to Rohilkhand is grown with success. The 
style of cultivation varies as much as the produce. In the south and 
west, it will bear comparison with the best of the Rohilkhand Districts ; 
but in the north-east and east, where the energies of the cultivator are 
devoted to protecting his crops from the depredations of wild beasts, 
cultivation is slovenly and irrigation rare. The total area irrigated in 
Pilibhit District in 1883-84 was 81,417 acres, of which 11,161 acres 
were irrigated from Government works, and 70,256 acres by private 

Rents are paid in every possible way, and at widely differing rates. 
For rice cultivation, the system of batdi or division of the crop 
prevails ; while in Puranpur tahsil a peculiar system of crop rates is 
universally found, by which rents are paid in cash, at rates regulated 
according to the nature of the crop grown, and without any reference 
to the quality of the soil or its situation. The total male adult agricul- 
tural population of Pilibhit District, as returned by the Census of 188 1, 
is 116,303, with an average of 3"4i cultivated acres for each. Includ- 

176 PI LIB HIT. 

ing males and females, the adult agriculturists number 144,433, of 
whom 1859 are landed proprietors, 3507 are engaged in estate service, 
131,903 are cultivators, and 7164 are agricultural labourers. In- 
cluding children, the total agricultural population dependent on the 
soil numbers 326,574, or 72-31 per cent, of the District population. 
Total Government assessment in 1881, including rates and cesses 
levied on the land, ^83,811, or at the rate of 4s. 3M. per cultivated 
acre; estimated rental paid by cultivators, ;£^i38,334, or at the rate of 
6s. ii|d. per cultivated acre. The cultivators are mostly poor, but 
independent, with strong migratory instincts, which are markedly 
developed in the sparsely populated tracts along the forest borders. 
The general absence of irrigation in these tracts, coupled with the 
roving character of the population, render cultivation so uncertain, that 
it has been found necessary to introduce in many villages a system of 
annual assessment by which the revenue varies according to the area 
of land under cultivation. 

Natural Calamities. — Pilibhit District has never suffered very 
severely from famine caused by floods or droughts, and the diseases con- 
sequent thereon. The Sarda and the Deoha occasionally rise suddenly 
and inundate their banks owing to heavy rainfall in the hills ; but the 
Sarda flows through sandy wastes and jungles, and cultivation is scanty 
along the Deoha. The loss arising from floods is seldom more serious 
than the drowning of a few head of cattle, or the destruction of 
a it'N hundred acres of rice. The natural moisture of the soil, the 
scanty population, and the resources of the forests have hitherto served 
to protect the people from the extremity of famine. 

Commerce and Trade. — The trade of the District is chiefly centred in 
Pilibhit town, the principal staples consisting of rice, borax, spices, 
sugar, timber, hides, and cattle. 1 he finer descriptions of rice, grown 
in the Tarai District, are mostly collected at Neoria, a town inhabited 
by Banjaras, about nine miles north of Pilibhit town. The rice is 
husked here, and when re-sold passes under the name of Pilibhit 
rice. Borax and spices come principally from Barmdeo, a mart in 
Kumaun District at the foot of the hills, to which the hillmen come 
every cold season to exchange their products for those of Pilibhit 
traders, consisting chiefly of salt, cloth, brass vessels, and hardware. 
Large timber comes principally from the Kuniciun and Nepal forests, 
but the supply of late years has been scanty and uncertain. Sugar- 
cane is largely grown in the District, and the raw material is 
manufactured into sugar in Pilibhit and Bisalpur towns. Consider- 
able capital is employed in this manufacture. The cattle trade is 
in the hands of dealers from other Districts, who annually visit 
Pilibhit, and purchase young animals from the vast herds which 
graze in the open pastures of the Sarda and in the forests. Trade is 


PI LIB HIT. 177 

also carried on with Nepal, which, although at present comparatively 
small, is capable of indefinite expansion, contingent on the openin-r 
of new and improved means of communication, and the removal of 
harassing restrictions imposed by the Nepal authorities. The imports 
from Nepal, consisting chiefly of rice and grain, gi^ms and resins, 
amounted in 1882 to the value of ^14,908; while the exports into 
Nepal from Pilibhit, principally salt and cotton goods, were valued at 

Means of Commu7iication.—-\Y\\.\i the single exception of the road to 
Bareilly, no metalled roads exist in the District; but fair-weather roads, 
partially bridged, converge from every direction on Pilibhit town. 
Total length of made roads, 245 miles. A continuation of the Oudh 
and Rohilkhand Railway from Bareilly to Pilibhit, for a distance of 30 
miles, was opened for trafific in 1884. 

Administratio?i.~Y\X\\Mx District is under the administrative charge 
of a Magistrate-Collector, assisted by two Deputy Magistrates. The 
Pilibhit and Bisalpur tahsils are each under the separate charge of a 
tahsilddr, while Puranpur tahsil is entrusted to an officer of inferior 
rank, styled a peshkdr. Two mtmsifs, subordinate to the Judge of 
Bareilly, are stationed in the District at Pilibhit and Bisalpur towns. 
They exercise civil powers only, and their jurisdiction extends over a 
portion of Bareilly District. The total revenue of the District in 
1881-S2 amounted to ^86,489, namely, imperial, ^70,531; local, 
^11,967; and municipal, ^3991. In 1883-84, the imperial revenue 
of the District amounted to ^88,617, of which the following were the 
principal items :— Land revenue, ^68,293; stamps, ^4492; excise, 
^4574; provincial rates, ^8361; assessed taxes, ^840; registration, 
;£6oo ; and irrigation and navigation receipts, ^200. The District con- 
tains 8 civil and revenue and 12 magisterial courts. The regular 
District and town police force in 1883-84 numbered 354 men, main- 
tained at a cost of ^3393; besides a village w^atch or rural police of 
1047 men, maintained at a cost of ^3778. Long-term prisoners are 
confined in the Bareilly District jail. The lock-up at Pilibhit contained 
a daily average of 13-50 prisoners in 1883-84, all males. 

Ediu-atwn.—ThQYQ is no District or zi/d school in Pilibhit ; but its 
place is supplied by a good Anglo-vernacular school, named after its 
founder, a former Collector of the District, the Honourable Robert 
Drummond, which is under the management of the Pilibhit municipality; 
total^ number of pupils (1882), 243. There were also in 1882, 2 
tahsili schools with 52 pupils, and 62 halkabandi or village schools 
with 2263 pupils. In 1883-84, the total number of inspected schools 
in Pilibhit District was 73, attended by 2465 pupils. There is also a 
well-managed girls' school in Pilibhit town, under a Muhammadan 
schoolmistress. In 1881, the Census Report returned 2448 bnvs and 

VOL. XI. j^j 


31 girls as under instruction, besides 7510 males and 83 females able 
to read and write, but not under instruction. 

Medical Aspects. — Fever, usually intermittent, though sometimes 
changing to the remittent type, is endemic throughout the District, but 
localizes itself most malignantly about the swamps that border on and 
intersect the forests in Puranpur tahsil. It is most prevalent as well 
as most fatal in its character at the end of the rains and the commence- 
ment of the cold season. It is least frequent in the cold-weather 
months, and it is popularly believed that the malaria is destroyed or 
rendered innocuous by the first frosts of December. Apart from fever, 
Pilibhit may be considered to be, on the whole, a healthy District, 
and visits of epidemic disease are rare. In 1883-84, the registered 
deaths in Pilibhit District numbered 13,412, or a rate of 3179 P^r 
thousand of the population, as against a rate of 37*80 per thousand for 
the previous five years. Of the total deaths in 1883-84, 8841 were 
assigned to fevers, and 3123 to small-pox, which appeared in an epidemic 
form in that year throughout Rohilkhand, and in the adjacent Districts 
of Oudh. Two charitable dispensaries at Pilibhit and Bisalpur towns 
afforded medical relief in 1883-84 to 532 in-door and 23,006 out-door 
patients. [For further information regarding Pilibhit, see the Gazetteer 
of Bareilly (from which District the present District of Pilibhit was 
severed in 1879), published in the Gazetteer of the North- Western 
Froviftces^ by Mr. E. T. Atkinson, C.S., vol. v. pp. 499-694 
(Government Press, Allahabad, 1879); also the Census Report for 
the North-lVester7i Provinces a?id Oudh for 1881 ; and the several 
Provincial Administration and Departmental Reports from 1881 to 

Pilibhit. — North-western tahsil of Pilibhit District, North-Western 
Provinces, lying to the south of the submontane Tarai District, and 
comprising the pargands of Pilibhit and Jahanabad. Area, 372 square 
miles, of which 248 square miles are returned as under cultivation. 
Population (1872) 200,501; (1881) 183,344, namely, males 96,111, 
and females 87,233, showing a decrease in population of 17,157, or 
8'5 per cent., in nine years. Classified according to religion, the 
population in 1881 consisted of — Hindus, 135,636; Muhammadans, 
47,695; and Christians, 13. Of the 393 villages in the tahsil, 300 
contain less than five hundred inhabitants ; 74 from five hundred to a 
thousand; 18 from one to five thousand; and i upwards of five 
thousand inhabitants. Government land revenue assessment, exclusive 
of local rates and cesses levied upon land, ;£34,954; estimated rental 
paid by cultivators in money or in kind, ;£"54,i39. In 1883, Pihbhit 
tahsil contained, besides the head-quarter courts, i civil and revenue 
and 5 magisterial courts ; number of police circles (thdnds), 5 ; strength 
of regular police, 69 men; village police {chaukiddrs), 590. 


Pilibhit. — Town, municii)ality, and administrative head-quarters of 
Pilibhit District, North-Western Provinces, situated in lat. 28^ 38' n., 
and long. 79° 50' 50" e., about 30 miles north-east of Bareilly city, on the 
left bank of the Deoha river. It is impossible to say when the town was 
first founded. Nothing appears to be known of it prior to 1740, 
about which year the Rohilla leader, Hafiz Rahmat Khan, seized both 
Pilibhit town and pargajid, and established his capital in the former. 
The history of the city under Maratha and British rule is given in the 
District article. Population (1881) 29,721, namely, males 14,889, and 
females 14,832. Hindus number 17,197; Muhammadans, 12,520; 
and Christians, 4. Municipal income (1883-84), ^3579, of which 
£21^)-] was derived from taxation, chiefly octroi duties; average 
incidence of taxation, is. lojd. per head. 

Pilibhit is a long and straggling town, with more than the usual 
number of brick-built houses, and of a business-Hke appearance. It 
contains two large markets, one of which, Drummond-ganj, named 
after a former District officer, consists of a large number of good shops, 
well arranged on a good site. Rice from the Tarai, borax and pepper 
from Kumaun and Nepal, honey, wax, wool, etc., are bought up at 
Barmdeo and other submontane marts, by Pilibhit merchants, who 
afterwvards distribute the produce throughout this and neighbourin^r 
Districts. In former years, a good deal of timber was imported from 
the trans-Sarda Tarai ; but since the forests of that tract were made 
over to Nepal, the timber import, and with it the boat-building trade 
of Pilibhit, has declined. The coarser kind of carpentry still flourishes ; 
and though all wood intended for furniture passes on to Bareilly, country 
carts are largely made. A small trade is carried on in catechu, boiled 
from the bark of the khair tree (Acacia Catechu). There is a brisk 
manufacture of metal vessels made from imported materials, and a small 
manufacture of hempen sacking. But the most important industry is 
that of sugar-refining. The expressed syrup, after a rude boiling 
process in its native village, is carted into Pilibhit town, where it 
is refined. Sugar forms the main export both of the town and Dis- 
trict. The chief imports are grain, salt, cotton goods, and cleaned 

The handsomest portion of Pilibhit town is its western outskirt, where 
stand the remains of the old Rohilla chiefs palace, his cathedral 
mosque (a brick and plaster imitation of \he /a ?n d Ma sj id Zit Delhi), 
the Anglo-vernacular school, and the dispensary. All these buildings 
stand on an open space enclosed and planted with trees. The other 
public buildings include the Government courts and offices; police 
station, post-office, public bath {Jiammdm), and a sardi or native inn. 
The northern portion of the town is especially liable to inundation 
during the rains. Pilibhit is now connected by railway with Bareilly 


city, 36 miles distant, and six lines of roads converge on the town from 
different quarters. The Bareilly and Jahanabad roads meet on the 
opposite or right bank of the Deoha, which they cross together on a 
bridge of boats. A military encamping ground is situated amidst 
groves just outside the town on the south. 

Pilkhuwa. — Town and municipality in Meerut (Merath) District, 
North-Western Provinces. Situated in lat. 28° 42' 45" n., and long. 
77° 42' E., in a depression of the plain, 19 miles south-west of Meerut 
(Merath) city. Population (1881) 5661, namely, Hindus, 5027; 
Muhammandans, 632; Jain, i; and Christian, i. Area of town site, 
43 acres. Municipal income (1883-84), ;£"365, of which £,z^Af was 
derived from octroi duties ; average incidence of taxation, is. o|d. per 
head. The Hindu manufacturing population is engaged in cotton- 
weaving, which employs 100 looms. There is also some trade in 
leather and shoes. Mr. Michel of the Masuri factory owns the town 
with 13 neighbouring villages, having purchased the estate after the 
Mutiny. Two large Hindu temples; police station, post-ofhce, 

2 sardis. 

Piming. — Pass in Bashahr (Bussahir) State, Punjab, traversing a 
lofty ridge in Kunawar, which forms the boundary between Chinese 
and British territory. Lat. 31° 49' x., long. 78° 46' e. ; elevation above 
sea, 13,518 ffeet. 

Pimpalgaon Raja. — Town in Buldana District, Berar. Said to 
have been founded 800 years ago, by a prince of the herdsman (Ahir) 
caste, named Pirat Singh ; situated in lat. 20° 43' n., and long. 76° 30' 
E., on the river Dayanganga. Population (188 1) 4357. It is said to 
have suffered much from marauders towards the end of the last century, 
and to have been subsequently ruined by the black-mail levied by 
Mahadaji Sindhia in 1790, on his way to Poona (Piina) after his 
expedition against Ghulam Kadir Beg of Delhi. On the south side 
of the town is a temple to the goddess Renuka, about 30 feet under 
ground. At the end of the narrow rock-hewn gallery or temple 
is the idol. Ganesh Dew^adaya, a Hindu theologian, flourished here 
about 1 619 A.D. Some of his works are still read and preserved in 
the neighbourhood. Two Government schools, post-office, and police 

Pimpalner. — Sub-division of Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency. 
Area, 1339 square miles, containing 236 villages. Population (1872) 
60,125; (1881) 87,549, namely, 44,563 males and 42,986 females. 
Hindus number 39,762; Muhammadans, 1629; and 'others,' 46,158. 
Land revenue (1883), ;£'i2,63i. 

The Sub-division lies partly above and partly below the Sahyadri 
Hills. It is bounded on the north-west by Baroda territory ; on the 
north by Nandurbar ; on the east by Virdel and Dhulia ; on the south 


by Ndsik District ; and on the west by Barocln. The desk or plains are 
intersected by abrupt mountain ranges, of which the range of the Selbari 
hills is the most considerable. The dd?ig, or tract below the Sahyadris, 
is composed of steep hill ranges clothed with forest, inhabited by Bhils. 
Climate unhealthy, especially to Europeans and natives of the Deccan ; 
annual rainfall, 25 inches. Fair water-supply, the rivers being utilized 
for irrigation by means of baudlidrds or masonry dams. In 1868, 
when the survey settlement was introduced, there were 4180 holdings, 
with an average area of 24 acres, paying an average assessment of ^2, 2s. 
9d. Incidence of land-tax per head, about 4s. 5d. In 1878 there were 
176,320 acres actually under cultivation; grain crops occupied 121,781 
acres; pulses, 19,609 acres; oil-seeds, 25,167; fibres, 8169 acres; 
and miscellaneous crops, 1594 acres. The Sub-division contained in 
1883 — criminal courts, 3; police circles {thdnds), 3; regular police, 
115 men; village watch {chaukiddrs).^ 232. 

Pimpalner. — Town in Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency, 
and head-quarters of Pimpalner Sub-division, Situated 40 miles west 
of Dhulia. Population (1872) 2972. Not separately returned in the 
Census Report of 188 r. Trade with Surat in oil made from grass. 
Old fort. Dispensary ; post-office. 

Pimpladevi.— Bhil State in the Dang country, Khandesh District, 
Bombay Presidency. — See Dang States. 

Pimpri. — Bhfl State in the Dang country, Khandesh District, 
Bombay Presidency. — See Dang States. 

Pin {^Pinu or Pirn). — River in Kangra District, Punjab ; the most 
important tributary of the Spiti. Rises in the angle of the Mid- 
Himalaya and Manirang ranges, and with its affluent, the Parakio, 
drains one quarter of the Spiti valley. Flows through a barren and 
rocky glen, shut in on either side by bare precipices; but near the 
mouth the basin broadens out so as to afford room for 1 1 villages with 
their cultivated lands. Finally joins the Spiti, in lat. 32° 6' n., and 
long. 78° n' E., a litde above Dankar, the principal village in the 
Spid valley, after a course of 45 miles. Width of bed near the mouth, 
from 300 to 800 yards. 

Pinahat. — South-eastern tahsil of Agra District, North-Western 
Provinces ; consisting of the broken strip of country between the 
Jumna (Jamuna) and the Chambal rivers, and conterminous with 
Pinahat pargaiid. Area, 341 '5 square miles, of which 167 square 
miles were returned as under cultivation in 1882. Population (1872) 
142,155; (1881) 120,529, namely, males 63,524, and females 57,005, 
showing a decrease of 21,626, or 15-2 per cent., in nine years. 
Classified according to religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 115,154 ; 
Muhammadans, 3491; Jains, 1880; and 'others,' 4. Of the 204 
villages in the tahsil, 126 contain less than five hundred inhabitants; 


48 from five hundred to a thousand; 29 from one to five thousand; 
and I upwards of five thousand inhabitants. Government land 
revenue assessment, ^20,862, or including local rates and cesses 
levied on land, ^25,114. Estimated rental paid by cultivators, 
p/^45,052. In 1883, Pinahat tahsil contained i magisterial court; 
number of police circles {thd?ids)j 4 ; strength of regular police, 56 
men ; village police {chaukiddrs), 348. 

Pinahat. — Town in Pinahat tahsil, Agra District, North-Western 
Provinces, :^t, miles south-east from Agra city, and 14 miles west of Bah, 
the head-quarters of Pinahat; lat. 26° 52' 39" n., long. 78° 24' 58" e. 
Population (1881) 5697, namely, Hindus, 5005 ; Muhammadans, 
653; and Jains, 39. First-class police station; post-office; school; 
three Hindu temples. Station of the great Trigonometrical Survey. 
Until January 1882, the town was the head-quarters of the Pinahat 
tahsil, which was then removed to Bah, and the tahsil is now generally 
known as Bah-Pinahat. 

Pinakini, Northern and Southern.— Two rivers in Southern 
India. — See Penner. 

Pind Dadan Khan. — South central tahsil of Jehlam (Jhelum) 
District, Punjab ; occupying the Salt Range and country to the south. 
Lat. 32° 26' to 32° 49' N., and long. 72° 32' to 73° 22' e. Area, 
887 square miles, with 211 towns and villages, 26,654 houses, and 
38,028 families. Population (1881) 166,186, namely, males 87,047, 
and females 79,139; average density of population, 166 persons 
per square mile. ■ Classified according to religion, Muhammadans 
number 143,273 ; Hindus, 21,713; Sikhs, 1091 ; Jains, 58; and Chris- 
tians, 51. Of the 211 towns and villages, 106 contain less than five 
hundred inhabitants; 52 from five hundred to a thousand; 52 from 
one thousand to five thousand ; and i upwards of five thousand 
inhabitants. Average cultivated area for the five years 1877-78 to 
1881-82, 290 square miles, the principal crops being wheat, bdjra, 
barley, moth,jodr, gram, Indian corn, cotton, and vegetables. Revenue 
of the tahsil, ^19,362. The administrative staff consists of an 
Assistant Commissioner, tahsilddr and niunsif, presiding over 3 civil 
and 2 criminal courts ; number of police circles {thdnds), 3, with head- 
quarters at Pind Dadan Khan, Ahmadabad, and Jalalpur ; strength of 
regular police, 126 men ; village watch {chaiikiddrs), 109. 

Pind Dadan Khan. — Large and flourishing commercial town and 
municipality in Jehlam (Jhelum) District, Punjab, and head-quarters of 
Jehlam tahsil. Situated in lat. 32° 35' n., and long. 73° 5' 20" £., 
I mile from the north bank of the Jehlam river, and 5 miles from the 
foot of the Salt Range. Founded in 1623 by Dadan Khan, whose 
descendants still reside in the town. Population (1868) 17,814; 
(1881) 16,724, namely, Muhammadans, 10,001; Hindus, 6419; Sikhs, 


246 ; and Jains, 58. Number of houses, 2780. Municipal income 
(18S3-S4), ^2822, or an average of 3s. 4W. per head of the town 

Find Uadan Khan was till quite lately the trade emporium for the 
whole neighbourhood, and carried on, besides its local traffic, an 
extensive export and import trade with the distant marts of the 
Province. Its traders had their agents at Amritsar, Sakkar, Miiltan, 
Peshawar, and in the countries beyond the border. Lying low, near 
the bank of the river, its situation was admirably adapted to secuie 
the traffic in salt from the Mayo mines at Kheura, and most of the 
export trade of the District, which goes down the river to Miiltan and 
Karachi. The latter item, however, is very uncertain in amount ; 
and since the opening of the new Salt Railway to Miani, the trade in 
salt is seriously threatened. It is impossible to jforesee the result. 
In certain contingencies, Find Dadan Khan might recover its hold 
on the trade ; but at present it seems probable that the trade will 
gravitate to Lala Miisa, or eventually to Kheura itself or to Miani. 
Meanwhile carriage of salt by boat between Find Dadan Khan and 
Jehlam has almost ceased. But there is, and probably will continue 
to be, a large general trade in Find Dadan Khan for the supply 
of the Fotwar and Talagang. The braziers of the town are an 
important body, and the pots and pans and other utensils turned out 
by them are in request in many parts of the Punjab. There is also a 
considerable weaving industry, and embroidered lungis are often sold 
at high prices. The principal exports are salt towards the south, silk 
and cotton piece-goods northwards and westwards, and brass and 
copper wares to the whole neighbourhood. An extensive trade is 
carried on also in grain, ghi^ and oil. Find Dadan Khan imports 
English piece-goods, cast-iron, zinc, and raw silk from Amritsar and 
Miiltan ; woollen fabrics from Kashmir ; dried fruits, furs, and woollen 
stuffs of Central Asia from Peshawar. Among other industries, that 
of boat-building is largely carried on, and river boats of Find Dadan 
Khan make are in request throughout the whole course of the Jehlam. 
Unglazed pottery of a deep red colour, ornamented with black patterns, 
and remarkably strong and good in quality, are a speciality of the 
town, as are also stout leather riding whips made after English patterns. 
The principal buildings consist of the usual Sub-divisional courts and 
offices, mission house, and dispensary. 

Pindigheb. — South-western tahsil of Rawal Findi District, Punjab ; 
lying between 33° and 33° 47' n. lat., and between 71° 45' and 72° 42' 
E. long., and consisting of a rugged hilly tract lying along the eastern 
bank of the Indus. Area, 15 17 square miles, with 129 villages and 
towns, 14,428 houses, and 23,475 families. Population (1881) 
103,581, namely, males 54,328, and females 49,253; average density 



of population, 68 persons per square mile. Classified according 
to religion, Muhammadans number 91,839; Hindus, 11,277; Sikhs, 
448; Christians, 15; and Parsis, 2. Of the 129 towns and villages, 
69 contain less than five hundred inhabitants ; 2>?> from five hundred 
to a thousand; 26 from one to five thousand; and i from five to 
ten thousand inhabitants. The average area under cultivation for 
the five years from 1877-78 to 1881-82 was 310^ square miles, or 
198,782 acres, the area occupied by the principal crops being — wheat, 
100,946 acres ; /^4;>^, 27,792 acres ; barley, 16,190 acres; gram, 10,940 
acres; moth, 8304 acres ; yWr, 6549 acres; Indian corn, 3921 acres; 
and cotton, 8359 acres. Revenue of the tahsil, £']6()6. The only local 
administrative officer is a iahsilddr, who presides over i civil and 
I criminal court ; number of police circles {thdrids), 3, with stations at 
Pindigheb, Find Sultani, and Makhad, besides 4 outpost stations; 
strength of regular police, 86 men ; village police {chaukiddrs), 90. 

Pindigheb. — Town and municipality in Rawal Pindi District, 
Punjab, and head-quarters of Pindigheb tahsil. Situated in lat. 33° 
14' 30" N., and long. 72° iS' e., on the road between Rawal Pindi and 
Kalabagh. Residence of chiefs of the Jodrah clan of Rajputs, by whom 
the town was founded. Population (1881) 8583, namely, Muham- 
madans, 5342; Hindus, 3221; and Sikhs, 20. Number of houses, 
15 1 7. Municipal income (1883-84), ;£"334, or 94^. per head of the 
town population. The neighbourhood of the town is famous for its 
excellent breed of horses ; but owing to the scarcity of water, and the 
consequent absence of pasturage, colts are generally sold across the 
Indus after being kept for one year only. Trade in grain, cotton, oil, 
and wool. The surplus grain supplies the cantonments of Rawal 
Pindi and Attock. Manufactures of country cloth and soap, exported 
beyond the Indus. Tahsili, police station, excellent school, dispensary, 
Government rest-house. 

Pinjar. — Village in Akola District, Berar. Lat. 20° -^-^ n., long. 77' 
17' E., 24 miles east of Akola town. Population (1881) 3311. Pinjar 
formerly had 2000 houses, of which only 589 now remain ; its dechne 
dates from 1772 a.d., when Madhuji Bhonsla laid a heavy tax upon 
the people. A fine specimen of a Hindu temple exists here, with a 
Sanskrit inscription. Police station. 

Pinjaur {Pinjore). — Decayed town in Patiala State, Punjab. Lat. 
30° 48' N., long. 76° 59' E, ; situated at the confluence of two tributaries 
of the Ghaggar. Residence and pleasure-grounds of the Raja. 
Thornton describes an ancient covered well and numerous fragments 
of Hindu sculpture and architecture that are found here. Fort dis- 
mantled by Bourquin, Sindhia's partisan leader. 

Pinu or Pirn. — River in Kangra District, Punjab. — See Pin. 
Pipalgaon.— Village in Brahmapuri tahsil, Chanda District, Central 


Provinces. Population (1881) 2162, namely, Hindus, 2140; 
Muhammadan, i ; non-Hindu aborigines, 21. 

Piparia. — Village in Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) tahs'il, Jabalpur District, 
Central Provinces. Population (1881) 2177, namely, Hindus, 1805; 
Jains, 224; Muhammadans, 73 ; non-Hindu aborigines, 75. 

Piparia. — Village in Kawardha State, attached to Bilaspur District, 
Central Provinces. Population (1881) 2205, namely, Hindus, 1758; 
Satnamis, 209; Kabirpanthis, 70; Muhammadans, 147; non-Hindu 
aborigines, 21. 

Piparwani. — Village in Seoni tahs'il^ Seoni District, Central Pro- 
vinces ; situated 35 miles south of Seoni town. Population (1881) 
2065, namely, Hindus, 1627; Muhammadans, 115; Jains, 11; and 
non-Hindu aborigines, 312. Village school, weekly market, and police 
outpost station. 

Piplianagar. — Guaranteed Thakurate or chiefship under the Bhopal 
Agency of Central India. One of the shares of the estate granted 
to Rajan Khan, brother of the notorious Pindari leader, Chitu, on the 
set dement of ^lalwa. — See Jabria Bhil. 

Pippli. — Tahsil of Ambala (Umballa) District, Punjab; comprising 
the tract of country around Thaneswar, and embracing the three 
pargands of Thaneswar, Shahabad, and Ladwa, The Thaneswar 
pargand (including Pihewa) contains a population consisting chiefly of 
Jats, Rajputs, Rors, and Gujars. It consists of a high tract of poor 
soil dependent for cultivation chiefly on rain, and on the very uncertain 
floods of the Sarsuti (Saraswati). The villages in the south of Pihewa 
get no hill-stream navigation. Shahabad pa7'ga?id is locally known as 
Tiiharwara, from the fact of the villages being owned by Rajputs of 
the Tiihar clan. It is a rich tract, and watered by the overflowings of 
the Markanda and Umla streams. In the Ladwa pargafid, the eastern 
portion is protected from drought by the Jumna river and canal, which 
has raised the water level, and made well-irrigation easy. The western 
part of \\-\^ pargand is much ])Oorer. 

Area of Pippli tahsil^ 745 square miles, with 495 towns and 
villages, 14,122 houses, and 47,899 families. Population (1881) 
209,341, namely, males 113,700, and females 95,641; average density 
of population, 281 persons per square mile, or excluding towns, 244 
per square mile. Classified according to religion, Hindus number 
142,160; Muhammadans, 62,126; Sikhs, 5020; Jains, 29; and Chris- 
tians, 6. Of the 495 towns and villages, 386 contain less than five 
hundred inhabitants ; 80 from five hundred to a thousand; 27 from 
one to five thousand ; and 2 upwards of five thousand inhabitants. The 
average cultivated area for the five years from 1877-78 to 1881-82 
was 285^ square miles, or 182,746 acres, the principal crops being — 
wheat, 87,900 acres; gram, 34,720 acres; barley, i5,47<^ acres; Indian 


corn, 12,541 acres; rice, 7685 acres; jodr, 3665 acres; sugar-cane, 
6547 acres; cotton, 2386 acres; and tobacco, 1389 acres. Revenue 
of the tahsil, ;£iS,'ji2. The local administrative staff consists of i 
tahsilddr and i munsif^ presiding over i criminal and 2 civil courts ; 
number of police circles {thdnds), 7, with stations at Pippli, Shahabad, 
Thaneswar, Pihewa, Radaur, Sanghaur, and Ladwa, with a Baluch 
guard at Ismailabad. Strength of regular police, 146 men ; village police 
{chaukiddrs)^ 491. 

Pippli. — Village on the Subarnarekha river, Balasor District, Bengal. 
Lat. 21° 34' N., long. 87° 22' E. The site of the first English factory 
on this coast, founded in 1634 on the ruins of an earlier Portu- 
guese settlement. Pippli was ruined by the silting up of the river at its 
mouth. During the first half of the present century, the place lingered 
on as a silt-locked village ; but a recent report states that no trace of 
the town now exists, at any rate under the same name. The name is 
apparently preserved in one or two villages in the neighbourhood of 
the Subarnarekha, called Pimpal. 

Pipraich. — Market village in Maharajganj tahsil, Gorakhpur Dis- 
trict, North- Western Provinces ; situated on the Pharend river, and on 
the unmetalled Padrauna road, 13 miles east-north-east of Gorakhpur 
town. Population (188 1) 2932. The market flanks either side of the 
road as it passes through the town. A fair local trade in grain, cloth, 
and metal vessels is carried on ; and a good deal of sugar is refined. 
The village, however, is not a thriving one, and the progress of the 
market has been checked by competition with the neighbouring mart 
of Sidhawa. Police station, post-ofifice, elementary school, and Sivaite 

Piram. — Island in the Gulf of Cambay. — See Perim. 

Pirmaid. — Hill station in Travancore State, Madras Presidency; 
the centre of the northern coffee country of Travancore, with a growing 
European community. Lat. 9° 36' n., long. 77° e. ; average elevation, 
3000 feet. Round the station are numerous coffee-gardens, occupying 
about 10,000 acres, of which a considerable proportion is in bearing. 
Eairly constructed roads communicate with Alleppi and Trevandrum 
on the west, and Madura on the east. 

Pir Mangho {Pir Magar). — Valley, hot springs, temple, and tank 
in Karachi (Kurrachee) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. — See 
Magar Talao. 

Pirnagar. — Pargand in Sitapur tahsil, Sitapur District, Oudh ; 
bounded on the north and north-east by Biswan, on the east by Bari, on 
the south by Gundlamau, and on the west by Machhrehta. Area, 44 
square miles, or 27,956 acres, of which 17,164 acres are cultivated 
and 4830 acres cultivable. Population (1881) 19,692, namely, males 
10,428, and females 9264. The incidence of the Government land 


revenue is at the rate of 2s. 5^d. per cultivated acre ; is. iid. per acre 
of assessed area ; and is. 6Jd. per acre of total area. The parga?id 
contains 54 villages, of ^vhich 15 are held under /(f/z/Xv/^/// and 39 under 
zamindd?i tenure. Bais Kshattriyas own 48 villages ; Ikahmans, 3 ; 
Kavasths, 2 ; and Musalmans, i. The villages are all small, none 
having a population exceeding icoo. There is not a single masonry 
house in the pargand, the people having a superstition against using 
burnt bricks or tiles for their dwellings. This superstition is not 
peculiar to Pirnagar, being found in many other parts of the District. 

Pirozpur. — Sub-division of Bakarganj District, Bengal. Area, 
692 square miles; villages, 945; houses, 52,049. Population 
(1872) 405,797; (1881) 447,306, namely, males 225,436, and females 
221,870, showing an increase of 41,509, or 10*23 per cent., in 
nine years. Classified according to religion, there were in 1881 — 
Muhammadans, 246,569; Hindus, 200,681; Brahmos, 11 ; and Chris- 
tians, 45. Proportion of males in total population, 50-4 per cent. ; 
average density of population, 644 persons per square mile ; number 
of inhabitants per village, 473; houses per square mile, 77; inmates 
per house, ^'6. This Sub-division comprises the four police circles of 
Pirozpur, Mathbari, Bhandaria, and Swariikati. It contained in 1883, 
3 civil and 2 criminal courts, a regular police force of 90 men, and a 
village watch numbering 968. The Sub-divisions of Pirozpur and 
Madaripur (now in Faridpur District) were originally established with 
the object of suppressing robberies on the Kachna river. 

Pirpainti {Peerpoifitee). — Large village in Bhagalpur District, Bengal, 
and a station on the loop-line of the East Indian Railway. Lat. 25° 17' 
52" N., long. 87° 27' 40" E. The village, which is also the site of a 
flourishing indigo factory, is situated about 2 miles from the railway 
station, and contains a bdzdr about half a mile in length. Local 
traders are connected with firms at Sahibganj and Colgong, and a con- 
siderable business is carried on in the export of country produce. 
Some stone is quarried in the neighbourhood. Police outpost. 

Pir Panjal (' The Sainfs Mountain'). — A lofty range in the Native 
State of Kashmir (Cashmere) ; separating that State, on its south- 
western side, from the Punjab. Runs north-west and south-east, from 
the Baramula Pass to that of the Pi'r Panjal or Nandan Sar, a distance 
of about forty miles ; the highest peaks attaining an elevation of about 
16,500 feet above sea-level. The geological formatition is basaltic, — an 
amygdaloidal trap, beautifully marked in some places. The range is 
named from a pir or Muhammadan saint, whose shrine in the Pi'r 
Panjal Pass receives the offerings of all devout Musalman travellers. 
The most picturesque road into Kashmir, and one of the easiest and 
most frequented, traverses the Pir Panjal Pass, and is known as the 
Gujavdt and Pir Panjal route. The pass itself is crossed in the eleventh 


stage from Gujavat, between the halting-stations of Porhiana and 
AHdbad Sarai. The top of the pass, about six miles from Porhiana, is 
a fine grassy plateau about half a mile wide, with an elevation of about 
11,500 feet, gradually sloping down to the Aliabad sardi. In clear 
weather the Shahdera mind?'s at Lahore are visible, though distant 
about 130 miles. 

Pisangan. — Town in Ajmere District, Ajmere-Merwara Division, 
Rajputana, Lat. 26° 24' n., long. 74° 25' E. Population (1881) 
3375. Distant from Ajmere city 20 miles. Residence of the 
Istimrdrddr of Pisangan. By reason of its position in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Marwar, it is the centre of the cotton and tobacco 
trade. There is here an old Jain temple which derives its name from its 
being situated near the Priya Sangam, or junction of the Saraswati and 
Sagarmati streams. Water-supply good. Post-office and dispensary. 

Pishin (or Feshiii). — Formerly a District of Southern Afghanistan, 
situated between 30° 10' and 31° 15' n. lat., and 66° 10' and 67° 50' e. 
long. Estimated area, 3600 square miles ; estmiated population, which 
has been under British administration since 1878, 60,000. 

Physical Aspects. — Pishin may be roughly described as a large plain 
(Pishin proper), surrounded on three sides by hills, which are all 
included in the District. From the scarp of Toba hill on the north and 
the line of the main watershed on the east, the whole country slopes 
away to the south-west. It consists of treeless flats or alluvial valleys 
(of which the Pishin plain is by far the most important), divided by 
ranges of bare and rocky hills, preserving a remarkable parallelism 
with one another, and all running north-east and south-west. The 
average elevation of the Pishin plain is about 5000 feet above sea-level, 
while the sub-districts to the east and north are higher. On the 
west, the Khwaja Amran peak rises 8864 feet above sea-level ; and the 
general height of the range is between 7000 and 8000 feet. On the 
north, the edge of Toba nearest to Pishin is about 8000 feet ; and the 
Kund mountain nearly 1 1,000 feet. Takatii, on the south, is also about 
11,000 feet. 

The streams on quitting the stony ddnian, or hill country, for the soft 
soil of the plain, have cut for themselves immense beds, quite out of pro- 
portion to the amount of water which they bring down. These cuttings 
are 30 to 50 yards wide and 10 to 25 feet deep, with perpendicular and 
scarped banks. The alluvial soil, where it exists, is rich and deep, and 
from its clayey nature is apt to become soft and slippery after rain or 
snow. Irrigation is conducted with a total disregard of any roads or 
pathways that may exist. 

Hares and ravine deer are found in the valleys, and a few iiridl or 
wald sheep in the hills. Ibex are fairly numerous on Takatii. Wolves, 
jackals, and foxes are common. The hill leopard and small sloth bear 

PI SHIN. 189 

occur on the higher and more remote hills. Of game birds, the chikor 
and partridge are common. Sand-grouse are often extremely numerous. 
The migratory game birds which visit India in the winter are found 
in Pishi'n, being most abundant at the times when they are coming 
from and returning to their northern breeding jjlaces in October and 
November, and again in March. 

History. — Pishin formed a portion of the dominions of Ahmad Shah, 
Durani. A fragment of what is now Pishin was ceded by Ahmad Shdh to 
NasirKhan, MirofKhelat, in 1770. On the fall of the Sadozai dynasty 
and the partition of the kingdom among the sons of Paindah Khan, 
Barakzai, Pishin was included in the Province allotted to the Kandahar 
sarddrs, who exercised, however, only a limited administration over this 
tract. The British occupation of Quetta in 1876 aroused an increased 
interest in Pishin on the part of the Amir of Kabul, and he attempted 
to stop the through traffic. The Amir's Government was thoroughly 
unpopular, and not the faintest show of resistance was offered to the 
British troops on their advance from Quetta, nor has dissatisfaction 
been shown during the years the tract has remained in the hands of the 
British. Pishin was occupied by British troops in December 1878, and 
assigned to the British by the treaty of Gandamak, 25th May 1879. 
Since the assignment, Pishin has remained under British administration, 
and its history has been generally uneventful. The only exception 
worth noticing is the conduct of the Achakzai tribe (on the Khwaja 
Amran range) in the autumn of 1880. While the British force in 
Kandahar was besieged by Ayub Khan, the Achakzais were openly 
hostile ; but they dispersed on Ayiib Khan's defeat, and their submission 
was completed by a punitive expedition led against them at the end of 
September 1880 by Brigadier-General Baker. 

Population. — In May 1881, Colonel (now Sir Oliver) St. John 
estimated the gross population of Pishin at from 50,000 to 60,000. 
Deducting the Achakzais, a wandering tribe on the further side of the 
Khwaja Amran, and those members of other tribes who may be absent 
for various reasons, the latter number approximately represents the 
resident population. 

The tribes of Pishin and their approximate numbers are — Achakzais, 
20,000; Tarins, 14,500; Sayyids, 6500 ; and Kakars, 40,000 : total, 
81,000. The Achakzais are a Durani clan and an offshoot of the 
Barakzais. The sections who are more or less directly connected with 
the District are alone included in the above total, and even of these 
a considerable number are always beyond its limits. It is doubtful 
whether more than about 5000 ^Achakzais are ever in the District. 
They are a purely pastoral tribe. The Tarins belong to the Tor branch 
of that race. They are agriculturists and carriers. The Sayyids are 
traders and cultivators, and hold more land than any other class. The 


Kakars are nearly all settled agriculturists, but they also possess large 
flocks and own 112 villages and hamlets. 

A good many Ka'kars and a few Achakzais and Tarins proceed 
to India every year in search of employment as labourers on public 
works, etc. Many Sayyids also are always absent engaged in trade. 
Taken as a whole, the inhabitants of Pishin are peaceable and well 
disposed. The Achakzais, indeed, are predatory, and have a reputa- 
tion for turbulence ; but they have not given much trouble. The 
Sayyids, being comparatively well off and enlightened, have been the 
best friends of the British. The dress, manners, and customs of the 
people are in all essentials those of the inhabitants of Southern Afghan- 
istan generally. They are a hardy and fairly industrious peasantry, not 
particularly fanatical, and seem well satisfied with British rule. 

The settled population of Pishin (cultivators and traders) live in 
houses ; the pastoral people in tents {kizhdis). It is not uncommon for 
families to spend part of the year in one description of habitation, and 
part in another. The houses in Pishin proper are built of mud in a 
rectangular form, and contain only one room, with a raised circular 
hearth to serve as a fireplace at one end, while the other end is frequently 
occupied by sheep and cattle. 

The tents {kizhdis) are comfortable, roomy, clean, and warm, not- 
withstanding that camels, goats, sheep, and poultry are sheltered 
under one roof with their owners. The tents are about 30 feet long 
by 15 wide. The centre is supported by slim poles 7 feet high, and 
the sides by others 4 feet high, across which are passed light ribs of 
wood. Over this framework is stretched a single sheet of tough and 
waterproof black haircloth woven in lengths two yards wide and sewn 
together. The interior is divided into two by a curtain of corn sacks. 
Of these divisions, one is excavated to a depth of 2 feet for the camels 
and oxen ; the other is smooth and swept clean. In the centre is a 
circular hole for a fireplace, for the smoke of which there is no outlet, 
except the openings at either end of the tent. 

Agriculture. — The cultivable area of Pishin is probably about one- 
third of the w^hole, say 1200 square miles. The methods of cultivation 
are simple and careless. The chief food-grains grown are wheat, barley, 
maize, and millet. The straw of the first three, when chopped, is a 
valuable commodity, and much used instead of grass for feeding horses 
and other animals. In addition to grain, lucerne, water-melons, and 
musk -melons are cultivated. Irrigation is carried on either from 
natural streams, or from karezes, a series of shafts connected under 
ground by tunnels. The irrigated area is estimated at three-fourths 
of the total cultivated area. The use of manure is well understood, 
but the supply is deficient, and is confined to lucerne and melon 

PI SHIN. 191 

Trade and Manufacture, — Except the transit trade between India and 
Afghanistan, Pishin has Httle or no commerce, and no manufactures or 
produce for export. A considerable trade in horses, however, is 
carried on ; the Sayyids of Pishin being large dealers, and sui)plying 
many hundred remounts yearly to the Bombay and Madras Presidencies. 
The horses exported to India are purchased at Herat, or in countries 
lying to its west and north ; and they are only kept in Pishin long 
enough to get them into condition. About 1000 maunds of salt are 
annually made. Formerly the greater portion was exported to Kanda- 
har, but it is now (1881) bought up locally for commissariat purposes. 

Reve7iue and Administration. — Pishin is under the control of the 
Governor-General's Agent in Baluchistan, whose head-quarters are at 
Quetta. A Political Agent is in subordinate charge of the administra- 
tion, and lives generally at the small town of Pishin (formerly known as 
New Bazar), where there are also a tahsilddr^ ndib tahsi/ddr, police 
thdfid, sub-treasury, commissariat store, telegraph, and post offices. 
Pishin fort is the only military station ; it is occupied by one regiment 
of Bombay infantry and a squadron of Bombay cavalry. Bodies of 
tribal levies are distributed at important points. 

The revenue of Pishin is derived principally from land. A report 
submitted by the Political Agent in 1885 classifies the inhabitants of 
Pishin from a revenue point of view as follows : — 

'I. The mudfiddrs or those who pay nothing, a very large class, 
mostly Sayyids and Achakzais. 

'II. Those who pay a fixed assessment in cash or kind, or both, the 
assessment being calculated originally on a rough valuation of the gross 
produce of their lands. To this class belong the Kakars of the Balozai 
and Gwal valleys, and the Kakar Lorah villages. 

'III. Those who pay a fixed cash assessment in lieu of military 
service, the assessment being calculated at so much per head on the 
total number of men-at-arms the village was formerly bound to furnish. 
To this class belong about half the Tarins and Parezuns of the Pishin 
Valley and the Kakars of Barshor. The Tarins pay ;£i, 9s. per Jiaukar 
or man-at-arms, and the Kakars £2, los. and £2, i8s. Those paying 
this assessment (known locally as ghdni-i-naukar) are exempt from 
all other dues whatever. 

' IV. The villages in which hatai or a division of the crops is made, 
the Government share varying from \ to \. To this class belong 
nearly all the Tarins on the east of the Lorah river— that is to say, the 
Tor Tarins proper as distinguished from the Parezuns. These men 
originally paid the ghdm-i-naukar., or tax in lieu of personal service, now 
paid only by class III. ; but years ago, they voluntarily adopted 
the present system in exchange. Grass and straw and other village 
produce were at that time of little or no value, and they preferred 


parting with a heavy share of their produce to paying a fixed sum 
in cash.' 

The land revenue collections in 1884-85 amounted to nearly ^9000. 
Under the Afghan system, which is still maintained, a vialdaghi^ or poll- 
tax on cattle is also levied, except from Sayyids and the class paying a 
fixed cash assessment in lieu of military service. The rates, per head 
of cattle, are — camel, 2s.; bullock, 2s.; donkey, is.; sheep, ijd.; lamb, 
ofd. There are also a few dues yielding from ;£"io to ^30 per annum. 
Excise revenue is also collected, but the amount fluctuates greatly, 
the highest total in any year since the British occupation being ^716, 
and the lowest ^26, 4s. 

Military Importance. — The strategic value of Pishin is considerable. 
It is the meeting-place of a great number of routes leading from Sind 
and the Punjab Frontier Districts to Kandahar. These routes are 
perfectly practicable for troops, and have been traversed by considerable 
bodies. They are, however, impassable by wheeled carriage, and 
indifferently furnished with supplies. The possession of Pishin places 
the occupant within easy reach of Kandahar, which is only six marches 
from Chaman. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Pishin is trying, not only to natives 
of India, but also to Europeans, until both are acclimatized. There are 
four well-marked seasons, as in England, and the temperature ranges 
from a moderate heat in summer to a severe cold in winter. The 
climate, however, is rather relaxing. In summer, Europeans are apt to 
suffer from diarrhoea, dysentery, and affections of the liver; natives 
from diarrhoea and dysentery. In winter, pneumonia and other lung 
diseases are very fatal to natives. 

Pitari. — Town in Unao District, Oudh, about 4 miles north-west 
of Unao town. Population (1881) 2964, namely, 2781 Hindus and 
183 Muhammadans. An ancient village, dating from the time of 
Raja Unwant Singh, the reputed founder of Unao. 

Pithapur (Fittdpur). — Tdluk or Sub-division of Godavari District, 
Madras Presidency. For the most part an important zaminddji tract. 
Area, 200 square miles. Population (1881) 68,161, namely, 33,502 
males and 34,659 females, dwelling in i town and 50 villages, con- 
taining 12,610 houses. Hindus number 66,517; Muhammadans, 
1 641 ; and Christians, 3. The zamifiddri lies between the eastern 
branch of the Godavari and the District of Vizagapatam, and contains 
128 villages in different taluks. The Raja's ancestors are said to have 
come from Oudh. The grant of the estate dates from about 1647. 
Total rental, ^81,150 ; peshkash or quit-rent, ^24,900. 

Pithapur. — Town in Pithapur tdliik^ and head-quarters of the 
Pithapur zamifiddri^ Godavari District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 17° 
6' 45" N., long. 82'' 18' 40" E. Population (187 1) 9240, living in 2318 


houses; (1881) 11,593, namely, 5636 males and 5957 females, occupy- 
ing 1894 houses. Hindus number 10,512, and Muhammadans 1081. 
Post-office, courts, and good schools. The town is the centre of the 
Pithai)ur ziunhiddri, and the residence of the zamUiddr. 

Pithoragarh. — Military outpost in Kumaun District, North-Western 
Provinces. Lat. 29° 35' 35" N., long. 80° 14 30" e. The troops are 
cantoned on a low ridge in the Shore valley, for the protection of the 
Nepal frontier. Population (1881) 438. Bazar, stone-built hospital. 
Fort Loudoun, 100 yards west of the lines, commands the station. 
Elevation above sea-level, 5334 feet. 

Pithorid. — Estate in Sagar (Saugor) District, Central Provinces ; 20 
miles north-west of Sagar town. Area, 51 square miles; comprising 26 
villages. In 18 18, when Sagar was acquired from the Peshwa by the 
British, Rao Ramchandra Rao, a child ten years old, held Deori and 
the Panch Mahal. In 1819 the Panch Mahal was transferred to Sindhia, 
and the Rao's mother received in lieu thereof a pension of ^125 per 
month. On her death, the Rao requested the Government to assign 
him a tract of land instead of the money payment. Pithoria with 
18 other villages was granted to him; but as their revenue did not 
equal the required amount, 7 other villages were added. Govern- 
ment assessment, ;£"3i3. Pithoria, the chief village (lat. 24° 4' n., long. 
78° 38' E.), contains a fort, built about 1750 by Umrao Singh, a Rajput, 
to whom the place had been granted rent-free by Govind Pandit, the 
Peshwa's governor at Sagar. At the market, held every Thursday, little 
trade takes place. 

Pitihra (/Vz/^r^).— Estate in the extreme south-east of Sagar (Saugor) 
District, Central Provinces. Area, 120 square miles; comprising 86 
villages, and yielding a revenue of about :£2472 to the Raja. The 
whole estate, except 8 villages, lies in the Sub-division of Deori. 
About 1730, the Gond Raja of Gaurjhamar seized Deori, but was 
expelled ten years later by the Marathas. His son then plundered 
the country, till the Marathas pacified him by the cession of the four 
estates of Pitihra, Muar, Kesli, and Tarara, containing 8 villages. He 
died in 1747; and his grandson Kiraj Singh obtained from the Marathas 
in 1798 another estate, called Ballai, comprising 53 villages. At the 
cession of Sagar to the British in 1 8 1 8, Kiraj Singh was not disturbed ; 
but on his death in 1827, 30 villages in Ballai were resumed, and the 
remainder were secured to his son Balwant Singh. The residence of 
the Raja is at Pitihra, a village on the Narbada (Nerbudda) river, with 
a population of about 800. 

Pitlad. — Sub-division and town in Baroda State. — See Petlad. 

Plassey {Pahisi, from pahis, the red flower of the Butea frondosa). — 
Battle-field on the Bhagirathi river, Nadiya District, Bengal. Lat. 23" 
47' N., long. 88^ 17' 45" E. Of this memorable scene of dive's victory 



over Suraj-ud-dauld, on the 23rd June 1757, only a small fragment now 
remains. The Bhagirathi, on whose left or east bank the battle was 
fought, has eaten away the scene of the fight ; as the Jalangi river, in 
the same District, has eaten away the city of Nadiya, the ancient 
capital of Bengal. In 1801, 3000 trees of Clive's famous mango grove 
were still standing ; now, only one has survived the ravages of the 
river and of time. A general of the Nawab, who fell in the battle, lies 
buried beneath it. As early as 1801, the river had eaten away the 
actual field of batde ; and a traveller recorded in that year that ' a few 
miserable huts, literally overhanging the water, are the only remains of 
the celebrated Plassey.' The neighbourhood relapsed into jungle, and 
w^as long a favourite haunt of river dakdits. Part of the site is now 
covered by the waters of the Bhagirathi, the rest stretches out as a 
richly cultivated plain ; and the solitary surviving tree of the historic 
mango grove is held sacred by the Muhammadans. The high road 
from Calcutta viti Krishnagar to Berhampur passes close by the field ; 
96 miles north of Calcutta, and 22 south of Berhampur. 

Poddatliru. — Town in Cuddapah District, Madras Presidency. — 
See Proddutur. 

Pohra. — Village in Sakoli tahsil^ Bhandara District, Central Pro- 
vinces. Population (1881) 3111, namely, Hindus, 2587; Muham- 
madans, 169; Jains, 12; non-Hindu aborigines, 343. 

Poicha. — Petty State of the Pandu Mehwas in Rewa Kantha, Bombay 
Presidency. Area, 3! square miles. There are 6 shareholders. The 
revenue was estimated in 1882 at £,20,^ ; tribute of ;£"i5o, 2s. is paid 
to the Gaekwar of Baroda. The estate lies on the Mahi river between 
Kanora and Bhadarwa. 

Poini (more correctly Pomie). — River, called near the source Damal- 
cheruvu, rising among the high hills south-west of Chandragiri, in the 
north of North Arcot District, Madras Presidency, and flowing about 
45 miles south to the Palar between Vellore (Velliir) and Arcot. 
Largely used for irrigation by m^eans of anicuts, which force the water 
into tanks. Chittur is on the bank of one of the tributaries. 

Point Calimere {Kalli?nedu). — The most southerly point of the 
Coromandel coast, Madras Presidency. — See Calimere. 

Point, False. — Cape, with lighthouse, on the west coast of the Bay 
of Bengal. — See False Point. 

Point Palmyras. — Headland in Cuttack District, Bengal. — See 
Palmyras Point. 

Pokaran {Pokham). — Town in Jodhpur State, Rajputana; situated 
in lat. 26° 55' N., and long. 71° 57' 45" e., on the route from Phulodi 
to Jaisalmer (Jeysulmere city), 66 miles east of the latter place. It is 
situated close to the deserted town of the same name, and contained 
when Thornton wrote (1862) 3000 houses. No information as to the 


population was supplied by the darbdr authorities for the Census of 
1 88 1. The town is surrounded by an uncemented stone wall. A 
conspicuous Jain temple, on an elevated situation, marks the site of 
the old deserted city, and near it are the monuments of the deceased 
members of the chiefs family. Being situated on one of the great 
commercial routes between Eastern Rajputana and Sind, the transit 
trade is considerable. Red sandstone crops out or lies near the surface, 
and there are several tanks near the town. It is an appanage of 
the leading noble of Jodhpur, who holds the post of pardhan, and is 
entitled to a seat on the royal elephant immediately behind the 

Pokhar. — Town, lake, and place of pilgrimage in Ajmere-Merwara, 
Rajputana. — See Pushkar. 

Pokri. — Village in Garhwal District, North-Western Provinces. Lat. 
30° 20' N., long. 79° 15' E. Population (tS8i) 185. Small copper 
mines, once very productive, but now of little value. Elevation above 
sea-level, 61 10 feet. 

Pol {Pal). — Petty State within the ISIahi Kantha Agency, Gujarat, 
Bombay Presidency ; situated on the north-eastern frontier of Mahi 
Kantha. The boundary marches \vith that of Me war in Rajputana. 
Population (1872) 4919 ; (1881) 6629. The tract is wild and moun- 
tainous. Cultivated area, 42 square miles (27,500 acres). Chief 
agricultural products — millets, wheat, maize, gram, etc. No mines 
or manufactures. The ruling family is descended from Jai Chand, 
the last Rahtor sovereign of Kanauj. Jai Chand (1193) left two 
sons, Seoji and Sonakji. The former founded the present family 
of Marwar; the latter established himself at Edar in 1257. For 
twenty-six generations, the chiefs of this line bore the title of Rao of 
Edar ; but the last independent prince, Jagannath, was driven out by 
the Muhammadans in 1656. The family retired into the hills, fixed 
their head - quarters at Pol, and were known thenceforward as the 
Raos of that mountainous tract. The Raos of Pol pay no tribute, 
the difficult nature of their territory having apparently saved them 
from the exactions of the Gaekwar. The present (1883) chief, Rao 
Hamir Singhji, is thirty-six years of age, and manages the State in 
person. He enjoys an estimated gross revenue of ^^2800. The State 
has one school with 24 pupils. The family follows the rule of 
primogeniture in matters of succession, and hold no deed allowing 
adoption. Transit duties are levied in the State. Rainfall in 1882, 
26 inches. 

Polavaram. — Zaminddri estate in the ' Northern Circars,' Goda- 
vari District, Madras Presidency, containing 128 villages. Assessment 
imposed at the Permanent Settlement (1803), ;^io,57o. Previous to 
that time, this estate, like the others in the District, was the scene 


of constant disputes and struggles {see Godavari District). Between 
1785 and 1790 especially, the disturbances became so serious that it 
was necessary to repress them with the help of the military. Again, in 
1800, the zaminddr's fort, situated on the Godavari river, was captured 
and destroyed, and the whole tract was placed under martial law. 
The population of Polavaram village, situated in Ernagudem idluk 
(lat. 17° 14' 50" N., long. 81° 40' 40" E.), was 2734 in 1872, and 3552 
in i88r. Number of houses (1881), 737. 

Polekurru {Pdlhiru). — Town in Coconada tdluk^ Godavari District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 16° 47' n., long. 82° 18' e. Population 
(1871) 6429, inhabiting 1333 houses; and (1881) 5141, inhabiting 
1243 houses. 

Poll. — Town in Pullampet tdlulz^ Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 14° 12' 45" n., long. 79° 13' e. Population 
(1881) 6947, inhabiting 1577 houses. Hindus number 6351 ; 
Muhammadans, 595 ; and Christian, i. 

Pollachi. — Tdhik or Sub-division of Coimbatore District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 710 square miles. Population (1881) 172,909, 
namely, 83,737 males and 89,172 females, dwelling in i town and 160 
villages, and occupying 37,815 houses. Hindus number 169,570; 
Muhammadans, 3235 ; Christians, 95 ; and ' others,' 9. In 1883 
the tdhik contained 3 criminal courts ; police circles {thdnds), 6 ; and 
regular police, 59 men. Land revenue, ;^24,o69. 

Pollachi. — Head-quarters town of Pollachi fdliik, Coimbatore Dis- 
trict, Madras Presidency. Lat. 10° 39' 20" n., long. 77° 3' 5" e. 
Population (187 1) 4922, inhabiting 724 houses; and (1881) 5082, 
inhabiting 700 houses. Hindus number 4468 ; Muhammadans, 548 ; 
and Christians, 66. Large weekly fair, hospital, and travellers' 
bungalow. Residence of Head Assistant Collector and Magistrate of 
Coimbatore District. 

PoUillir. — Town in Conjeveram taluk, Chengalpat (Chingleput) 
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12° 58' 20" n., long. 79° 45' 20" e. 
Population (1871) 933, inhabiting 139 houses; and (1881) 1068, 
inhabiting 155 houses. 

Pollir. — Tdhik or Sub-division of North Arcot District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 443 square miles. Population (1881) 106,818, 
namely, 52,713 males and 54,105 females, dwelling in i town and 
194 villages, containing 13,357 houses. Hindus number 101,147 ; 
Muhammadans, 3292; Christians, 1585; and 'others,' 794. The 
northern and western parts of the tdhik are hilly, the rest is tolerably 
flat. The soil is black and red clay mixed with sand and gravel; 
in the vicinity of the hills a rich loam is found. On the whole, 
Pollir is a fertile tdhik, and raises good crops of rice, spiked millet, 
varagu (Panicum miliaceum), and ?'agi (Eleusine corocana). Twenty- 


three square miles are reserved forests; leopards, bears, sdmbhar 
deer, and wild hog are common ; bison are not rare, and tigers and 
elephants are occasionally found. The manufactures are weaving 
and shoemaking. In 1883 the taluk contained i criminal court; 
police circles {thd?ids\ 9 ; regular police, 84 men. Land revenue, 


Pollir. — Head-quarters town of Poliir taluk, North Arcot District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 12° 30' 45" n., long. 79° 9' 30" e. 
Situated about 27 miles south of Vellore. Population (1881) 5649, 
dwelling in 765 houses. Hindus number 4310; Muhammadans, 
1227 ; and Christians, 112. Polur is poorly built, with narrow and ill- 
arranged streets. A small ruined fort stands near the town. To the 
west is a large tank, which irrigates iioo acres, bearing an assessment 
of nearly ;£"5oo. Five miles from the town magnetic iron-ore occurs 
in small nodules. Sub-jail ; post-office. 

Ponampet. — Village in the Kiggatnad taluk of Coorg, on the road 
from Gonikopal to Hudikeri. Founded by Ponapa, a former Diwan, 
from whom it takes its name. Population (1881) 783. Head-quarters 
of the parpattigdr. Weekly market on Mondays. 

Ponani. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Malabar District, Madras Presi- 
dency. Area, 390 square miles. Population (1881) 392,654, namely, 
194,150 males and 198,504 females, dwelling in 72 parishes or a?nshdms, 
containing 70,625 houses. Hindus number 231,402 ; Muhammadans, 
146,868; Christians, 14,363; and 'others,' 21. In 1883 the tdluk 
contained 3 civil and 2 criminal courts ; police circles {thd?ids), 1 7 ; 
regular police, 159 men. Land revenue, ^31^238. 

Pondni.— Head-quarters town of Ponani tdluk, Malabar District 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 10° 47' 10" n., long. 75° 57' 55" e. Popula- 
tion (1881) 12,421, inhabiting 19 19 houses. Muhammadans number 
9916; Hindus, 2478; Christians, 26; and 'other,' i. A busy Map- 
pilla seaport, the most important between Cochin and Calicut, trading 
largely in salt, and possessing water communication with the Tiriir station 
on the south-west line of the Madras Railway, as well as with Cochin 
and Travancore. Ponani is inhabited almost exclusively by Mappilla 
Muhammadans, whose Tangal or high priest lives here ; and it is the 
centre of Musalman education on the coast, possessing a kind of 
religious college, which confers degrees. 

In 1662, after the Dutch took Cochin, the English retired to Ponani. 
In 1782, Colonel IMacleod landed troops here from Bombay, and was 
joined by Colonel Humberstone's force. The latter had given up the 
projected siege of Palghat, and, abandoning the siege train at Mangari- 
kota, fell back by forced marches, followed and harassed by Tipii and 
Lally. Once within Macleod's lines, however, the united forces turned 
on the pursuers and repulsed them. Owing to the death of Haidar 


All, the attack was not renewed. When Colonel Hartley (1790) made 
his brilliant descent upon the west coast, the Ponani people gave in 
their adhesion readily. Average annual value of the trade of Ponani 
for the five years ending 1883-84 — imports, ;£^9567, and exports, 
;;^44,i95. In 1883-84, the imports were valued at ^11,467, and the 
exports at ;£'5 1,696. 

Pondni. — River rising in the Anamalai Mountains, Madras Presidency. 
Flows past Palghat across Malabar District, and enters the sea at 
Ponani town, in lat. 10° 47' 30" n., and long. 75° 58' e. It is about 
120 miles in length, and flows for about 70 miles parallel to the 
south-west line of the Madras Railway. Navigable by small craft 
for many months to a considerable distance above its mouth, and is 
largely used for timber-floating. 

Pondamalai. — Town in Chengalpat District, Madras Presidency. — 


Pondicherri {Puducheri, Puthuvai, Pidcheri). — Chief settlement of 
the French in the East Indies ; situated on the Coromandel coast, 
surrounded by the Cuddalore taluk of South Arcot District, Madras 
Presidency. The town lies in lat. 11" 55' 57" n., and long. 79° 52' 
33° E. Population (1876) 156,094; (1882) 140,945. 

The settlement forms part of the delta of the Penner (Ponnaiyar) 
river, and a great portion of its surface is alluvial. Many artesian wells 
have been sunk, and excellent drinking water is obtainable. The hills 
known as Les Montag?ies Rouges form a natural girdle to the country 
about Pondicherri. The climate is healthy. In January, the tempera- 
ture is from 25° to 28° centigrade, and from May to September from 
31° to 40° centigrade. 

' The first French settlement at Pondicherri,' says Mr. Garstin, 
'was in 1674, under Francois Martin. In 1693 it was captured by 
the Dutch, but restored in 1699. It was besieged four times by the 
English. The first siege, under x\dmiral Boscawen, was unsuccessful. 
The second, under Colonel (afterwards Sir) Eyre Coote, in 1761, 
resulted in the capture of the place; it was restored in 1763. It 
was again besieged and captured in 1778, by Sir Hector Munro, and 
restored in 1785. It was captured a third time, by Colonel Braithwaite, 
in 1793, and finally restored in 1816.' [For a fuller account of the 
history of Pondicherri, see article French Settleivients.] 

' The territory of Pondicherri comprises four Districts — Pondicherri, 
Villiamir, Oulgaret, and Bahur — containing 93 large villages and 141 
hamlets. Its area is 29,145 hectares = 115 square miles, and its popu- 
lation, according to the Annuaire des Etablissements Era?i(ais da?is 
LPnde for 1884, 140,945 souls. The town of Pondicherri is divided into 
two parts, the White Town and the Black Town, separated from one 
another by a canal. The White Town is by the seaside, and is well 


built. The chief pubHc buildings are — Government house, the parish 
church, the Foreign Missions church, two pagodas, the new bazar, the 
clock tower, the lighthouse, the barracks, the military hospital, and the 
town hall. A handsome statue of Dupleix stands on the esplanade 
opposite the landing-place. There is also a neat and well-cared-for 
iron screw-pile pier ; and a supply of drinking water has been brought 
into the town which for purity is perhaps unrivalled in any other town 
in Southern India.' 

A colonial college (with 185 pupils in 1883) and 172 other schools, 
attended by nearly 5000 children, provide for the educational wants 
of the territory; and a public library of 12,000 volumes, a Catholic 
mission, 2 orphanages, and 2 refuges are among its institutions. The 
chief industries are weaving and dyeing. The former has of late years 
languished in consequence of European competilicn, but there are 
siill 4000 weavers. The revenue of Pondicherri was in 1883 ;^57, 315. 
In 1879, railway communication was opened between Pondicherri and 
the South Indian system at Villupuram. 

Ponnani. — Town and river, Malabar District, Madras Presidency. — 
See PoNANi. 

Pon-na-reip {Pun-na-riep or Poon-na-riep). — Village in the Mo-nyo 
township of Tharawadi District, Pegu Division, Lower Burma. Popu- 
lation (1S81) 351. 

Ponne. — River in North Arcot District, Madras Presidency. — 
See PoiNi. 

Ponneri. — Tdbik of Chengalpat District, Madras Presidency. Area, 
347 square miles. Population (1881) 107,543, namely, 54,522 males 
and 53,021 females, dwelling in 241 villages, containing 17,249 
houses. Hindus number 103,569; Muhammadans, 3674 ; Christians, 
294 ; and ' others,' 6. The taluk is an almost unbroken flat of rice- 
fields and desert plain, while its eastern and northern borders 
are covered with salt swamps and sandy tracts. Average rainfall, 
35 inches. Once famous for its manufacture of muslins at Arni, but 
the skill and the manufacture (except of common cloth) are now 
extinct. Red handkerchiefs and Muhammadan cloths are woven 
at Pulicat. Casuarina planting is in progress. The hamlet of 
Coromandel (Dutch and English corruption of Kareimanal = santl 
coast) is thought to have given its name to the eastern coast of 
the Presidency. In 1883 the taluk contained 2 criminal courts ; 
police circles {thd?ids\ 6 ; regular police, 45 men. Land revenue, 
;£"2o,837. The high road from Madras to Calcutta traverses the 

Ponneri. — Town in Chengalpat District, Madras Presidency, and 
head-quarters of Ponneri taluk ; situated on the right or south bank of 
the Naranavaram (known more commonly as the Araniyanadi). about 


20 miles north-west of Madras city. Population (1872) 1170; (1881) 
779, dwelling in 120 houses. Sub-jail ; post-office. 

Poodoocottah. — State and town in Madras Presidency. — See 


Poo-loo. — Creek in Bassein District, Lower Burma. — See Pu-lu. 

Poona {Puna). — British District in the Deccan, Bombay Presidency, 
lying between 17° 54' and 19° 23' n. lat., and between 73° 24' and 75° 
13' E. long. Area, 5348 square miles. Population (1881) 900,621. 
Poona District is bounded on the north by the District of Ahmad- 
nagar ; on the east by Ahmadnagar and Sholapur ; on the south 
by the Nira river, separating it from Satara and the estate of the 
chief of Phaltan ; and on the west by Kolaba and Thana. Two 
isolated blocks of Bhor State, one in the west and the other in 
the south, are included within the limits of Poona District. The 
administrative head-quarters are at Poona city. 

Physical Aspects. — Towards the west, the country is undulating, and 
intersected by numerous spurs of the Sahyadri range, which break off 
in a south-easterly direction, becoming lower as they pass eastwards, 
and in the end sinking to the general level of the plain. On the 
extreme western border, the land is so rugged and cut up by valleys 
and ravines, that on the slopes and sides of the hills a system of spade 
tillage takes the place of ordinary cultivation by bullocks and ploughs. 
Along the western border of the District, the Sahyadri hills form a 
barrier inaccessible except by a few difficult passes or ghats. Of these, 
the Borghat, traversed both by a road and a railway, is the only line 
fi'ted for wheeled vehicles. The spurs which form the main line of the 
Sahyadri mountains have the flat tops and steep sides common to 
basaltic hills. Within the limits of the District not a few of the hills 
have had their sides hewn into rock temples, or their summits crowned 
with fortresses. Many streams rise in the Sahyadri range, and flow 
eastwards, until they join the Bhima river, which passes through the 
District from north-west to south-east. The water of the rivers is good 
for all purposes, and all of them are sources of supply to the many 
villages along their banks. About 10 miles south-west of Poona city, 
the Khadakwasla lake, with an area of 5 J square miles, supplies 
water to Poona and Kirki. The District is not rich in minerals, 
but trap rock fit for road-making and stone for building purposes are 
found. There are no tracts producing large timber of any value. Of 
late years, efforts to afforest the denuded hill-sides have met with some 
success. Except in the west, where tigers, leopards, bears, and 
sdmbhar deer are sometimes to be found, the District contains no wild 
animals larger than the antelope, boar, and wolf. 

History. — The District of Poona, with the adjacent tracts of Satara 
and Sholapur, — the home of the Marathas, and the birthplace of 

FOONA. 201 

the dynasty, — stretches for about 150 miles along the Sahyadri range 
between the 17th and 19th degrees of latitude, and extends at one point 
as far as 160 miles inland. The great Maratha capitals — Poona, 
Satara, Kolhapur — lie close to the mountains under the shelter of some 
hill fort; while the Musalman capitals — Ahmadnagar, Bijdpur, Bidar, 
Giilbarga — are walled cities out in the plains. The history of the 
three Districts forms the subject of a monograph by Mr. W. W. Loch of 
the Bombay Civil Service, from which the following section has been 
condensed. The three Districts can be best historically considered 
together, and they are so treated here ; but the reader is also referred 
for topographical details to the articles on Satara and Sholapur. The 
rise and progress of the Maratha power, on the other hand, forms an 
important and essential part of the general history of India, and will 
be only very briefly noticed in this place. 

Of little consequence under the early Musalman rulers of the 
Deccan ; growing into importance under the kings of Bijapur and 
Ahmadnagar ; rising with the rise of the State founded by Sivaji the 
Great in the 17 th century, — these Districts of Poona, Sitara, and 
Sholapur became in the i8th century the seat of an empire reaching 
from the Punjab to the confines of Bengal, and from Delhi to Mysore. 

Early in the Christian era, Maharashtra is said to have been ruled 
by the great Salevahana, whose capital was at Paitan on the Godavari. 
At a later period, a powerful dynasty of Chalukya Rajputs reigned 
over a large part of Maharashtra and the Karnatik, with their capital 
at Kalliani, not far from Sholapur. The founder of the line, Jaisingh, 
had overthrown another Rajput tribe, the Pallavas. The Chalukyas rose 
to their greatest power under Talapa Deva in the loth century, and 
became extinct about the end of the 12th century, when the Yadava 
Rajas of Deogiri (Daulatabad) became supreme. This was the 
dynasty which was ruling at the time of the Musalman invasion. 
We find, besides, that there was a Raja at Punalla, near Kolhapur, 
at the end of the 12th century, whose power extended as far north 
as the Nira river. He was conquered by Singhan, the Rajput Raja of 
Deogiri, whose camp is shown at ^Mhasurna, near Pusesauli, in Satara 

The first Musalman invasion took place in 1294, but the Yadava 
dynasty was not finally extinguished until 13 12. The conquest of the 
country was long imperfect ; and Ferishta records an attack made by 
Muhammad Tughlak, the Emperor of Delhi, in 1340, on Nagnak, a 
Roll chief, who held the strong fort of Kondhana (now Singarh), 
which was only reduced after eight months' siege. 

The Deccan remained subject to the Emperor of Delhi till 1345, 
when the Musalmin nobles revolted from Muhammad Tughlak, and 
established the Bahmani dynasty, whose first capital was at Giilbarga, 

202 POONA, 

about 60 miles east of Sholapur. The open country acknowledged 
the power of the Bahmani sovereigns without a struggle. In the year 
1426 the capital was changed by Ahn:iad Shah Bahmani to Bidar, said 
by Ferishta to have been an old Hindu capital, about 100 miles farther 

A terrible famine, know^n as the Durgadevi, is said to have lasted 
throughout Maharashtra for twelve years — from 1396 to 1408. Taking 
advantage of the general depopulation, the local Maratha chiefs obtained 
possession of the hills and strong places, which had been conquered 
by the Musalmans. Several expeditions were sent by the Bahmani 
kings to recover the Ghat country, but without success, until, in the 
year 1472, Mahmiid Gawan, the great minister of the last independent 
Bahmani king, made another effort ; he forced his way through the 
forests, and did not leave the country till he had reduced the lesser 
forts, and finally Kelna itself. 

Subsequently he made a new distribution of the Bahmani dominions. 
Junnar became the head-quarters of a Province which comprehended 
Indapur, the Mandesh, Wai, Belgaum, and parts of the Konkan. The 
other districts on the Bhima were under Bijapur, while Sholapur, 
Giilbarga, and Purenda formed a separate Province. Yusaf Adil Shdh, 
the founder of the Bijapur dynasty, was made governor of Bijapur; 
Ahmad Shah, the founder of the Ahmadnagar dynasty, was sent to 
Junnar ; Giilbarga was entrusted to Dastiir Dinar, an Abyssinian ; while 
Purandhar, Sholapur, and 1 1 districts were held by two brothers, Zein 
Khan and Khwaja Jahan. 

When Ahmad Shah went to Junnar about the year 1485, he found 
that the fort of Junnar Shivner had fallen into the hands of the Marathas, 
and he at once reduced it. He then took Chawand, Logarh, Purandhar, 
Kondhana (Singarh), and many forts in the Konkan, and brought his 
charge into good order. 

The fall of the Bahmani dynasty was now at hand, for the great 
nobles had become virtually independent. The first who rose in revolt 
was Bahadur Gelani, who governed the country south of the Warna 
river ; he was soon defeated and killed. Then Zein - ud - din, the 
idgirddr of Chakan, rebelled with the aid of Yusaf Adil Shah. Next, 
in the year 1489, Ahmad Shah threw off his allegiance ; he was 
attacked by Zein-ud-din, but the latter w^as driven into the fort of 
Chakan ; the fort was stormed, and Zein-ud-din killed in the fight. 

About this time, Yusaf Adil Shah of Bijapur also asserted his inde- 
pendence, and made himself master of the country as far north as the 
Bhima. The new kings of the Deccan made a kind of partition treaty 
in 149 1, by which the country north of the Nira and east of Karmala, 
together with some of the present District of Sholapur, was assigned 
to the Nizam Shahi king, while the country south of the Nira and 

POONA. 203 

Bhi'md was allotterl to Bijapur. The lesser chiefs, who had joined in 
the revolt against the Bahmani kings, were gradually subdued by the 
more powerful, Dastiir Dinar, who held Giilbarga, was defeated in 
1495, ^'^"d again in 1498, by Yusaf Adi'l Shdh ; but he returned after 
each defeat, and it was not till 1504 that he was slain, and Giilbarga 
annexed to the Bijapur dominions. 

In 151 1, Sholapur was annexed to Bijapur. Amir Berid took 
Gulbarga ; but Kamal Khdn was soon after assassinated, and Gulbarga 
recovered. Purandhar and the neighbouring tracts remained for many 
years under Khwaja Jahan, who seems to have been a semi-indepenclent 
vassal of the king of Ahmadnagar. 

In 1523, as a condition of peace between the kings of Bijapur and 
Ahmadnagar after one of their many wars, the sister of Ismail Adil 
Shah was given in marriage to Burhan Nizam Shah, and Sholapur 
was promised as her dowry, but it was not given up. The claim to 
Sholapur by the Nizam Shahi kings was the cause of constant wars 
during the next forty years. At last the Musalman kings, alarmed 
at the power of Ramraj, Hindu king of Bijanagar, formed a league 
against him (1563-64). In January 1565 was fought the great battle 
of Talikot, which resulted in the death of Ramraj and the complete 
defeat of his army. 

For some years there was peace; but in 1590, Dilawar Khan, 
who had been regent of Bijapur, fled to Ahmadnagar, and urged 
Burhan Nizam Shah 11. to recover Sholapur. In the year 1592 they 
advanced into the Bijapur territory, but Ibrahim Adil Shah managed 
to win back Dilawar Khan ; and having got him into his power, sent 
him as a prisoner to the fort of Satara, and quickly forced the 
Ahmadnagar troops to retire. 

Soon after this, the Mughal princes of Delhi began to invade the 
Deccan, and in 1600 Ahmadnagar fell. The country was, however, 
only temporarily subdued, and was speedily recovered by Malik 
Ambar, an Abyssinian chief, who made Aurangabad, then called 
Kharki, the capital of the Nizam Shahi kings. In 161 6, Shah Jahan 
again conc^uered the greater part of the Ahmadnagar territory ; but in 
1629, the country was given up by the Mughal governor. Khan Jahan 
Lodi. A war ensued, and in 1633 Daulatabad was taken, and the king 
made prisoner; but Shahji Bhonsla, one of the leading Maratha chiefs, 
set up another member of the royal family, overran the Gangthari and 
Poona districts, and, with the help of the Bijapur troops, drove back 
the Mughals from Purenda. Shah Jahdn now marched into the Deccan 
in person, besieged Bijapur, and forced the king to come to terms, 
1636. The country seized by Shahji was then easily recovered; 
that chief surrendered in 1637, and the Nizam Shahi dynasty came to 
an end. The country north of the Bhima, including Junnar, was 

204 POONA. 

annexed to the Mughal territory, and that south of it was made over to 
Bijapur. Shahji took service under the king of Bijapur, and received 
the jdg'ir of Poona and Supa, to which Indapur, Baramati, and the 
Mawal country near Poona were added. 

It was under the Bijapur kings that the Marathas first began to make 
themselves conspicuous. The Bargirs or light horse furnished by the 
Maratha chiefs played a prominent part in the wars with the Mughals ; 
the less important forts were left in their hands, and the revenue was 
collected by Hindu officers under the Musalmdn mokdsddrs. Several 
of the old Maratha families received the offices of deshjnukh and sar- 
deshmukh. The kingdom of Bijapur survived that of Ahmadnagar by 
fifty years ; but, weakened by internal dissensions, it was gradually 
falling to pieces. This was the opportunity for the predatory Maratha 
chiefs ; and a leader arose in Sivaji, the son of Shahji Bhonsla, who 
knew how to unite the Marathas into a nation by inspiring them with 
a hatred for their Musalman masters, and how to take advantage of the 
constant quarrels and increasing weakness of those masters. 

The story of the rise and progress of the great Maratha power belongs 
to the general history of the countr}\ It will be found in the article on 
India, and need not be repeated here. 

With the fall of Baji Rao, the last of the Peshwas, in 1818, the 
Maratha power ended ; and since then, no events of political import- 
ance have taken place in Poona District. Throughout the Mutiny, 
peace was maintained, and no open outbreak took place, though the 
mutiny of a regiment at Kolhapur gave rise to uneasiness, and there 
was undoubtedly a good deal of disaffection at Satara among the classes 
whom the annexation of the country had impoverished. The notorious 
Nana Sahib was the adopted son of Baji Rao. 

Population. — The Census of 1872 showed a total population of 
921,353 persons, on an area corresponding to that of the District as at 
present constituted. The next general Census of 1881, taken over an 
area of 5348 square miles, disclosed a total population of 900,621 
inhabitants, residing in 8 towns and 1177 villages, and occupying 
153,401 houses. This decrease of population, amounting to 2-25 per 
cent, in the nine years between 1872 and 1881, is ascribed to the 
famine of 1876-77, in which the eastern portion of the District 
suffered severely. Density of population, 168-4 persons per square 
mile; houses per square mile, 38*3; persons per village, 624; persons 
per house, 5*87. Classified according to sex, there were 455»ioi 
males and 445,520 females; proportion of males, 5o'5o per cent. 
Classified according to age, there were — under 15 years, boys 181,706, 
and girls 170,951 ; total children, 352,657, or 39'! 5 per cent, of 
the population : 15 years and upwards, males 273,395, and females 
274,569 ; total adults, 547,964, or 60-85 per cent. In point of 



religion, Hindus number 834,843; Muhammadans, 42,036; Jains, 
10,880; Parsis, 1574; Christians, 9503; Jews, 619; Sikhs, 30; non- 
Hindu aborigines, 1058; and Buddhists, 78. Hindus are sub-divided 
into castes as follows : — Brahmans, 49,060 ; Rdjputs, 3364 ; Kunbi's 
(cultivators), 396,586; Kolis (cultivators), 42,829; Malfs (gardeners), 
52,543; Lobars (blacksmiths), 2587; Darjis (tailors), 8857; Chamars 
(skinners), 15,790; Lingayats (traders), 5364; Sondrs (goldsmiths), 
9239; Sutars (carpenters), 9534; Telis (oil-men), 8694; and depressed 
castes, like the Mangs and Mahars. The Mangs and Mahars together 
are returned at 88,019. Muhammadans are distributed according to 
tribe as follows: — Pathans, 5912; Sayyids, 4226; Shaikhs, 30,498; and 
'others,' 1400. As regards sects of Muhammadans, there are 41,253 
Sunni's and 783 Shias. Christians are divided into 5039 Roman 
Catholics, 3426 Episcopalians, 560 Presbyterians, 91 Methodists, 92 
Baptists, 6 Plymouth Brethren, and 289 belonging to miscellaneous 
Christian creeds. Among the aborigines, the Bhils are returned at 376, 
probably a large under-estimate ; Kathodis and Warlis, 682. 

The Census of i88t divides the male population into the following 
six main classes : — (i) Professional class, including State officials of every 
kind and members of the learned professions, 27,234; (2) domestic 
servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, 8585 ; (3) commercial class 
including bankers, merchants, carriers, etc., 8348 ; (4) agricultural and 
pastoral class, including gardeners, 174,341 ; (5) industrial class, in- 
cluding all manufacturers and artisans, 49.388 ; and (6) indefinite and 
non-productive class, comprising male children, general labourers, and 
persons of unspecified occupation, 187,205. 

Of the 1 1 85 towns and villages in Poona District in 1881, 255 contain 
less than two hundred inhabitants ; 438 from two to five hundred ; 300 
from five hundred to one thousand; 135 from one to two thousand; 
24 from two to three thousand ; 22 from three to five thousand ; 8 from 
five to ten thousand ; i from ten to fifteen thousand ; i from twenty 
to fifty thousand; and i over fifty thousand. The following towns, 
including Poona and Kirki cantonments as separate places, are the 
most important in the District: — Poona (99,622); Poona Canton- 
ment (30,129) ; Junnar (10,373) ; Kirki, cantonment (7252) ; Saswad 
(5684); Baramati (5272); Talegaon (4900); and Lonauli (3334). 
Excepting the cantonments, all these have municipalities, the aggregate 
municipal revenue (including minor municipalities, 6 in number) in 
1882-83 being ^32,671 ; the aggregate municipal population, 179,739; 
and the incidence of municipal taxation, 2s. ii|d. per head of the 
population within municipal limits. The incidence varied in different 
municipalities from 2|d. to 5s. 10 id. 

Agriculture. — Agriculture supports (according to the Census Returns 
of 1881) 511,943 persons, or 56*8 per cent, of the entire population. 

2o6 POONA. 

The agricultural workers were returned at 291,798, giving an average of 
8-9 cultivable and cultivated acres to each. Kunbis and Malis are the 
chief cultivating classes, although men of all castes own land. About 
four-fifths of the landholders till with their own hands. The rest let 
the land to tenants, and add to their incomes by the practice of some 
craft or calling. Kunbis depend almost entirely on the produce of their 
fields. They work more steadily, and have greater bodily strength than 
other husbandmen, and show high skill in their occupation. The 
uncertain rainfall over a great part of the District, the poverty of much 
of the soil, the want of variety in the crops, and a carelessness in 
their dealings with money-lenders, have, since the beginning of British 
rule, combined to keep the bulk of the Poona landholders poor and in 
debt. Between 1863 and 1868 they suffered from the introduction of 
enhanced rates of assessment, based on very high prices which were 
wrongly believed to have risen to a permanent level. To their loss 
from the fall in prices was added the suffering and ruin of the 1876-77 
famine. In spite of these recent causes of depression, the records of 
former years seem to show that, except during the ten years of unusual 
prosperity ending about 1870, when great public w^orks and the very 
high price of cotton and other field produce threw much wealth into 
the District, the mass of the landholding classes, though poor and 
largely in debt, are probably at present less harassed, and better fed, 
better clothed, and better housed than they have been at any time since 
the beginning of the present century. 

For the relief of landholders, who, though hampered by debt, were 
not insolvent, it was proposed to establish a system of State Agricul- 
tural Banks, in order to enable embarrassed proprietors to effect a 
compromise with their creditors. The scheme is at present in 
abeyance, owing to doubts on the part of Government as to the wisdom 
of enforcing the recovery of loans made by the bank by the same 
procedure as arrears of land revenue. 

Of the total District area of 5348 square miles, 3560 square miles 
were in 1881 assessed for Government revenue, of which 3261 square 
miles were under cultivation and 299 square miles were cultivable. 
Total amount of Government assessment, including local rates and 
cesses on land, ^125,954, or an average of is. ifd. per cultivated acre. 
The holdings as a rule are small, though large holdings are found in 
many villages. They are also divided among members of different 
families. In the hilly tract in the west of the District, where the chief 
grains are rice, ragi, and other coarse grains, which require great atten- 
tion and labour, the holdings are generally smaller than in the east. In 
1882-83, including alienated lands, the total number of holdings was 
227,871, with an average area of about 9 acres. 

In Poona all arable land comes under one or other of three great heads 

POONA. 207 

— dry-crop land, watered land, rice land. The kha7if or early crops 
are brought to maturity by the rains of the south-west monsoon ; the 
rabi or spring crops depend on dews, on irrigation, and on the partial 
fair-weather showers which occasionally fall between November and 
March. The chief Z'//^;-//" crops are spiked millet mixed with the hardy 
tur (Cajanus indicus), and jodr. These are sown late in May or in 
June, and are reaped in September and October or November. In the 
wet and hilly west the chief harvest is the kharif. The rabi crops are 
sown in October and November, and ripen in February and March, 
They are chiefly the cold-weather Indian millets, together with gram, 
lentils, and pulses. 

As in other parts of the Deccan, the chief kinds of soil are black, 
red, and barad or stony. The black soil, found generally near rivers, 
is by far the richest of these. The red soil is almost always shallow 
and coarser than the black. The stony soil is found on the slopes of 
hills. It is merely trap rock in the first stage of disintegration; but 
if favoured by plentiful and frequent rains, it repays the scanty labour 
which its tillage requires. With four oxen, a Kunbi will till some 
sixty acres of light soil. Sixty acres of shallowish black soil require 
six or eight oxen. Eight oxen can till fifty acres of deep black soil. 
Many husbandmen possess less than the proper number of cattle, and 
have to join with their neighbours for ploughing. 

Of 1,924,630 acres, the total area of Government cultivable land, 
1,775,583 acres were taken up for cultivation in 1882-83. Of these, 
181,395 acres were fiillow land or occupied waste. Of the remain- 
ing 1,594,188 acres under actual cultivation (28,035 acres of which 
were twice cropped), grain crops (wheat, barley, and rice, but mostly 
millets) occupied 1,383,092 acres, or 85 per cent. ; pulses (gram, peas, 
and others), 103,030, or 6 per cent. ; oil-seeds, 91,428 ; fibres, 24,467 ; 
tobacco, 1402; spices, 7356; garden produce, 7194; and sugar-cane, 
4234. The area under cotton in 1882-83 produced 6874 cwts. 

The farm stock decreased considerably in the famine of 1876-77, and 
has not yet reached its former level. In 1875-76, the year before the 
famine, the stock included — carts, 21,857; ploughs, 63,629; bullocks, 
233»759; cows, 160,097; buffaloes, 57,872; horses, 12,790 (including 
mares and foals) ; asses, 4932 ; and sheep and goats, 342,081. According 
to the 1882-83 returns, the farm stock was — carts, 21,044; ploughs, 
52,630; bullocks, 227,619; cows, 144,949; buffaloes, 52,730; horses 
(including mares and foals), 11,163 ; asses, 6745 ; and sheep and goats, 

Among special crops, the grape-vine (Vitis vinifera) is occasionally 
grown in the best garden land on the border of the western belt 
and in the neighbourhood of Poona city. The vine is grown from 
cuttings which are ready for planting in six or eight months. It 

2o8 POONA. 

begins to bear in the third year, and is in full fruit in the sixth or 
seventh. With care, a vine goes on bearing for 60, or even, it is said, 
for 100 years. The vine is trained on a stout upright, often a growing 
stump which is pruned to a pollard-like shape about five feet high ; 
this mode is said to be most remunerative. Or a strong open trellis 
roof is thrown over the vineyard about six feet from the ground, and the 
vines are trained horizontally on it ; this mode is preferred by the rich 
for its appearance and shade, and is said to encourage growth to a 
greater age. The vine yields sweet grapes in January to March, and 
sour grapes in August. The sour grapes are very abundant, but are not 
encouraged ; the sweet grape is tended in every possible way, but 
is apt to suffer from disease. After each crop the vine is pruned, and 
salt, sheep's droppings, and dried fish are applied as manure to each 
vine after the sour crop is over. Vines are flooded once a year for five 
or six days, the earth being previously loosened round the roots. Blight 
attacks them when the buds first appear, and is removed by shaking the 
branches over a cloth, into which the blight falls, and is then carried 
to a distance and destroyed. This operation is performed three times 
a day until the buds are an inch long. 

Rates of interest vary from 9 to 36 per cent. Labourers earn 4jd. 
a day; bricklayers and carpenters, is. The current prices of the chief 
articles of food during 1882-83 were as follows per 80 lbs. : — Wheat, 
6s. 2jd. ; barley, 6s. sfd. ; rice, from 6s. 8jd. to 7s. 6d. ; jodr, 3s. 3d. ; 
gram, 5s. of d. ; salt, 6s. 3d. ; flour, 8s. 3 Jd. ; ghi, £t,, 4s. ; firewood, 
IS. 2d. Timber (mostly teak) cost 5s. lid. per cubic foot ; jungle- 
wood, 3s. i|d. per cubic foot. Carts can be hired at is. 9d. per day, 
and camels at is. 

Natural Calamities. — With much of its rainfall cut off by the western 
hills, large tracts in the east of the District have a very uncertain water- 
supply. In the year 1792-93, no rain fell till October, and the price of 
grain rose to 4 lbs. for the rupee (2s.). In 1802, owing to the devastation 
of the country by the Maratha troops, the price of grain is said to have 
risen to i lb. for the rupee. In 1824-25 and 1845-46, the failure 
of rain caused great scarcity. In 1866-67, more than ^^8000 of land 
revenue was remitted, and ^2000 spent in relief to the destitute. Poona 
was one of the Districts specially affected by the famine of 1876-77. 

Comitnmications. — Besides about 500 miles of partly bridged and 
partly metalled roads, 106 miles of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway 
cross the District from west to east. The route from Poona to Mahab- 
leshwar passes by Kartrije tunnel, Kaparoli, Khandala, Sherol, Wai, 
and Panchganj, the journey occupying from 10 to 12 hours. A rail- 
way is now (1885) in course of construction which will place Poona in 
connection with the South Maratha region. 

Trade and Commerce. — The general trade of the District is small. 

POONA. 209 

The chief manufactures are silk robes, coarse cotton cloth, and blankets. 
The brass and silver work of Poona is much admired ; among the other 
specialities may be mentioned toys, small clay figures carefully dressed, 
and ornaments, baskets, fans, etc., of khas-khas grass, decked with 
beetles' wings. The manufacture of paper, formerly of some importance, 
has of late years nearly ceased. 

Ad ministration. ~Y ox purposes of administration, the District is 
apportioned into 8 Sub-divisions, as follows :— Kirki, in which is 
included Poona city and Haveli ; Junnar, Khed, Sirur, Purandhar, 
Mawal, Indapur, and Bhimthadi. The revenue in 1882-83, under all 
heads— imperial, local, and municipal— amounted to a total of ^180,735, 
showing, on a population of 900,621, an incidence per head of 4s. 
The land-tax forms the principal source of revenue, yielding ^115,503, 
or 63-9 per cent. The other principal items are stamps (^18,263) 
and excise (^32,352). The local funds created since 1863 ^or ^vcrks 
of public utility and rural education yielded a total sum of ;^io,i5c, 
The administration of the District in revenue matters is entrust^ed 
to a Collector and 5 Assistants, of whom 3 are covenanted civilians. 
For the settlement of civil disputes there are in all 11 courts. 
Twenty -eight officers share the administration of criminal justice. 
The average distance of a village from the nearest court is 53 
miles. The total strength of the regular police in 1876-77 was 
1094 officers and men, giving i man to every 829 of the population. 
The total cost of this force was ^16,670, equal to ^3, 5s. 3d. 
per square mile of area and ^\^. per head of the population. The 
number of persons convicted of any offence, great or small, was 
2746, being I to every 330 of the population. " The corresponding 
statistics for 1882-83 are as follows :— Total strength of police, 1146 
men, giving i to every 785 of population; total cost, ^18,962, or ^3, 
los. lod. per square mile of area and 5d. per head of population; 
number of persons convicted, 2650, or i to every 347 of population! 
There is one jail in the District ; average daily number of prisoners, 353. 

Education has widely spread of late years. In 1855-56 there were 
only 94 schools, wuh a total of 4206 pupils. In 1876-77 there were 
251 schools, with 12,926 pupils, or, on an average, i school to every 
4 villages. In 1882-83 there were 330 schools, with an average 
attendance of 18,235 pupils. Of these, 266 are Government schools; 
namely, 2 high schools, 6 Anglo-vernacular schools, 256 vernacular 
schools, and 2 training schools in medicine, forestry, and agricul- 
ture. There are also 2 colleges in the District— the Deccnn College 
and the College of Science. The Census of 1881 returned 17,863 
males and 1095 females as under instruction, besides 37,362 males 'and 
179S females able to read and write, but not under instruction. There 
are 3 libraries, and 8 vernacular newspapers were published in 188^ 



Medical Aspects. — The climate is dry and invigorating, and suits 
European constitutions better than that of most other parts of the 
Bombay Presidency. The average annual rainfall during the twenty-six 
years ending 1881 was 29*4 inches. In 1881 the rainfall was only 17 
inches. The average annual mean temperature of Poona for the seven 
years ending 1881 was 77*6° F., the average monthly mean being — 
January, 72°; February, 76°; March, 82*9°; April, 85-7°; I^Iay, 84-6°; 
June, 79'2°; July, 75-5°; August, 74-9°; September, 75-3°; October, 
77'8°; November, 75*5°; and December, 72*1° F. The prevailing 
diseases are fever and affections of the eyes, skin, and bowels. Twelve 
dispensaries afforded medical relief to 2415 in-door and 53,118 out- 
door patients in 1876-77, and 21,151 persons were vaccinated. In 
1881 the number of dispensaries was the same (12) ; in-door patients, 
2x55; out-door, 76,759; persons vaccinated, 24,942. Vital statistics 
showed for 1882-83 a death-rate of 17*84 per thousand, and a birth-rate 
of 27*4 per thousand. [For further information regarding Poona Dis- 
trict, see Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency^ compiled under the orders 
of the Government of Bombay, by Mr. J. M. Campbell, C.S., vol. xviii. 
in three parts (Government Central Press, Bombay, 1885). Also see 
Historical Accoimt oj the Pooria, Sdtdra, and S/ioldpur Districts, by Mr. 
W. W. Loch, C.S. (Bombay Government Central Press, 1877) ; the 
Bombay Census Report for 1881 ; and the several Administration and 
Departmental Reports of the Presidency from 1880 to 1884.] 

Poona {Puna). — Town and cantonment in Poona District, Bombay 
Presidency. The military capital of the Deccan, and from July to 
November the seat of the Government of Bombay. A station on the 
Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 119 miles south-east of Bombay. 
It is situated in lat. 18° 30' 41" n., and long. 73° 55' 21" e., 1850 feet 
above the level of the sea, and, in a straight line, about 63 miles 
distant from the coast. Area, including suburbs, about 4 square miles. 
Population (1872) 90,436; (1881) of city, 99,622; of cantonment, 
30,129; total, 129,751, namely, males 66,923, and females 62,828. 
Hindus number 103,348; Muhammadans, 16,374; Christians, 6384; 
Jains, 1745; Parsis, 1329; and 'others,' 571. Municipal income 
(1882-83), ^29,126; incidence of taxation, 3s. 7d. per head. 

The city stands on the right bank of the Miita river. Much of the 
country round is barren and rocky, and to the east stretches an open plain. 
Not much high ground is seen to the north and west, but to the south 
extends a line of hills ending in the bold square rock of Singhgarh. 
Close at hand, on the north, the confluence of the streams of the Muta 
and Miila; through the heart of the town, the line of the Kharakwasla 
Canal ; and on the south, the lake and temple-crowned peak of Parvati, 
are objects of interest. The aqueduct was built by an ancient Maratha 
family. The waterworks owe their existence to the liberality of Sir 


Jamsetji Jijibhai of Bombay, who contributed ;£"i 7,500 to the entire 
cost (;£"2o,ooo). Gardens on every side, and groves of acacia along 
the banks of the rivers, give much of the neighbourhood a green, well- 
clothed appearance. The city proper extends along the Miita for 
about I \ mile inland, varying in height from 30 to 70 feet above the 
river. Its length is about 2 miles from east to west, and its breadth 
about 1 1 mile, the total area being about 2^- square miles. For police 
and other purposes, the area of the town is divided among 18 wards or 
pets. Under the Peshwas, it was divided into 7 quarters, named 
after the days of the week. The ruined palace of the Peshwas stands 
in the Shanwar quarter or Saturday ward. The palace was burned 
down in 1827, and all that now remains is the fortified wall. The 
chief streets run north and south. Though broad in parts, they are 
all more or less crooked, none of them offering an easy carriage-way 
from one end to the other. From east to west, the only thorough- 
fare is by lanes, narrow, short, and interrupted. One of these was set 
apart for the execution of criminals, who, in the time of the Peshwas, 
were here trampled to death by elephants. Of 12,271 houses in 
188 r, there were 716, or 5-8 per cent, of the better sort. Most of the 
houses are of more than one storey, their walls built of a framework 
of wood filled in with brick or mud, and with roofs of tile. A few 
residences of the old gentry are still maintained in good order, but 
the greater number are in disrepair. Within many of the blocks 
of buildings that line the streets are large courtyards, entered by 
a doorway, and crowded all round with the hovels of the poorer 

North of the town is the military cantonment, with a population 
of 30,129. Within cantonment limits, northwards to the Miita-Miila 
river, and for 2 miles along the road leading west to the canton- 
ment of Kirki (Khadki), are the houses of the greater part of 
the European population. Here also is the large bungalow of the 
Western India Club. The first Residency was built where the present 
Judge's house now stands, at the Sangam or junction of the Miila 
and Miita rivers. The compound included the site of the present 
Science College and the English burial-ground close to the present 
Sangam Lodge. The Resident's quarters contained five houses, 
besides out- offices for guard and escort parties. The entire block 
was destroyed on 5th November 181 7, immediately upon the departure 
of Mr. Mountstuart Elphinstone to join the British forces drawn 
up for battle at Kirki. There have been 3 European cemeteries 
opened since the Maratha possession of Poona — one near the old 
Residency, the second near the present Church of St. Paul, and 
the third the present East Street Cemetery. A new Residency was 
built near the present site of St. Paul's Church in 1S19, and was 


accidentally burnt down in 1863. The Sangam Bridge was first built 
on piles in 1829, at a cost of £,^^00. Sir John Malcolm opened it in 
1830, with the name of the Wellesley Bridge, after the Duke of 
Wellington. It was rebuilt with stone in 1875, at a cost of ;^9ooo. 
Holkar's Bridge was built by Madhu Rao Peshwa, and so named because 
in its vicinity Holkar was accustomed to pitch his tents. 

The first mention of Poona in history seems to be in 1604, 
when it was granted by the Sultan of Ahmadnagar to Maloji, 
the grandfather of Sivaji the Great. In 1637 the grant was con- 
firmed by the Sultan to Shahji, father of Sivaji. In 1663, during 
the operations conducted against Sivaji by order of Aurangzeb, the 
imperial viceroy, Shaista Khan, took possession of the open town, from 
which, when surprised a few days afterwards by Sivaji, he had great 
difficulty in making his escape. His son and most of his guard were 
cut to pieces, and he himself wounded. A powerful force, however, 
immediately reinstated the discomfited commander. In 1667, Aurang- 
zeb restored Poona to Sivaji ; but under the sway of his successor, 
Sambaji, it was occupied by Khan Jahan, an officer of the Emperor. 
On the Peshwa obtaining supremacy in the Maratha confederacy, the 
chief seat of Government was removed from Satara to Poona. In 1763, 
Nizam All of Haidarabad sacked the town, and burned such parts of 
it as were not ransomed. 

In the struggle between the successive Peshwas and their nominal 
subordinates, Sindhia and Holkar, Poona suffered many vicissitudes, 
until in 1802, by the provisions of the Treaty of Bassein, the Peshwa 
admitted a British subsidiary force to be stationed here. 

The final defeat of the Peshwa Baji Rao, and the capture of 
Poona in 1818, were the results of three engagements. In the battle 
of Kirki (5th November 181 7), the English forces were commanded 
by Colonel Burr, 800 being Europeans. Their loss was 80 killed 
and wounded, of w^hom 50 w^ere sepoys. No European officer 
was killed. The Peshwa's forces were under Bapii Gokla, and con- 
sisted of 18,000 horse and 8000 foot; killed and wounded, 500. The 
battle of Yeroada (i6th and 17th November 181 7) occurred near 
where the present Fitzgerald Bridge now stands, the British guns 
on 'Picket Hill' commanding the position. The English troops were 
commanded by Brigadier - General Lionel Smith. The result was 
the flight of the Peshwa's army, and the immediate occupation of 
the city by the British. The third battle, that o'f Korigaum (ist 
January 181 8), was the most general of the three engagements, and 
w^as fought 2 miles distant from Loni, on the right bank of the Bhima, 
and 16 miles from Poona. The British force was commanded by 
Captain Stanton, not more than 500 strong, with 6 guns and 300 horse, 
marching to the support of Colonel Burr. When the British reached 


Korigaum at 10 a.m., they found themselves in face of the main body 
of the Maratha army, 20,000 strong. The village was at once occupied 
and until 9 p.m. was held against the Marathds, the British troops 
meantime suffering from want of water. When day broke, the 
^laratha army was observed moving off along the Poona road. After 
the deposition of the Peshwa Baji Rao (181 8), the city became the 
head-quarters of a British District, as well as the principal cantonment 
in the Deccan. 

With the heat of April and May tempered by a sea-breeze, a 
moderate rainfall, and strong cool winds, the climate is agreeable and 
healthy. In 1881 the rainfall at Poona v/as 17 '23 inches, but the 
average for twenty-six years ending 1881 has been 2 9"4i inches. The 
mean temperature in 1881 was 77*4°; maximum, 107° (in May); mini- 
mum, 45^ (in December). During the last thirty years, Poona has 
been steadily growing in size. In 185 1 its population was returned 
at 73,209; by 1863 it was supposed to have risen to about 80,000; 
in 1872 it was found to have reached 90,436; and in 1881 it was 
returned at 99,622, exclusive of 30,129 in the cantonment; total, 

Though Poona is no longer so great a centre of trade and industry 
as under the Peshwas, there are still about 250 handlooms for the 
weaving of fabrics of silk and cotton ; and articles of brass, copper, 
iron, and clay are made in the city. Throughout Western India, 
Poona workers have earned a reputation for the manufacture of silver 
and gold jewellery, combs, dice, and other small articles of ivory; 
of fans, baskets, and trays of khas-khas grass ornamented with peacocks' 
feathers and beetles' wings ; and of small carefully dressed clay figures 
representing the natives of India. 

As a civil station, Poona is the residence of the usual District 
officers, and also the head - quarters of the Survey, Revenue, and 
Police Commissioners of the Presidency. As a military station, it 
is the head-quarters of a General of Division, of the Quartermaster- 
General and Adjutant-General of the Bombay Army. The garrison 
generally consists of European and Native infantry, artillery, and 
cavalry. There is a branch of the Bank of Bombay. Besides a 
female normal school, a training college for preparing teachers for -1 
vernacular and Ansjlo - vernacular schools, and several Government 4 
and private vernacular, Anglo-vernacular, and English schools, Poona | 
has a Government first-grade High School, and two colleges — the 
Deccan College, teaching classics, mathematics, and philosophy ; 
and the College of Science, with special training for civil engineers. 
The daily average number of pupils in the female normal school '• 
during 1881-82 was 31; in the training college for teachers, 145; 
and in the first-grade High School, 360. The average daily attend- 


ance at the Deccan College was 83 in 1879-80, and 120 in 1881-82. 
The receipts from fees in the latter year were ^720. The College 
of Science (with engineering, forest, agricultural, and mechanical 
classes) had a daily average attendance of 188 in 1880 and 173 
in 1881 ; fee receipts (1881), ^501. Other principal public build- 
ings in Poona are the Legislative Council Hall, the Sassoon Hospital 
(with beds for 150 patients), Jewish vSynagogue, military pay offices, 
barracks, etc. The total number of in-door patients treated at the 
Sassoon Hospital in 1883 was 2290; and of out-door patients, 

Poonamallee. — Town in Chengalpat (Chingleput) District, Madras 
Presidency. — See Punamallu. 

Poon-na-riep. — Village in Tharawadi District, Lower Burma. — See 


Pooree. — District, Sub-division, and town in Orissa, Bengal. — See 

Poo-ZWOn-doung. — River of Lower Burma. — See Pu-zun-daung. 

Porakad {Porca). — Town in Alleppi Sub-division, Travancore State, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 9° 21' 30" n., long. 76° 25' 40" e. Popula- 
tion (1871) 2922, dwelling in 743 houses; not separately returned in 
the Census Report of 1881. Porakad was formerly a separate princi- 
pality, known as Chambagacheri, and the principal port of the country ; 
it passed to Cochin in 1678, and to Travancore in 1746. Both the 
Dutch and Portuguese had a settlement here, and the remains of the 
Portuguese fort still stand. The seaport has been ruined by the 
prosperity of Alleppi. 

Porayar. — Suburb of Tranquebar port and town, Tanjore District, 
Madras Presidency. — See Tranquebar. 

Porbandar. — Native State in the Sorath division of Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency. Situated in the west of the peninsula of Kathia- 
w^ar, consisting of a strip along the shore of the Arabian Sea, no- 
where more than 24 miles broad, and lying between 21° 14' and 21° 
58' N. lat, and 69° 28' and 70° i' e. long. Area, 636 square miles, with 
I town and 84 villages. Population (1872) 72,077; (1881) 71,072. 
The Census authorities estimated the area at 567 square miles in 1881, 
but the area given above is a more recent return. Males numbered 
36,566 in 1881, and females 34,506, dwelling in 14,936 occupied 
houses. Hindus numbered 63,406; Muhammadans, 6741; and 
* others,' 925. The style of house-building is said to be peculiar. No 
mortar is used, but the limestone, of which the better class of houses 
is built, is accurately squared and fitted ; and it is asserted that the 
quality of the limestone is such that when once the rain has fallen on 
a wall thus built, the joints coalesce and become as though all were 
one solid block. The Porbandar State may be described roughly as a 


plain sloping from the Barda hills to the sea, drained by many rivers, 
of which the largest — the Bhadar, Sorti, Wartu, Minsar, and Ojat — 
contain water generally throughout the year. Near the sea the rain 
accumulates in large marshes called gher land. When salt - water 
has access to these marshes, nothing can be grown except grass and 
reeds; but in the sweet -water marshes, rice, gram, ddl^ and other 
crops are grown. The largest gher is the Modhoara, about six miles 
long by four miles broad, connected with the sea by the Kindari creek. 
This marsh receives all the drainage of the Bardas, though no large 
stream flows into it ; when it becomes filled with water during the rainy 
season, the villagers dig away the sand with which the sea annually 
closes the mouth of the creek, the water flows into the sea, and the sea- 
water enters the marsh during very high tides. The Gangajal is a 
large fresh-water marsh situated not far from the Kindari creek, about 
two miles in circumference, but unless the rains are heavy does not 
hold water for more than eight months in the year. The climate is 
healthy. Minimum temperature (January), 54° F. ; maximum (May), 
99° F. : average rainfall, 20 inches. The country is nowhere far 
distant from the sea. The limestone known as Porbandar stone, 
found over almost the whole of the State, is chiefly quarried in the 
Barda hills. The best quarry is at Adatiana. The stone is largely 
exported to Bombay. Iron is also found, but is not smelted. The 
Malik hill is the only portion of the elevated country that is fairly 
wooded. Turtles of large size abound along the coast, but are not 
captured. Oysters are found, but do not produce pearls like those of 
the Gulf of Cutch. Silk of good quality and cotton cloth are manu- 

Of recent years much of the trade has been absorbed by Bombay, 
but large quantities of timber are still imported from the Malabar ports. 
Cotton seed and tobacco are imported from Broach, embroideries from 
Surat, and raw sugar from Gandevi and Naosari in Surat. Grain is 
imported from Karachi. All the exports go to Bombay. Heavy port 
dues, the competition of Verawal and Bhaunagar, and insufficient 
communications, account for the decline of the State as a trading 
centre. Something is being done to remedy this decadence, and in 
1 88 1 a British superintendent of customs was appointed under local 
administration. The value of the trade in 1880 was ^55,316; and in 
1882-83, under British administration, ^165,943. Port dues (under 
native administration), ^1670; under British administration, ;£6 168. 
The chief harbours are Porbandar, Madhavpur, and Miani. 

The ruler executed the usual engagements in 1807. The present 
(1881-82) chief, Rana Sri Vikmatji, is a Hindu of the Jethwa clan of 
Rajputs, and belongs to one of the oldest races in Western India. He 
is entitled to a salute of 11 guns, and has power to try for capital 


offences, without permission from the PoHtical Agent, any person 
except British subjects. He administers the affairs of his State in 
person. He enjoys an estimated gross revenue of ^'40,000 ; and pays 
a tribute of ^4850, 8s. jointly to the British Government, the Gaekwar 
of Baroda, and the Nawab of Junagarh. He maintained a military 
force of 595 men in 1882-83. He has a mint, and coins silver pieces 
called koris, and copper coins called doknis, of which 32 usually go to 
the kori ; three of these koris^ on an average, make a rupee (2s.). The 
family of the chief follow the rule of primogeniture in point of succes- 
sion, and hold no sanad authorizing adoption. There are 10 schools 
in the State, with a total of 726 pupils in 1882-83. Porbandar ranked 
as a State of the first class in Kathiawar until 1869; and since as a 
State of the third class. Transit dues are not levied in the State. A 
total sum of £2^1^ was spent in works of public utility during 1882. 
The land revenue is about ^18,000. 

Porbandar. — Chief town and port of Porbandar State ; situated on 
the western coast of Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency, in lat. 21° 37' 10" 
N., and long. 69° 48' 30" e., on the shore of the Arabian Sea. Popu- 
lation (1881) 14,569, namely, 7120 males and 7449 females. Hindus 
number 10,568; Muhammadans, 3079; J^i^s, 887; Parsis, 34; and 
Christian, i. Though a bar prevents the entrance of ships of any 
great size into the port, it is much frequented by craft of from 12 to 80 
tons burthen. In spite of the levy of heavy customs dues, and the 
competition of other ports, the trade is considerable, including, besides 
a local traffic with the Konkan and Malabar coast, a brisk trade with 
the ports of Sind, Baluchistan, the Persian Gulf, Arabia, and the west 
coast of Africa. In 1881 the imports were valued at ^48,572, and 
the exports at ;£"33,586. Total value in 1882-83, ;£i65,943. At a 
little cost, the port might be made one of the most secure on the 
Kathiawar seaboard. The town is entirely built of stone and sur- 
rounded by a fort. It is said to have been called in ancient times 
Sudamapuri; and it has been the Jethwa capital for about 150 years. 

Port Blair.— Principal harbour of the Andaman Islands.— .SV^ 
Andaman Islands. 

Port Canning (or Matid). — Decayed town and port in the District 
of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal ; situated in lat. 22° 19' 15" n., and 
long. 88° 43' 20" E. It occupies a tongue of land round which sweep 
the collected waters of the Bidyadhari, Karatoya, and Atharabanka 
rivers, forming the Matla estuary, which then takes a fairly straight 
course southward to the sea. Port Canning is now (1885), and has 
been for several years, abandoned as an attempted seat of maritime 
trade ; but before entering into its history, it may be well to mention 
its capabilities when the present author visited it in 1869-70, in case it 


should ever be resuscitated. The junction of the rivers formed a fine 
sheet of water, with 21 feet at dead low tide under the jetties which 
the Port Canning Company had constructed. Ships drawing 23 feet 
could discharge their cargo without grounding, as they would lie 6 feet 
from the jetty-side. Seven moorings were laid down, one off each jetty, 
the maximum length of the moorings being from 320 to 420 feet. Five 
jetties were formed on the Matla river opposite Canning Strand, and two 
on the Bidyadhari off the rice-mills. These mills were, and still are, the 
most conspicuous feature in the landscape. There was also a desolate- 
looking hotel with a small railway station. This was all the town, 
with the exception of a few native huts and thatched bungalows. The 
rest was marsh land. The railway line did not reach to any of the moor- 
ings ; but goods had to be landed at the ends of the jetties, then carried 
by coolies to railway waggons at the shore end of the jetties, and hand- 
shunted along a tramway to the railway station, where an engine was 
finally attached to them and took them off to Calcutta, 28 miles distant. 
The pilotage and port-dues on the Matla were reported as practically 
one-half of those on the Hugli ; the hire of Government moorings and 
boats, and harbour -master's charges, being about the same at both 

The following narrative of the attempt to form a seat of maritime 
trade at Port Canning is condensed from official papers furnished by 
the Bengal Government. 

The first step towards creating a town and municipality on the 
Matla appears to have been made in 1853, when, in consequence of the 
deterioration of the navigation of the Hugli, which it was feared at that 
time was rapidly closing, the Calcutta Chamber of Commerce ad- 
dressed Government on the necessity of providing an auxiliary port on 
the Matla, and opening communication with Calcutta by means of a 
railway or canal. Lord Dalhousie's Government, although not partici- 
] ating in these fears, took the precaution of acquiring the land on the 
I)roposed site of the new port, afterwards named Port Canning ; and in 
July 1853, lot No. 54 of the Sundarban Grants was purchased for the 
sum of ;£"iioo from the grantee, the whole comprising upwards of 
8000 acres, or 25,000 bighds of land, of which one-seventh was culti- 
vated, the remainder being jungle. About the same time, the adjoin- 
ing lot having lapsed to Government, a portion, consisting of 650 acres, 
was reserved for building. A committee was appointed to survey and 
report upon the site. Plans for laying out a town were submitted, and 
a position was fixed upon for the terminus of a railway to connect the 
new port with Calcutta, 

In June 1862, the provisions of the Municipal Act were extended to 
the town; and in 1863, the whole of the Government proprietary right 
in the land was made over to the Municipality, in trust for the town 


of Canning, subject to the control of Government. Rules were also 
passed empowering the Commissioners to grant leases and to borrow 
money on the security of the land, but the Government itself declined 
to advance any loan. 

The expenditure necessary for the various works was estimated at 
upwards of ^200,000; and the Municipality, in November 1863, with 
the sanction of Government, opened a loan of ;^i 00,000 upon 
debentures, at 5 J per cent, interest, redeemable in five years. The 
privilege of commuting debentures for lands in freehold or leasehold at 
certain rates was also allowed. Not more than ^26,500, however, was 
subscribed; and early in 1864 the Municipal Commissioners again 
applied to Government for a loan of ;£"45,ooo, which was refused, 
except on the condition that the mercantile community should con- 
tribute the remainder of the /^2oo,ooo required. 

The scheme of forming the Port Canning Company dates from a 
proposal made in 1864 by Mr. Ferdinand Schiller, one of the Municipal 
Commissioners, to raise the means of undertaking the works essential 
to the development of the port, consequent on the refusal of Govern- 
ment to advance the funds except on terras which the Municipality 
found impossible of fulfilment. Mr. Schiller's proposals were to 
advance the sum of ;^25,ooo to the Municipality, on condition of 
receiving from them certain concessions, namely — (i) the gift in free- 
hold of 100 acres of land in the centre of the town; and (2) the 
exclusive right of constructing tramways, wharves, jetties, and landing 
accommodation, and of levying rates upon the same for fifty years, 
subject to the control and regulation of the Commissioners. Mr. 
Schiller also undertook on the part of himself and his assignees — (i) to 
excavate within two years a dock, 2500 feet in length by 200 feet 
in width and 10 feet in depth, on the assigned land ; (2) to provide for 
the conservation and protection of the river bank along the entire 
length of the Commissioners' property facing the Matla; (3) to pay the 
Commissioners one-third of all profits from these works exceeding ic 
per cent. The right of purchasing the completed works at original cost 
at the expiration of fifty years was reserved to the Municipality ; and in 
the event of non-purchase, an extension of the term for another twenty- 
five years was stipulated. These terms were agreed to by Government, 
and the payment of the loan of ^25,000 to the Municipality was made 
in March 1865. 

In March 1866, the Government of India consented to a loan of 
;£"45,ooo on security of the property of the Municipality, without 
interest, repayable in five years, for which debentures were issued 
bearing dates from April 1866 to August 1868. Under the conditions 
of commutation mentioned above, debentures to the extent of ^{^33,780 
were converted for lands. 


In the meantime, the prospectus of the Port Canning Company 
had been issued, in January 1865, accompanied by an announcement 
that the share Hst was closed. The shares rose in value at an 
unprecedented rate, till they attained a premium of ;£i2oo in 
Bombay and ^1000 in Calcutta. It was soon found, however, that the 
sanguine expectations of speculators were not likely to be realized, 
and the shares fell as rapidly as they had risen. Subsequently, 
dissensions arose between the directors and the shareholders, result- 
ing in the management of the Company being transferred to other 

A dispute also took place between the Company and the Muni- 
cipality. The former made an application to commute the ;2^25,ooo of 
municipal debentures which it held, into land. But the deeds were 
not executed, although the lots were assigned ; and commutation was 
deferred till maturity of the debentures, and payment of a quit-rent, 
equivalent to the interest, was agreed on. In 1868, when affairs 
definitely assumed an unfavourable aspect, the Company endeavoured 
to repudiate the transaction, and brought an action against the Munici- 
pality for payment of ;2{^2 7oo interest on the debentures. The latter 
resisted the claim, on the ground that the Company had agreed to 
commute the debentures for certain lands in the town of Canning. 
The Company gained the suit in the first instance ; but on appeal, the 
order was reversed, and the commutation was declared to be valid. 
The Company, however, have not entered into possession of their 
lands, and an appeal is said to have been preferred to the Privy 
Council in England. In 1870, the Secretary of the Company addressed 
Government, urging upon it the duty of redeeming the debentures 
which the Municipality had failed to meet. The Government, in 
reply, declined to admit any obligation, and refused to provide the 
Municipal Commissioners with funds to pay their debts. The first of 
the Government debenture bonds for ^10,000 having arrived at 
maturity in April 187 1, steps were taken to obtain a decree, and the 
whole of the municipal property, moveable and immoveable, was placed 
under attachment. Government having thus obtained priority, notice 
was sent to the private debenture-holders, inviting them to co-operate in 
obtaining a fair division of the assets. Subsequent decrees were also 
obtained to the extent of ;£"35,ooo ; and the whole of the Canning 
Municipal Estate was attached and made over to the Collector of the 
Twenty-four Parganas, who was appointed manager. 

As regards the operations of the Company, it may be stated that, 
according to the prospectus, they possessed 134,590 acres of land 
yielding an estimated annual rent of ;^'i 3,000. These lands con- 
sisted of the town belonging to the Municipality, and of Sundarban lots 
leased from Government or purchased from individuals, the greater 


portion being redeemable in freehold. In 1866, the Company added 
to their business the lease of the forest rights in all the unappropriated 
lands of the Sundarbans, as well as the rights of fishery in all the rivers, 
which were put up to auction by Government for a term of five years, 
but liable at any time to resumption on six months' notice. The 
fishing rights were withdrawn in October 1868, in consequence of the 
claims of the Company being contested by fishermen and others 
holding prescriptive rights ; and the question was finally decided, under 
legal advice, that the Government had not the right to farm out the 
fisheries in tidal waters to private persons. The lease of the forest 
rights was resumed after due notice, on the grounds that the monopoly 
was contrary to the interests of the general public, and that oppression 
was exercised by the Company's agents in the collection of the fees. 
An appeal was presented to the Government of India and the Secretary 
of State against the withdrawal of these leases, but the action of the 
Bengal Government was upheld. 

The following are the principal w^orks undertaken and executed, 
either partially or completely, by the Company, namely — (i) A wet 
dock, 3500 by 400 feet, for the accommodation of country boats, in 
accordance with the conditions in the deed of concession; (2) the 
protection from erosion of the Matla foreshore ; (3) seven landing 
wharves and iron jetties, each capable of accommodating two ships at a 
time ; (4) goods sheds and tramways in connection with the jetties ; (5) 
a ' gridiron ' and graving dock for repairing vessels ; (6) lastly, the rice- 
mills, constructed on an extensive scale, capable of husking and turning 
out about 90,000 tons of rice a year, from which very profitable 
results were expected. Many of these works have fallen into disrepair, 
and are now to a large extent unserviceable. The number of ships that 
visited the port since its opening in 1861-62 down to the close of 
1870-71, was as follows : — 1861-62, none; 1862-63, ^ \ 1863-64, 11 ; 
1864-65, 14; 1865-66, 26; 1866-67, 20; 1867-68, 9; 1868-69, i; 
1869-70, 2 ; 1870-71, none. In March 1869, the Company applied to 
Government, urging the suspension for a time of the port-dues and 
charges. The request was complied with ; and a Government notifica- 
tion was issued declaring Canning to be a free port, and providing that 
six months' notice should be given before the charges were reimposed. 
This notification, however, had no effect. The two vessels which 
arrived in 1869-70 were chartered by the Company for the purpose of 
bringing trade to the rice-mills, as well as to give effect to the notifica- 
tion. Since February 1870, no ocean-going ships have arrived at the 
port ; and the arrivals of 1867-68 may be looked upon as the last 
response of the mercantile community to the endeavours made by the 
Company, and aided by the Government, to raise Canning to the 
position of a port auxiliary to Calcutta. 


The last effort of the Company to develop the rice-mills having 
proved financially unsuccessful, and the only remaining source of 
revenue being derivable from their landed estates, it was resolved, at a 
meeting of shareholders in May 1870, to appoint a committee for the 
purpose of preparing a scheme of voluntary liquidation and reconstruc- 
tion of the Company. The head office was removed to Bombay, and 
the local expenditure reduced ; the working of the mills was stopped 
until sucli time as they could be leased out or worked profitably, and 
the operations of the Company confined to the improvement of the 
revenue from their landed estate. At a subsequent meeting of share- 
holders, held in August 1870, it was resolved to make further calls to 
pay off existing debts, and to transfer and sell, under certain con- 
ditions, the whole of the property and rights of the 'Port Canning 
Land Investment, Reclamation, and Dock Company,' to the new 'Port 
Canning Land Company, Limited.' These resolutions have since 
been carried out, the interest in the new Company being principally 
vested in the Bombay shareholders, who exercise the chief direction of 

The Port Establishment has been a heavy and unprofitable 
charge to Government. In 1869-70, the cost of the port amounted 
to ;^i5,709, while the receipts were only ^1134, 14s. This was 
exclusive of the charges for special survey and arsenal stores. Con- 
sidering the position and prospects of the Company, and the hopeless- 
ness of the establishment of any trade which would justify the retention 
of a port on the Matla, the Lieutenant-Governor, in June 187 1, recom- 
mended that the earliest opportunity should be taken of officially 
closing the port, and withdrawing the establishments, with the excep- 
tion of the light vessel outside, which would be of use to ships from 
the eastward, and might occasionally guide a vessel to an anchorage in 
rough weather. These recommendations were adopted, and shortly 
afterwards the Government moorings, etc., were taken up, and the port 
officially declared closed. In 1870, the town contained 386 houses 
or huts, with a total population of 714 souls. At present it is nearly 
deserted. The Commissioner of the Sundarbans, in a report dated 
the loth April 1873, states that, 'with the exception of the Agent 
and others employed by the new Port Canning Land Company, and a 
dak itninshi or deputy postmaster, no one lives at Canning.' 

The line of railway connecting Port Canning with Calcutta, 28 miles 
distant, proved a failure from the first. Upon the collapse of the Com- 
pany, it was taken over by Government as a State line. It is still 
worked, but on a very economical scale ; its traffic consists almost solely 
of firewood, bamboos, and fish from the Sundarbans. 

Porto Novo {Feringhipet or Paraiigipetai ; Mahmud Bandar). — Sea- 
port town and railway station in South Arcot District, Madras Presi- 


dency ; situated in lat. ii° 29' 25" n., and long. 79° 48' 13" e., 145 miles 
south of Madras, and 32 miles south of Pondicherri, at the mouth 
of the river Vellar. Population (1881) 7823. Hindus number 4401; 
Muhammadans, 3350; and Christians, 72. Considerable trade with 
Ceylon and Achin. The port is frequented exclusively by native craft, 
of which, in 1875, 248 (tonnage 16,700) called. Value of exports in 
the same year, ^56,000 ; of imports, ;^95oo. In 1881-82, the number 
of native craft arriving was 97 (tonnage 8812); the number leaving was 
105 (tonnage 9022). Value of exports in 1881-82, ;£i4,75o; of 
imports, ^5010. In the previous year, 1880-81, the value of the imports 
was ^4244 ; and value of exports, ^23,198. 

When the English commenced trading here in 1682, they found the 
Danes and Portuguese already established. In 1749, the Madras army, 
marching against Tanjore, halted at Porto Novo for a while; in 1780, 
Haidar All plundered the town. In 1 781, Sir Eyre Coote marched out 
of Porto Novo with 8000 men to meet the whole army of Mysore, 
some 60,000 strong, under Haidar ; and in the battle which ensued, 
won the most signal victory of the war, and practically saved the 

Porto Novo is interesting also as the scene of English joint-stock 
enterprise. From 1824, and for many years afterwards, efforts had 
been made to establish ironworks here. A company called the Porto 
Novo Iron Company established a large factory ; but, after many years 
of patient endeavour, the enterprise had to be abandoned. To 
facilitate the carriage of the iron-ores, which were brought by water 
from Salem, the old Khan Sahib's canal was made navigable in 1854 
by the construction of 3 locks, — one where the canal debouches into 
the Vellar, nearly opposite the town of Porto Novo ; the second where 
it leaves the Viranam tank ; and the third a little lower down. The 
Iron Company cut a short canal of their own from the Vellar into the 
backwater adjoining the embouchure of the Coleroon, down which they 
used to float their ore in basket boats to Porto Novo before the Khan 
Sahib's canal was rendered navigable. The Company's canal, which is 
only about 2 miles long, is now much silted up. The excavation of the 
East Coast Canal at Porto Novo was commenced in 1853, and con- 
siderable progress was made up to 1857, when the Mutiny seems to have 
put a stop to it, as it did to many other public works. A small expen- 
diture would probably render the canal navigable for boats from the 
Vellar to the Paravanar, and so to Cuddalore ; but the construction of 
the railway has rendered such expenditure hardly necessary. The 
only special manufacture of Porto Novo is a species of mat, made from 
the leaves of the wild pine-apple, in imitation of similar mats of an 
exceedingly soft and elegant make imported from Achin. 

Portuguese Possessions. — The Portuguese Possessions in India 


consist of GoA, Daman, and Diu, each of which see separately. Total 
area, 2365 square miles; total population (1881), 475,172. 

Potaniir. — Railway station in Coimbatore District on the south-west 
branch of the Madras Presidency ; 302 miles from Madras. 

Potegaon. — Zamlnddri or petty chiefship in Chanda District, 
Central Provinces; 16 miles east-north-east of Chamursi. Area, 34 
square miles; comprising 15 villages, in a hilly country, which yields 
much sdj^ bijesdl, and ebony. Population (1881) 793. Potegaon 
village is situated in lat. 20° n., long. 80° ti'e. ; population (1881) 

Potikall. — Zaminddri or chiefship in Bastar State, Central Pro- 
vinces; comprising 22 villages. Area, 350 square miles. Population 
(1881) 2013, almost entirely Kols, although the zaminddr is a Telinga; 
number of houses, 450. Potikall, the chief village, containing about 
100 houses, is situated on the river Tal, in lat. 18° t,^,' n., and long. 
80° 56' E. 

Poung-day. — Township in Prome District, Pegu Division, Lower 
Burma. — See Paung-deh. 

Poung-loung. — Range of hills in Tenasserim Division, Lower 
Burma. — See Paung-laung. 

Pownar. — Village in Wardha District, Central Provinces. — See 

Prakasha. — Town in Kbandesh District, Bombay Presidency; 
situated in lat. 21° 36' n., and long. 74^ 28' e., 45 miles north-west of 
Dhulia, and 7 miles south-west of Shahada ; at the junction of the Tapti 
river with two of its tributaries. Population (1881) 5651, namely, 
Hindus, 3645; Muhammadans, 479; Christians, 18; and 'others,' 
1509. Municipal revenue (1883-84), £1$^', incidence of tax, 8^d. 
per head. East of the town stands an old temple of Gautameswar 
Mahadeo, in whose honour a great Hindu fair is held every twelve 
years, when the planet Guru or Jupiter enters the constellation of the 
Lion, or Sing/iast There are several other interesting temples in the 
neighbourhood. Post-office; school with 138 pupils in 1883-84; dis- 

Pranhita. — The name of the united streams of the Wardha and 
Wainganga rivers down to their junction with the Godavari at Sironcha, 
in Chanda District, Central Provinces ; length about 70 miles. 
Forty miles above Sironcha, occurs the 'third barrier,' a formidable 
obstruction to navigation. The Pranhita has a broad bed, which in the 
rainy season is filled with a rushing flood, but in the dry weather con- 
sists of a broad expanse of sand, wnth a thin and shallow stream. 

Pratapgarh. — District, tahsil, fargand, and town in Oudh. — See 

Pratapgarh. — State in Rajputana. — See Partabgarh. 


Pratapgarh. — Zaminddri estate in the north-west of Chhindwara 
District, Central Provinces, near Motiir ; comprising an area of 289 
square miles, with 140 villages, and 3203 houses. Population (1881) 
17,078, namely, males 8727, and females 8351. Together with Sonpur, 
Pratapgarh once formed part of the Harai chiefship; but at the begin- 
ning of this century it was separated, and came under the management 
of the Harai chief's brother. The present (1884) chief is a minor, and 
the estate (which contains a fine sal forest) is under Government 
management. Principal village and residence of the chief, Pagara, 
population (1881) 342. 

Pratapgiri (or Chinna Kimedi). — Zaminddri in Ganjam District, 
Madras Presidency. — See Kimedi. 

Pratapnagar. — Chief village of Jamira Fiscal Division in the 
District of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal; situated in lat. 22° 23' 
5" N., and long. 89° 15' 15" e., on the bank of the Kholpetiia river. 
Contains a large rice mart; in 1857 the seat of the principal revenue 
court of the local landholder. 

Prattipadu. — Village in Guntilr tdliik^ Kistna District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 16° 12' n., long. 80° 24' e. Population (1871) 7315, 
inhabiting 2051 houses; and (1881) 3181, inhabiting 582 houses. 
Hindus number 2722 ; Muhammadans, 273 ; and Christians, 186. The 
village is 10 miles distant from Guntiir. Temples. Post-office. 

Premtoli. — Village in Rajshahi District, Bengal. Lat. 24° 24' 30" 
N., long. 88^ 25' 15" E. An annual religious trading fair is held here on 
the 20th day of the moon of Aswin, to celebrate the anniversary of the 
visit of the reformer-saint Chaitanya to Gaur, the former capital of 
Lower Bengal. 

Proddatlir. — Tdhik or Sub-division of Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, 
Madras Presidency. Area, 487 square miles. Population (1881) 
90,653, namely, 45,732 males and 44,921 females, dweUing in i town 
and 91 villages, containing 19,166 houses. Hindus number 78,554; 
Muhammadans, 10,184; Christians, 191 2 ; and 'others,' 3. The prin- 
cipal soil is the black cotton soil, and cotton is the chief product. In 
the valleys of the Penner and the Kunder, ' dry ' grains and rice are 
raised by means of irrigation. Indigo is also grown. The Kurniil- 
Cuddapah irrigation and navigation canal traverses the tdhik. The 
timber on the high slopes of the hills is valuable; in 1883-84, 28| 
square miles were 'reserved.' In 1883 the tdluk contained i civil and 
2 criminal courts ; police circles, 6 ; village watch [chaukiddrs), 64 
men. Land revenue, ^21,112,. 

Proddatlir {Poddaturu). — Town in Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 14° 45' n., long. 78° 35' 20" e. Population 
(1871) 6709, inhabiting 1334 houses; and (1881) 6510, inhabiting 
1440 houses. Hindus number 4828; Muhammadans, 1667; and 

FRO ME. 225 

Christians, 15. The head-quarters of Proddatur taluk. Some trade 
is carried on, the chief staple being indigo. Dispensary ; munsif's 
court ; post-office. 

Prome (Burmese Fyc). — District in Pegu Division, Lower Burma. 
Stretches across the valley of the Irawadi (Irravvaddy) between lat. 18'' 
22' and 19° 50' N., and between long. 94° 44' and 95° 58' e. ; bounded 
on the north by Thayet-myo ; on the east by the Pegu Yoma range ; 
on the south by Henzada and Tharawadi ; and on the west by 
the Arakan Hills. Area, 2887 square miles. Population (1881) 
322,342. The District of Prome originally extended northwards as 
far as the frontier of Upper Burma; but in April 1870, Thayet-myo 
was erected into a separate jurisdiction. The head-quarters of the 
District are at Prome Town. 

Physical Aspects. — The Irawadi flows through the District from 
north to south, dividing it into two portions, which differ considerably 
in area, appearance, and fertility. On the west, the country is broken 
by thickly wooded spurs from the Arakan mountains into small valleys 
drained by short and unimportant tributaries of the Irawadi, and but 
little under cultivation. North and north-east of Prome town, the forest- 
covered spurs of the Pegu Yomas also form numerous valleys and ravines, 
stretching as far as the Irawadi, and watered by torrents which, as they 
proceed south-west towards more level country, eventually unite into 
one large stream called the Na-win. The south and south-western 
portions of the District consist of a large and well-cultivated plain, 
intersected by low ranges with a general north and south direction, the 
chief of which is called the Prome Hills. Towards the east and south- 
east, this fertile tract is drained by streams, which, walled back from 
the Irawadi by the Prome Hills, send their waters to the Myit-ma-ka, 
the head of the Hlaing river, and thus seawards in a line parallel to 
that of the great river. 

There are several roads running across the Pegu Yoma range, but 
none are practicable for wheeled traffic. Footpaths lead from the 
sources of the North and South Na-win to the Myauk-mwe and Pa- 
laung streams respectively ; and farther south, there is a track from near 
the source of the Shwe-leh river to the Karen hamlets on the 
Za-ma-yi, the head-waters of the Pegu river. A road over the Arakan 
mountains connects Pa-daung via Nyaung-kye-dauk with Taung-giip 
in Sandoway. It was by this route that the main body of the Burmese 
army advanced in 1784 from Prome to the final conquest of the kingdom 
of Arakan. In 1826, however, it was reported as altogether impassable 
for troops or laden cattle. The chief rivers of Prome District are — the 
Tha-ni, which rises in the extreme north-west angle and flows east- 
south-east for 25 miles, joining the Irawadi at Pe-gyi ; the Bii-ro, rising 
in the Arakan mountains, and after a south-easterly course of 35 miles, 

VOL. XI. p 

226 PROME. 

falling into the Tha-ni near Nyaiing-bin-tha ; the Kyauk-bu, another 
tributary of the Tha-ni ; the Tha-le-dan streams, which rise in the 
Arakan range and unite near Ma-taung, 17 miles from the village of 
Tha-le-dan, where their combined waters reach the Irawadi. 

The hill country east of the Irawadi and north-east of Prome town 
is drained by the Na-win system of rivers, of which the most important 
are the South Na-win, falling into the Irawadi at Prome, and its 
affluents the North Na-win, the Chaung-sauk (Khyoung-tsouk), and the 
Tin-gyi, all of which take their rise in the Pegu Yomas, and eventually 
join the Irawadi. Though all these rivers are to a certain extent navig- 
able by boats, yet they are at present mainly important as the routes by 
which the valuable timber of the hill country is floated down the Irawadi 
to be lashed into rafts at the mouth of the Na-win. The plains in the 
south of Prome are watered by a series of streams forming the Myit- 
ma-ka system. The chief of these are — the Zeh, which flows into the 
In-ma (Eng-ma) swamp ; the Shwe-leh ; the Kyat, rising in Tharawadi 
District, where it is known as the Taung-nyo ; and the Myit-ma-ka or upper 
portion of the Hlaing River. 

The District contains two lakes — the In-ma and the Shwe-daung 
Myo-ma. The Di-dut swamp, on the east bank of the Irawadi, is a 
depression in the plains supplied by the annual overflow of the Irawadi; 
in the rains it is 7 feet deep, but dries up in the hot season. 

The forest area of the teak localities on the west side of the Irawadi 
is estimated at 40 square miles, with about 200 first-class trees. Between 
the Pegu Yomas and the Irawadi are vast forests of in, thit-ya (Shorea 
robusta), in-gyin (Shorea siamensis), and thit-tsi. Teak occurs all 
over the hills, and the average annual yield since the three-year 
permit system was introduced in 1862 has been about 10,000 logs. 
The forests of the Province are now worked by the Pegu Circle officers 
of the Forest Department. The Shwe-leh forests, with an estimated 
area of 95 square miles, contain some of the most valuable teak in Pegu. 
Many other varieties of timber, such as pyin-gado, pa-dauk, rin-daik, 
sha, kuk-ko, abound. It has been calculated that as many as 2000 
pa-dauk trees, iioo kuk-ko, and 130,000 sha were felled annually until 
these trees were reserved. The Chaung-sauk teak plantation occupied 
an area of 561 acres in 1884. Receipts of the Forest Department in 
1883-84, ;^758i ; expenditure, ^4502. 

Histojy. — Fact and fable are so interwoven in the early history of the 
once flourishing kingdom of Prome, that it is impossible to disentangle 
the true from the false. It is most probable that the area of distribution 
of Gautama Buddha's relics after his death in 543 B.C. marks the limits 
of his forty-five years' wanderings, yet all Burmese historians assert that 
he visited and preached in Burma. The Prome chronicles begin by 
, relating the foundation of Prome in accordance with a prophecy of 

PROME. 227 

Gautama, who, whilst looking towards the south-east from the site of 
Prome over a 'great ocean,' observed a piece of cow-dung floating 
with the current, and at the same time a bamboo rat appeared and 
adored him. Gautama spoke thus : ' This rat at my feet shall be born 
again as Dut-ta-baung ; and in the hundred and first year of my religion 
he shall found, at the spot where that piece of cow-dung now is, the 
large town of Tha-re-khettra (Sri-kshettra) ; and in his reign shall my 
religion spread far and wide.' The date of the foundation of this city 
can be fixed ; for some of the histories of Prome — all of which agree 
in giving the year 10 1 of the Buddhist era as the date — state that it 
was in the first year after the second great Buddhist council, and this is 
known from independent testimony to have taken place about 443 
n.c. Tha-re-khettra was situated 5 or 6 miles east of the present town 
of Prome, and was, according to the annalists, surrounded by a wall 40 
miles long, with 32 large and 23 small gates. About the beginning of 
the 2nd century of the Christian era, the town was abandoned, and 
fell into ruins. Embankments and pagodas, standing in rice-fields 
and swamps, alone mark the site of what was once the capital of a 
powerful kingdom. The next date which can be fixed with any 
accuracy is the accession of a king in whose reign was held the 
third Buddhist council. This was called together by Asoka in the 
twenty-second year of his rule, counting from his accession, and in the 
eighteenth from his coronation, and assembled under the guidance of 
the Arahat Mogaliputra in 244 B.C. In a monograph upon the 
legendary history of Burma and Arakan, a recent writer, Captain C. J. 
F. Forbes, Deputy Commissioner, says the Prome dynasty dates from 
444 B.C. to 107 A.D. During the reign of the third monarch of the 
line, Captain Forbes relates that two important events took place in the 
contemporaneous history of India. The first was the invasion of 
India by Alexander the Great (b.c. 327). The second was the assem- 
blage of the third great Buddhist council in 308 B.C., to collect and 
revise the sacred books. The third council here alluded to is 
not different from the one mentioned above as having been called 
by Asoka in 244 B.C. : the apparent difference is caused by variant 
calculations founded on the Burmese dates. 

It is not until about 90 B.C. ^ that any statements by historians of 
other countries are available as checks on the Prome chroniclers. 
About that year, the Buddhist scriptures were reduced into writing 
in Ceylon ; and this fact, which is noticed in the Burmese palm-leaf 
chronicles, is stated there to have taken place in the 17th year of a 
king named Te-pa. This sovereign, who was originally a poor student 
for the priesthood and was adopted by his childless predecessor, must 

^ Dr. Mason says 93 or 94 r>.c. Sir J. Emerson Tennent in his work on Ceylon, 
third edition, page 376, says in 89 B.C. 

228 PROME. 

thus have ascended the throne circa 107 B.C. He is stated to have 
been the nth monarch since the foundation of the capital; but this 
would give over forty years as the average length of the reign of his 
predecessors, except that of Dut-ta-baung, who, it is asserted, reigned 
for seventy years. 

The Te-pa dynasty occupied the throne of Tha-re-khettra for 202 
years, or until 95 a.d., when the monarchy was broken up by civil war 
and an invasion by the Kan-ran tribe from Arakan. The last king was 
Thu-pa-nya. His nephew Tha-mun-da-rit fled first to Taung-ngu, 
south-east of Prome ; he then crossed the Irawadi to Pa-daung, but 
being still harassed by the Kan-rans, he went northwards to Min- 
dun. He finally recrossed the river, and founded the city of Lower 
Pagan, in 108 a.d. In estabUshing his new kingdom he was gready 
assisted by a scion of the old Ta-gaung race of kings, named Pyu- 
min-ti or Pyu-saw-ti, who married his daughter and afterwards suc- 
ceeded him. 

From about the middle of the 14th to the beginning of the i6th 
century, the greater part of the Pagan kingdom was parcelled out 
amongst a crowd of adventurers from the Shan States. In about 1365, 
a descendant of the old Ta-gaung dynasty succeeded in re-establishing 
the Burmese monarchy, but it lasted only a few years. 

In 1404, Raza-di-rit, king of the Talaing kingdom on the south, the 
capital of which was at Pegu, invaded Burma ; and passing by Prome 
and Mye-deh, ravaged the country near the chief city, Ava. Towards 
the close of the 15th century, the power of the rulers at Ava may be 
said to have ceased. Their dominions were divided amongst a number 
of independent Burmanized Shan Saw-bwas or chiefs, one of whom was 
settled at Taung-ngu. In 1530, Min-tara-shwe-ti, or Ta-bin-shwe-ti, 
ascended the throne of Taung-ngu ; and four years later, commenced 
his aggressive career by invading Pegu. In two campaigns, the power 
of the Talaing king was broken, and he fled to Prome, and Min- 
tara-shwe-ti fixed his capital at Pegu. An alliance was formed against 
him by the kings of Ava, Prome, and Arakan ; but their forces were 
successively routed by Ta-bin-shwe-ti and his renowned general, Burin- 
naung, in the neighbourhood of Prome, which surrendered in 1542. In 
the later years of his life, Ta-bin-shwe-ti is said to have associated with a 
dissipated Portuguese adventurer; and he was murdered in May 1550, 
after a glorious reign of twenty years, in which time he had raised 
himself from being merely Saw-bwa of Taung-ngu to the position of 
lord paramount over Pegu, Tenasserim, and Upper Burma, as far as 
Pagan, with the kings of Burma and Siam paying him tribute. He was 
succeeded by the general to whom much of his military success was 
owing, viz. Burin-naung, who assumed the title of Shin-pyu-mya-shin 
(literally, ' Lord of many Elephants '), from the fact of his having taken 

PRO ME, 229 

six wliite elephants from the King of Siam. It was not without fighting, 
however, that Burin-naung obtained possession of the throne. No 
sooner was Ta-bin-shwe-ti dead, than the rulers of Prome and Taung- 
ngu — though they were Burin-naung's own brothers — declared them- 
selves independent, and the old royal Talaing family again set up its 
claim to the throne of Pegu. Burin-naung speedily reduced his refrac- 
tory brothers to subjection. Commencing with Taung-ngu, he crossed 
thence to Mye-deh and Ma-lun, and there obtaining a fleet of boats, 
sailed down by water to Prome. Having subdued Prome, he went 
northwards, and had nearly reached Ava when he was recalled by the 
intelligence that the Peguans were about to attack Taung-ngu. This 
attempt he easily frustrated. He now called a family gathering, and 
distributed the Provinces of the empire among his brothers, making 
them tributary princes of Martaban, Prome, and Taung-ngu. The 
great king, Shin-pyu-mya-shin, died in 1581, and his vast empire shortly 
afterwards fell to pieces. The seat of government was removed after 
his death to Taung-ngu, and one of his younger sons, Nyaung-ran-min- 
tara, established his capital at Ava. 

The second dynasty of Ava kings which was thus established lasted 
for about a century and a half, and was ultimately overthrown by an 
invasion from Pegu. The Talaings were driven into revolt by the mis- 
government of the officers sent down from Ava. They established their 
independence; and the second king, Byi-nya-da-la, invaded the Burman 
territory, captured Ava, and carried off the king a prisoner to Pegu. 
The whole of Upper Burma was reduced, with the exception of one 
village, Mut-so-bo, some miles to the north of Ava. The head-man 
of this village, Maung Aung-zeya, refused to surrender to the Talaing 
conquerors, and was repeatedly attacked, but always without success. 
The fame of his patriotism and ability soon spread, and a crowd of 
Burmese, who chafed under the domination of the Talaings, gathered 
round him and acknowledged him as their leader. With their assistance 
he drove the Talaings out of Ava and the whole of Upper Burma. He 
then assumed the title of Alaung-min-tara-gyi, or Alaung-paya (corrupted 
by Europeans into Alompra), and became the founder of the third and 
last dynasty of Ava kings (1753 a.d.). In 1758 he conquered Pegu, 
and carried away captive Bya-hmaing-ti-raza, the last of the Talamg 

From this period till the annexation of Pegu by Lord Dalhousie in 
1853, at the close of the second Anglo-Burmese war, Prome remained a 
Province of the Burmese kingdom. 

Population. — Until the year 1870, Prome included Thayet-myo Dis- 
trict, and no separate details of population are available. By the Census 
of 1872, the number of inhabitants was returned at 274,872. The 
Census of 1881 returned a total population of 322,342, and disclosed 

230 PROME. 

the fact that in the decade since 1873, an increase of 47,470 had 
taken place. In 1881, males were found to number 161,433, females 
160,909; density per square mile, iii-6. The people dwelt in 3 
towns and 1647 villages, containing together 62,800 occupied and 
1675 unoccupied houses; towns and villages per square mile, '57; 
houses per square mile, 22-3; persons per house, 5*i. Distributed 
as regards religion, Hindus number only 978, and Muhammadans 
1795; Christians number 484; Nat or demon worshippers, 5819; 
Parsis, 5 ; but by far the largest portion of the population, number- 
ing 3135261, or 97'2 per cent, are Buddhists. Of the Muham- 
madans, 902 are Sunnis, 813 Shias, 21 Wahabis, 21 Faraizis, and 
38 'others.' Of the Christians, 290 are Baptists, 121 members of 
the Church of England, 49 Roman Catholics, and the remainder, 
dissenters, folloAvers of the Greek Church, and unspecified. Of the 
total Christians returned, 335 are natives. Taking language as a 
test of race, pure Burmese number 301,214; Arakanese, 192; Chins, 
10,662; Karens, 3021; Talaings, 10; Shans, 3602; Chinese, 371; 
Hindustanis, 1552; Bengalis, 158; Tamils, 410; Manipuris, 963; 
EngHsh, 95 ; and a few of other foreign or cognate nationalities. 

The Census distributes the male population into the following six 
main groups : — (i) Professional class, including State officials of every 
kind and members of the learned professions, 3805 ; (2) domestic 
serv^ants, inn and lodging keepers, 508; (3) commercial class, including 
bankers, ir.erchants, carriers, etc., 4935 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral 
class, including gardeners, 56,744; (5) industrial class, including all 
manufacturers and artisans, 17,700; and (6) indefinite and non- 
productive class, comprising all male children, general labourers, and 
persons of unspecified occupation, 77,741. 

The Kyins or Chins, a portion of the mountain race which extends far 
north into Upper Burma and westward into Arakan, are found generally 
to the west of the Irawadi. When living near the Burmese, the men 
adopt the Burmese costume much more readily than the women, whose 
tattooed faces unmistakably betray their origin. Their professed religion 
is Buddhism. The Shans are settlers from the north-east of Ava, a 
patient hard-working people. The Manipuris, locally called Kathays, 
were brought to Prome as Burmese captives, and are Hindus in religion. 
They are principally engaged in silk-weaving. The natives of India and 
the Chinese are immigrants engaged in cattle-dealing and trade. It is 
impossible to give with complete accuracy the number of persons 
dependent upon agriculture, as many combine the occupations of 
agriculturists and fishermen as the season serves, and still more have, 
under the charge of members of their families, small retail shops for the 
sale of almost every kind of article. The number, however, returned 
in the Census Report (1881) as agriculturists — that is, as employed in 

PRO ME. 231 

growing and collecting the produce of the land — is 54,465 males and 
51,532 females, aggregating 105,995, or nearly one-third of the whole 

Tonm a?id Rural Populatio7i.—^\\^ chief towns of Prome District 
are — Prome, on the left bank of the Irawadi, and the terminus of the 
Irawadi Valley (State) Railway, population (1881) 28,813; Shwe- 
DAUNG, a large trading centre, population 12,373; Pa-daung, popu- 
lation 2267; Paung-deh, population 6727. The principal pagodas 
in the District are the Shwe-san-daw in Prome, and the Shwe- 
nat-daw, 14 miles south of that town. The former, situated on a 
hill about half a mile from the left bank of the Irawadi, rises from a 
nearly square platform to a height of 80 feet, and covers an area of 
11,025 square feet. It is surrounded by 83 small gilded temples, each 
containing an image of Gautama. Many marvels are told concerning 
the erection of this pagoda ; and it is said to have been raised on an 
emerald box, resting on seven ingots of gold, in which were deposited 
three hairs of Gautama himself. Successive kings and governors have 
added to and embellished the building. The annual festival, attended 
by thousands of devout Buddhists, is held in Ta-baung, corresponding 
to our month of March. The Shwe-nat-daw Pagoda also stands on 
high ground, and immediately below it is a plain where, early in the 
year, as many as 20,000 pilgrims sometimes assemble for the annual 
eight days' festival or religious fair held here. The palm-leaf chronicles 
relate that the Shwe-nat-daw was originally built by San-da-de-wi, wife of 
Dut-ta-baung, who reigned from 443 to 372 B.C. This king granted to 
the pagoda, and set apart from secular uses for ever, the whole space 
around it on which its shadow fell between sunrise and sunset, and 
directed that a grand festival should be held there annually on the full 
moon of Ta-baung. 

Of the 1650 towns and villages in Prome District, 11S7 contain 
(1881) less than two hundred inhabitants; 418 from two to five 
hundred; 41 from five hundred to one thousand; i from two to three 
thousand ; i from five to ten thousand ; i from ten to fifteen thousand ; 
and I from twenty to fifty thousand. 

Agriculture. —Rice forms the staple product of the District, being cul- 
tivated mainly in the Paung-deh and Shwe-daung townships. The grain 
is soft and unsuited for a long sea voyage, and used to be consumed in 
the District or exported northwards to Mandalay. Owing, however, 
to the opening of the railway, a considerable quantity is now brought 
south, as it will bear the short voyage through the Suez Canal. Tobacco 
is grown on the banks of the Irawadi after the floods have fallen. 
Cotton is sown on the hill-sides, and is partially cleaned in Prome, and 
sent down to Rangoon for export, sometimes mixed with a shorter- 
stapled kind, imported from Upper Burma. Near Prome, and on the 

232 FROME. 

hills opposite, are numerous fruit-gardens, the custard apple predominat- 
ing, no less than 667 acres being planted with this tree ; mixed fruit-trees 
cover an area of 15,580 acres. 

The taungya or nomadic system of cultivation is more extensively 
adopted than in any other District of Lower Burma, the estimated area 
being 12,347 acres in 1882-83. A portion of the forest is cleared, 
and the timber felled early in the dry season ; just before the rains it 
is fired, and the logs and brushwood reduced to ashes. On the first 
fall of rain, the crop is sown ; and after it has been reaped, the clearing 
again becomes waste. One kind of injury generally caused is the 
over-luxuriant growth of dense jungle that immediately springs up; 
but in this District the fertihzing effect of the ashes has the opposite 
result, for an unusual number of young teak and other valuable trees 
are found on deserted taungya clearings. 

In 1882-83, the total area under cultivation in Prome District was 
239,512 acres, the average holding of each cultivator being 7 acres. 
In 1877-78, the area under rice was 151,920 acres; tobacco, 2154 
acres; vegetables, 3747 acres; fruit-trees, 12,155 acres: the area 
under cotton in 1876-77 was 1529 acres. In i88r, the area under 
rice was 196,543 acres; tobacco, 2732 acres; vegetables, 3024 
acres; fruit-trees, 17,436 acres; cotton, 2606 acres. The figures for 
1882-83 are — rice, 198,560 acres; tobacco, 3326 acres; vegetables, 
2457 acres; fruit-trees, 16,171 acres; and cotton, 3093 acres. 

In Pa-daung the land is a good deal encumbered with debt and 
obligations, owing probably to its having been more thickly peopled 
in former years, and to many of the inhabitants having crossed the 
river to Shwe-daung and mortgaged their land to obtain funds for 
trading. But, as a rule, proprietors everywhere live close to their landed 
property. The rates of rent per acre in 1882-83 were — rice-land, 
from 8s. to ;£"i, los. ; land for oil-seeds, los. ; land for cotton, los. ; 
land for tobacco, j[^\ ; taungya land, los. ; garden land for fruit- 
trees, ;^3, I OS. ; land for pulses, 6s. Compared with the average for 
the whole Province, these rates are high in respect of land for tobacco, 
cotton, and particularly fruit-trees. The produce per acre from each 
sort of land yearly was as follows in 1882-83 • — Rice, 1485 lbs.; tobacco, 
1606 lbs. ; vegetables, 730 lbs. ; cotton, 106 lbs. ; and oil-seeds, 584 lbs 
Prices current in the same year were — rice, 7 s. 6jd. per matmd (80 
lbs.) ; tobacco, 9s. 7d. per 7naund ; cotton, 6s. 7d. per maund ; and oil- 
seeds, IIS. lod. per maund. In 1882-83, the price of a plough-bullock 
was ;^5 ; of a sheep or a goat, ;^i, 12s. ; of an elephant, ;^9o; of a 
buffalo, ^7 ; and of a Pegu pony, fy. Fish sold at 3d. per lb. The 
agricultural stock of the District included in 1882-83 — cows and 
bullocks, 128,879; horses and ponies, 464; sheep and goats, 694; 
pigs, 12,770; buffaloes, 31,390; elephants, 8; carts, 32,818; ploughs, 

PROME. 233 

38,270; and boats, 2087. Skilled labourers received 4s. a day, and 
unskilled is. 6d. 

Manufactures^ etc, — One of the most important manufactures of the 
District is silk. Neither the worm nor the mulberry are indigenous to 
the Province, but were most probably imported from China down the 
Irawadi valley. That this lucrative manufacture is not more general 
may be attributed to the fact that it involves taking the life of the 
chrysalis — an act of impiety regarded with horror by every rigid 
Buddhist. The silk-growers are nearly all Yabaings, a race of the same 
stock as the Burmese, by whom, however, they are held in contempt ; 
and those who breed silk-worms live in separate villages, and hold little 
intercourse with their neighbours. They are exceedingly few, for only 
436 pure Yabaings are returned by the Census of 1881 for the whole 
Province. The price of the raw silk, when brought to the markets on 
the river bank, varies from 5 rupees 8 annas (or iis.) to 9 rupees (or 
1 8s.) per lb., the average being 7 rupees 4 annas (or 14s. 6d.). The 
method pursued in this industry is rude and careless in the extreme, all 
the processes being carried on in the ordinary bamboo dwelling-houses 
of the country, which are smoke-begrimed and dirty. The plant of a 
Burmese silk filature is inexpensive, consisting simply of — (i) a set of 
flat trays with slightly raised edges, made of bamboo strips from 2 to 4 
feet in diameter ; (2) a few neatly made circles of palm-leaves, 3 or 4 
inches in diameter; (3) some strips of coarse cotton cloth; (4) a 
common cooking pot; (5) a bamboo reel; and (6) a two-pronged fork. 
Silk-weaving is carried on principally in the towns of Prome and Shwe- 
daung; but a loom forms part of the household furniture of every 
Burmese family. The best cloths are made from Chinese silk, which 
costs ^4 per viss or 3*65 lbs., whilst the same quantity of the home- 
grown article costs only ;^2, i8s. The number of male workers in silk 
returned by the Census of 1881 was 2140, of whom 928 were spinners, 
64 weavers, and the remainder merchants and petty dealers. 

The other manufactures of the District are — ornamental boxes used 
for keeping palm-leaf books, made in Prome town only ; coarse sugar, 
varying in price from ^i to^i, los. per 80 lbs. ; in 1877 there were 
500 sugar-boilers. The monthly out-turn of one furnace is estimated 
at 4562 lbs. Cutch, made in the wooded townships of Shwe-lay, 
Maha-tha-man, and Pa-daung from fibre of the Acacia Catechu, sold 
on the spot in 1876-77 for 4s. 7^d. per maund of 80 lbs., but fetched 
19s. 7 id. in the Rangoon market. In 1881-82 it sold on the spot for 
15s. 7|d. per mauud q{ %o lbs., but fetched ^i, 13s. in the Rangoon 
market. Three men can produce an out-turn of from 25 to 36 lbs. 
of cutch daily. In 1877-78 this industry gave employment to 2040 
persons; the number of cauldrons was 2282. In 1881 it employed 
4325 persons, of whom 4265 belonged to the rural population. Cheroots 

234 PROME. 

are manufactured to a small extent. Only women are employed at this 
craft, and one woman can turn out about 400 cheroots daily. 

Telegraph lines run from Rangoon via Paung-deh and Shwe-daung 
to Thayet-myo, and from Prome to Taung-gup in Arakan. All messages 
from Upper Burma and the whole country east of the Irawadi, includ- 
ing Rangoon, to Calcutta and Europe, pass by this latter Hne. The 
chief road in the District is that from Rangoon via Paung-deh, and 
across the Wek-put and Na-win streams, to Prome. Soon after the 
annexation of Pegu, a military road was constructed over the Arakan 
range, but it is now in disrepair. The Irawadi Valley (State) Railway 
traverses the District, with stations at Paung-deh, Sinmyisweh, Theh- 
gon, Hmaw-za (Moza), and Prome. Total length of railroad within the 
District, t^Z\ miles. Numerous dry-weather cart-tracks connect village 
with village. The mails are carried from Rangoon by the railway daily, 
and thence to Thayet-myo by steamer of the Irawadi Flotilla Company, 
which now plies daily instead of once a week as formerly. 

Administration. — Under native rule the larger portion of the imperial 
income was derived from a poll-tax levied by the chief local authority, 
but the assessments on each house were left to the village thtigyi. 
Certain royal lands near Prome were held by a class of tenants 
called Lamaing, on payment of a rent of half the produce — a kind 
of tenure which existed nowhere else in the Province. The gross 
revenue in 1869-70, before Thayet-myo was separated from Prome, was 
;^8o,328, of which ;^28,457 was derived from land and ;^34,o69 from 
capitation dues. The gross revenue in 1877-78 amounted to ^68,574 ; 
the expenditure was ;^i5,9i3. In i88r, the gross revenue was 
.^^78,817; and in 1882-83, ^92,676. Of the latter sum, ^£29, 258 
was derived from land. The remainder accrued from capitation and 
minor taxes. The local revenue raised in 1877-78 (excluding that 
of Prome town) amounted to ^6323 ; and in 188 1 to £ti^T. Under 
Burmese rule, the District was divided into small independent tracts, 
administered by wun and 7?iyo-thugyi, under whom were iaik-thiigyi, 
rwa or village thugyi, and kyeda?igye. The officers in charge all com- 
municated directly with the court at Ava. Under British rule, Prome 
has been split up into 6 townships, each under a myo-uk or an extra- 
Assistant Commissioner, who is entrusted with limited fiscal, judicial, 
and police powers. The number of thugyi has been reduced from 
140 to 120. The townships are Ma-ha-tha-man, Shwe-leh, Paung-deh, 
Theh-gon, Shwe-daung, and Pa-daung. Prome town is a municipality; 
income in 1882-83, ^1228. Over the whole District is a Deputy 
Commissioner, with 8 Assistants. In 1877 the regular police force 
consisted of 379 officers and men paid from Provincial revenues. The 
total cost was ^^9681. In 1882-83 the regular police force consisted 
of 467 officers and men ; total cost, ;^i 1,984. There are courts in the 


chief towns of the District, viz. Prome, Pa-daung, Shwe-daung, and Paung- 
deh. For many years, education in Prome District ^vas entirely in the 
hands of Buddhist monks and a few native laymen, whose teaching was 
confined to reading and writing. Soon after the annexation of Pegu 
(1S53), the American Baptist missionaries opened village schools and a 
normal school at Prome; in 1866 the State established a middle-class 
school in the same town, and since then several others have been opened. 
In 1876-77, the average daily attendance at the State school was loS ; 
and in 1881-82, 82. In pursuance of the scheme for utilizing the 
monasteries as fur as possible in giving a sounder education than had 
hitherto been imparted, an officer was appointed in 1873-74 to inspect 
all schools the head monks of which would allow their pupils to be 
examined. In 1877-78, 85 monastic and 29 lay schools were inspected. 
In 1 88 1-82, the number of monastic and lay schools inspected was 
29T. The total number of schools on 31st March 1884 was 565 public 
and 180 private institutions. Scholars in the former, 12,470; in the 
latter, 1393. In 1S66-67, the Prome jail was reduced to the grade of 
a lock-up, and the construction of a new prison at Thayet-myo was 
begun; in 1878, the site of the lock-up was bought by the Railway 
Department, and the prisoners removed to Thayet-myo. There is no 
prison of any kind now in Prome. 

Climate. — The climate of Prome is much drier than in other 
Districts of Lower Burma. The total rainfall in 1877 was returned 
at 53-46 inches; and in 1881 at 42-9. The average rainfall at Prome 
town for the twelve years ending 1881 was 53*23 inches. There are 
3 dispensaries in the District, namely, at Prome town, Paung-deh, and 
Shwe-daung; in-door patients {1882), 966; out-door, 10,736. Ophthal- 
mia is very prevalent in the District. [For further information regard- 
ing Prome District, see The British Burma Gazetteer, compiled by 
authority (Rangoon Government Press, 1879, vol. ii. pp. 489-522). 
Also see the British Burma Ceiisus Beport oi 1881 ; and the several 
Administration and Departmental Reports of British Burma from 1880 
to 1884.] 

Prome. — Chief town and head-quarters of Prome District, Pegu 
Division, Lower Burma; situated in lat. 18' 43' N., and long. 95° 15' e., 
on the left bank of the Irawadi (Irrawaddy). By railway, 161 miles 
distant from Rangoon. The town extends northwards from the foot 
of the Prome Hills to the bank of the Na-win, with a suburb on the 
farther side of that stream ; and eastwards for some distance up the 
Na-win valley. It is divided into several municipal quarters, viz. 
Na-win on the north, Ywa-beh on the east, Shin-su on the south, 
and Shwe-ku and San-daw in the centre. In Burmese times, the 
east side was closed in by a ditch, which has been filled up, for during 
the dry weather it proved a fertile source of fever. Skirting the high 


river bank are the police office, the Government school, the court- 
houses, the church, and the telegraph station. The Strand road 
traverses the town from north to south, and from it numerous well-laid 
roads run eastwards. North of Shin-su is the great Shwe-san-daw 
Pagoda, conspicuous among the dark foliage of the trees covering the 
slopes of the hill on which it stands. In the Na-win quarter, a large 
trade in nga-pi or fish-paste is carried on. Here are the markets, con- 
sisting of four distinct buildings. Farther south, overlooking the river 
and separated from it by the Strand, are the charitable dispensary and 
Lock hospital — wooden buildings, well raised above the ground. The 
railway station, at present the terminus of the Irawadi Valley (State) 
Railway, lies a little south of the court-houses. The town was almost 
entirely destroyed by fire in 1862. 

Prome is mentioned in ancient histories as the capital of a great 
kingdom before the Christian era, but the town spoken of was Tha-re- 
khettra (Sri-kshettra), some miles inland, of which traces still exist. 
After the destruction of Tha-re-khettra, about the end of the ist 
century, Prome belonged sometimes to Ava, sometimes to Pegu, and 
sometimes was independent. But since the conquest of Pegu by 
Alaung-paya, it remained a Burmese town until Pegu was annexed 
by the British in 1853. In 1825, during the first Anglo-Burmese 
war, when Sir Archibald Campbell was advancing on the capital, 
endeavours were made to induce him to halt before reaching 
Prome, but he declined entering into negotiations. Upon the 
first appearance of our troops, the place was partly burned by the 
Burmese, and though strongly fortified, it was deserted. After the 
signing of the Treaty of Yandabu in 1826, the British evacuated Prome 
District with the rest of the Irawadi valley. During the second Anglo- 
Burmese war in 1852, the town was attacked by the flotilla under 
Commander Tarleton, and taken ; but almost immediately abandoned, 
as there were no troops to hold it. Three months later, in October of 
that year, the advance from Rangoon took place. The flotilla arrived 
off Prome on the morning of the 9th, and each ship was cannonaded 
as it passed up, but with little effect. After a short contest, the place 
was again occupied. On the 15th of October, Maha Bandula, the 
Burmese commander, surrendered, and the enemy wxre driven out of 
the District. Gradually the country settled down, and a regular civil 
government was established. The British garrison in Prome first 
encamped on the hills south of the town, but were subsequently trans- 
ferred to Nwa-ma-yan, near Shwe-daung. In 1854 they were removed 
to Thayet-myo, which was nearer the frontier, and supposed to be 

In 1872 the population of Prome town was returned at 3i,i57j 
inclusive of all wayfarers and casual inhabitants. In 1877 the popula- 


tlon was estimated at 2(i,Z2(i. In 1881 the Census returned the poijula- 
tion at 28,813, of whom 14,982 were males and 13,831 females. 
According to religion, 26,735 ^^cre Buddhists, 11 60 Muhammadans, 
650 Hindus, 263 Christians, and 5 'others.' The municipal revenue in 
1877-78 was ^£"9638, and the expenditure £1^^^'. in 1881-82 the 
revenue was ^11,500, and the expenditure ^^10,879. I"^ 1874 the 
town was erected into a municipality, and since then great improve- 
ments have been made— tanks have been dug, swamps filled in, the 
town lighted with kerosene oil lamps, and public gardens have been 
laid out. The total amount spent on public works up to the close of 
1877-78 was ;£"9282, inclusive of a loan of ^726; and up to the 
close of 1881-82, ;^24,o6i. In 1882 the Prome dispensary afforded 
relief to 542 in-door, and 5380 out-door patients. 

Pubna. — District, Sub-division, and town in Bengal. — See Pabna. 

Plidlikattai {Poodoocottah, 'The Tonda-man's Country'). — Native 
State in Madras Presidency, lying between 10° 15' and 10° 29' n. lat., 
and between 78° 45' and 79° e. long., entirely surrounded by the 
British Districts of Tanjore, Trichinopoli, and Madura. Area, 
iioi square miles. Population (1871) 316,695; (r88i) 302,127, 
almost entirely agricultural. The Census of 1881 affords the following 
details: — Number of males, 142,810; females, 159,317; dwelling in i 
town and 596 villages, containing 58,449 occupied and 15,635 unoccu- 
pied houses. The density of the population was (1871) 288, and 
(1881) 274 persons to the square mile. Hindus (in 1881) numbered 
281,809, or 93*28 per cent. ; Muhammadans, 8946, or 2-96 per cent. ; 
and Christians, 11,372, or 3-76 per cent., of whom nearly all were 
Roman Catholics. The largest class among the Hindus were the 
Vanniansor labourers and husbandmen (82,954) ; next comes the caste 
of Shembadavans or fishermen (53,961), forming 19 per cent, of the 
population; Vellalars, agriculturists (30,139); and Idayars or shep- 
herds (26,158). Pariahs numbered 26,568. The professional class, 
including State officials of every kind and members of the learned 
professions, is returned — males 4964, and females 391 ; the domestic 
class, including servants, inn and lodging keepers, at males 1208, 
and females 3104; the commercial class at males 2587, females 
361; the agricultural class at males 75,292, females 54,543; the 
industrial or artisan classes at males 11,040, females 9075; and the 
indefinite and non-productive classes at males 47,719, females 91,843. 
There is only one town, Pudukattai — population (1881) 15,384. 

The country is for the most part a flat plain, intersj^ersed with small 
rocky hills, some of which are crowned by old forts. In the south-west, 
hills and jungles are found, but elsewhere the State is well cultivated. 
There are 3000 tanks, some of considerable size. Products — rice 
and dry grains. Iron-cre is found in places, but is not worked. Silk- 


weaving is carried on. Manufactures of cloths, blankets, and mats. 
The gross revenue of the State is ^60,000, but the alienations of land 
revenue are extensive. Members of the Raja's family hold 110,000 
acres, 95,627 acres have been granted to temples, and 9584 acres to 
almshouses. The ind77is or rent-free grants held by Brahmans, and 
the various service tenures, amount to too,oco acres. After these 
deductions, only 3 lakhs (say ;£"3o,ooo) of the revenue is payable to 
the Raja. The following statistics relate to the year 1882-83 : — Land 
revenue, ;!^29,998; State expenditure on public works, £,SZ'^^\ ^^ 
State jewels, ^5400; strength of police, 177 officers and men ; number 
of convicts in jail, 87, cost of maintenance ;2^329; number of pupils 
in the Raja's College, 337; dispensary — in-door patients 137, and 
out-door 10,576 ; number of persons successfully vaccinated, 2397. 
Total force, including village police and personal retinue, 3636. 

The first connection of the British Government with this chief, then 
usually called Tondaman (a family name derived from the Tamil word 
meaning 'a ruler'), was formed at the siege of Trichinopoli in 1753, 
when the British army greatly depended on his fidelity and exertions 
for supplies. Subsequently he was serviceable in the wars with 
Haidar Ali and in the Palegar war, the name given to the opera- 
tions against the usurpers of the large zaminddri of Sivaganga 
in Madura District after the cession of the Karnatik. In 1803 he 
solicited as a reward for his services the favourable consideration of 
his claim to the fort and district of Kilanelli, situated in the southern 
part of Tanjore. This claim was founded on a grant by Pratap Singh, 
Raja of Tanjore, and on engagements afterwards entered into by 
Colonel Braithwaite, General Coote, and Lord Macartney. The 
Government of Madras granted the fort and district of Kilanelli ; and 
the cession was confirmed by the Court of Directors, with the con- 
dition that the revenue should not be alienated, and that it should 
revert to the British Government upon proof being given at any time 
that the inhabitants laboured under oppression. 

The present Raja, Ramachandra Tondaman Bahadur, has received 
a sajiad granting the right of adoption. He exercises independent 
jurisdiction, but is considered as an ally subject to the advice of the 
British Government. He maintains a military force of 126 infantry, 
21 cavalry, and 3260 militia, besides armed servants and watchmen. 
The succession follows the law of primogeniture. 

Plidukattai [Poodoocottah). — Chief town of Piidiikattai State, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 10° 23' n., long. 78° 51' 51" e. Population 
(1871) 13,978: (1881) 15,384, of whom 7274 are males and 8110 
females. Hindus number 14,089; Muhammadans, 914 ; Christians, 
381. An unusually clean, airy, and well-built town. 

Pukhra. — Town in Bara Banki District, Oudh; situated 5 miles 


east of the Giimti river, on the Rii Bareli and Haidargarh road. 
Population (1881) 2544, of whom 2470 were Hindus and 74 Muham- 
madans. Number of houses, 510. Fine Sivaite temple and handsome 
masonry bathing ^i^'-^Z/jT. Pukhra is the head-quarters of the estate of 
Pukhra Ansari, belonging to the Amethi Rajputs. 

Pulali. — Petty State in Jhalawar Division, Kathiawar, Bombay 
Presidency. — See Pal all 

Pulgaon. — Railway station in Wardha District, Central Provinces ; 
situated in lat. 20° 44' n., and long. 79° 21' e., near the river Wardha, 
which has a picturesque waterfall close by. Population (1881) 645. 
The site was previously unoccupied ; but when the spot was selected 
for the station, land was also set aside for a village. Two roads 
connect Pulgaon with the cotton marts of Deoli and Hinganghat, 
and with Arvi and Ashti. The latter is a good fair-weather road, 
all the streams being bridged or provided with causeways. The 
Hindus deem Pulgaon a holy place, and have built a temple in the 

Puliangudi. — Town in Sankaranainarkoil idliik, Tinnevelli District, 
Madras Presidency ; situated on the old Madura road, in lat. 9° 10' 40" 
N., and long. 77° 26' 15" e. Population (187 1) 6810, inhabiting 16 18 
houses; and (1881) 6401, inhabiting 1383 houses. Hindus number 
5602 ; Muhammadans, 714; and Christians, 85. Police station ; post- 

Pulicat (Fa/iydvef'kddu). — Town in Ponneri tdiitk, Chengalpat 
(Chingleput) District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 13° 25' 8" n., long. 
80° 21' 24" E. Population (1871) 4903, inhabiting 846 houses; 
and (1881) 4967, inhabiting 849 houses. Hindus number 3426; 
Muhammadans, 1306; and Christians, 235. The town lies at the 
southern extremity of an island which divides the sea from the large 
lagoon called the Pulicat Lake, which is about 37 miles in length by 
from 3 to II in breadth, 23 miles north of Madras city. This salt- 
water lake is under the influence of the tide, and must have been 
produced by an inroad of the sea during a storm, when it topped the 
low ridge of the coast-line. 

Pulicat was the site of the earliest settlement of the Dutch on 
the mainland of India. In 1609 they built a fort here, and called 
it Geldria; and in 1619 they allowed the English a share in the pepper 
trade with Java (Eastwick). Later, it was the chief Dutch Settlement 
on the Coromandel coast. It was taken by the British in 1781 ; re- 
stored in 1785 to Holland under the treaty of 1784; and surrendered 
by them in 1795. I^"^ 1818, Pulicat was handed over to the Dutch 
by the East India Company, agreeably to the Convention of the Allied 
Powers in 1814; in 1825, finally ceded to Great Britain under the 
treaty of March 1824. The backwater is connected with Madras by 


Cochrane's Canal. There used to be a considerable trade between 
Pulicat and the Straits Settlements, but of late years this has 
considerably declined. The old Dutch cemetery, which was rescued 
from decay by Sir Charles Trevelyan, contains many well-cut tomb- 
stones, some of them nearly 300 years old. Roman Catholics resort 
to Pulicat in great numbers on certain feast days. 

Plilikonda {PuUkoJidah, from Pallikondai, ' you lie down '). — - 
Village in Vellore tdhik, North Arcot District, Madras Presidency; 
situated in lat. 12° 54' 40" n., and long. 78° 59' e., on the road 
from Madras by Vellore to Bangalore ; distant from the former place 
97 miles, and from the latter 115 miles. Population (1881) 2405, 
inhabiting 357 houses. It lies at the base of a high hill near the right 
or southern bank of the Palar. The trade is chiefly carried on by 
Labbays (Lubbais). Gunny-bags are manufactured. The sacred name 
for the place is Adirangam. Annual fair ; post-office ; fine pagoda. 

Pulivendala (lit. Puli-ma?idahm--='i\\t abode of tigers). — Tdhik or 
Sub-division of Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, Madras Presidency. 
Area, 701 square miles. Population (1881) 95,617; namely, 49,006 
males and 46,611 females, dweUing in 2 towns and 103 villages, con- 
taining 19,787 houses. Hindus number 87,462 ; Muhammadans, 
8127; Christians, 27; and 'others,' i. The taluk is hilly; and the 
greater portion of the land is unirrigated. Throughout the western- 
most half spreads the rich loam known as cotton soil. Along the 
eastern limits of the tdhck, the waters of the Papaghni irrigate a 
larf^e area on both banks. Cotton and choiafn (Pennisetum 
typhoideum) divide the greater part of the land between them. 
Other cereals and pulses, with oil-seeds, indigo, are also grown. 
Before the subjugation by the English of the Ceded Districts in 
1800, Pulivendala taluk was given up to the rule of several small 
pdlegdrs, whose memories still linger round their now ruined forts 
dotted here and there over the country. These forts are, as a rule, 
a mud enclosure, about 100 yards square, surrounded by ditch and 
glacis. At each corner stands a round tower, and midway between 
each two corner towers a square bastion, loop-holed, as is the whole 
face of the wall, for musketry. In 1883 the tdluk contained 2 criminal 
courts; police circles {thdnds), 10; regular police, 79 men. Land 

revenue, £i^,ZS?>- 

Pulivendala. — Town in Cuddapah District, Madras, and head- 
quarters of Pulivendala tdluk. Population (1881) 1885, dvvelHng in 
397 houses. Government garden ; post-office. 

PuUampet. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, 
Madras Presidency. Area, about 979 square miles. Population (1881) 
134,366, namely, 68,162 males and 66,204 females, dwelling in 
I-20 villages, containing 29,667 houses. Hindus number 126,593; 



Muhammadans, 7696; and Christians, 77. Black regdr (cotton) and 
red soil predominate, the former of which is rich and fertile. To 
the east and west the tdhik is intersected by hill ranges. Seventy- 
seven square miles are reserved forest lands. The principal manu- 
factures are indigo and cotton of very fine texture, which is highly 
prized for turbans and ornamental cloths. In 1883 the taluk con- 
tained I civil and 2 criminal courts; police circles (thchids), 10; 
regular police, 82 men. Land revenue, ;£"2 1,371. 

Pullampet. — Town in Cuddapah District. Population (1881) 
231 1, dwelling in 503 houses. Fine mats of coloured grass are manu- 
factured, which form house mats, and are exceedingly ornamental. 
Indigo and cloth of fine texture are the other manufactures of the 
town. Post-office. 

Pulney. — Town and hills in Madura District, Madras Presidency.^ 
See Palni. 

Pulu {Poo-loo). — Tidal creek in Bassein District, Irawadi Division, 
Lower*Burma. It branches from the Myaung-mya river in about lat. 
16° 35' 30" N., and then runs south and west into the Ywe. Navigable 
at all times by river steamers plying between Rangoon and Bassein. 

Plina. — District and town in Bombay Presidency. — See Poona. 

Punadra. — Petty State in the Mahi Kantha Agency, Bombav 
Presidency; situated on the Watruk river. Villages, 11. Estimated 
area, 12 J square miles; under cultivation, 16,650 bighds. Population 
(1881) 3767. The revenue is returned (1882-83) at ;^i57o; and 
tribute of ^37, los. is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda. Products — 
bdjra, rice, and wheat. The Miah of Punadra, Abhi Singh, is a Muk- 
wana Koli, converted to Islam. The Miahs observe a sort of mixed 
Muhammadan and Hindu religion, giving their daughters in marriage 
to Muhammadans of rank, and marrying the daughters of Koli chiefs. 
On their death their bodies are buried, not burnt. There is i school 
with 24 pupils. Transit dues are levied in the State. 

Punakha. — The winter capital of Bhutan State, on the Bhagni 
river, lat. 27' 32' n., long. 89° 53' e. Punakha lies about 100 miles 
north-east of Darjiling. It has a scanty and poor population, 
but possesses some importance as the residence of the Bhutan 
Court during the winter months. It was selected for this purpose 
owing to its mild climate, and comparative accessibility from the Indian 

Plinamallu {Poonamallee, Pondamaldi). — Town and cantonment in 
Saidapet tdluk^ Chengalpat (Chingleput) District, Madras Presidency. 
Lat. 13° 2 40" N., long. 80° 8' 11" e. Lies 13 miles west of Madras 
city. A military cantonment, with a Magistrate and District 7nu?isif. 
Population (1881) of town 2849, dwelling in 390 houses, and of 
cantonment 4821, dwelling in 722 houses. Of the total, Hindus 



numbered 6162; Muhammadans, 814; and Christians, 694. The 
permanent European population of the place are chiefly pensioners. 
A convalescent depot for British troops from the whole Madras 
Presidency and Burma is located here, the climate being very salu- 
brious. The number of men is usually about 150. A fine hospital, 
with 90 beds, is built on the site of the old fort, the walls of which 
have been levelled. There is no garrison. The fort played a con- 
spicuous part in the wars of the Karnatik. Post-office and Government 

Punasa. — Town in the north of Nimar District, Central Provinces ; 
situated in lat. 22° 14' n., and long. 76° 26' e., -^t^ miles from Khandwa. 
Once a considerable place, held by Tuar chiefs. The fort, built in 
1730 by Ram Kushal Singh, afforded a refuge for European families 
during the Mutiny in 1857. The country round is mostly waste, 
having never recovered from the ravages of the Pindaris ; it has now 
been converted into a Government reserved forest. The large tank 
was repaired by Captain French in 1846. A market is held every 

Pundri. — Town and municipality in Kaithal tahsil^ Karnal District, 
Punjab. Lat. 29° 45' 30" n., long. 76° 36' 15" e., situated on the bank 
of an extensive tank, known as the Piindrak taldo^ which gives its name 
to the town, and which nearly half surrounds it with bathing places 
and flights of steps leading to the water. Population (1881) 4977, 
namely, Hindus, 3343; Muhammadans, 1630; Sikhs, 3; and Jain, i. 
Number of houses, 342. Municipal income (1883-84), ^196, or an 
average of 9|d. per head. The town is surrounded by a mud wall 
with four gates, and nearly all the streets are paved. Several large 
brick houses, and a good brick sardi or native inn. Little trade. 
School and police station. 

Pundur. — Tract of country in Keunthal State, Punjab, lying 
between 30° 58' and 31° 4' n. lat., and between 77° 35' and 77° 42' 
E. long. (Thornton). It consists of a mountain ridge, running north- 
east and south-west, with an estimated elevation of from 6000 to 7000 
feet above sea-level. It formerly belonged to Jubbal State, but after the 
expulsion of the Gurkhas it devolved upon the East India Company, 
who transferred it to Keunthal. Estimated population, 3000. 

Pungamir. — Zami?iddri estate in North Arcot District, Madras 
Presidency. Area, 523 square miles. Population (1881) 72,143, namely, 
36,377 males and 35,766 females, dwelling in i town and 68 villages, 
containing 15,271 houses. Hindus number 68,406; Muhammadans, 
3598; and Christians, 139. 

The estate lies above the ghats, in the north-west corner of the 
District. Mysore State bounds it on the west. Large game is 
abundant, and twenty-five years ago (i86o) elephants were found. An 


excellent breed of cattle is raised. Granite, lime, and iron-sand are 
plentiful. About 40,000 acres are under cultivation, 9000 acres 
being irrigated. Sugar-cane is largely cultivated. Exports — raw sugar, 
tamarinds, grain, and jungle produce. Imports — salt and fine cloths. 
The tciliik has no miles of road. Income (1880), ^9410; peshkash 
(permanent rent), ;£"6686. 

Punganiir. — Head-quarters of the Punganiir zaminddri in North 
Arcot District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 13° 21' 40" n., and 
long. 78° 36' -T^i E., on a plateau 2000 feet above the sea. Popula- 
tion (1881) 7672, dwelling in 1603 houses. Hindus number 6306; 
Muhammadans, 1305; and Christians, 61. Punganiir was one of the 
Cuddapah (Kadapa) Palayams, and possessed considerable importance 
at one time, the Palegar having 5000 men under him. In 1642 the 
country was taken by the Marathas, and in 17 13 it was occupied by 
the Cuddapah Nawab. In 1755 the Marathas, and in 1774 Haidar 
All, subdued the Palegar. After various vicissitudes, the family was 
restored by the British in 1799. One of the Palegars fell at the battle 
of Wandiwash. The town is prosperous, and contains 1603 good 
houses. The temperature is much lower than in other parts of the 
District. A large cattle fair is held in April. A pair of Mysore 
bullocks have recently fetched here so high a price as jQdo. The 
zam'mddr's palace has accommodation for European travellers. In the 
courtyard are stalls for a menagerie ; a museum ; and several life-sized 
models of natives of different castes in their customary dress or 
undress. A mile from the town are the ruins of a large Roman 
Catholic chapel, bearing date 1780. School ; post-office. 

Yym\^ {Panj-db, 'The Five Rivers ')•— Province of British India, 
under the administration of a Lieutenant-Governor; lying between 
27° 39' and 35° 2' N. lat, and between 69° 35' and 78' 35' e. long. 
Area under direct British administration, 106,632 square miles. 
Population, according to the Census of 1881, 18,850,437. The Native 
States in dependence upon the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab 
(exclusive of Kashmir, which has recently been separated from the 
Punjab, and placed under the direct superintendence of the Govern- 
ment of India) have an estimated area of 35,817 square miles, with a 
population in 1881 of 3,861,683 persons. The total area of the Punjab 
(British and Native) accordingly amounts to 142.449 square miles, and 
its population (1881) to 22,712,120. The entire Province, with its 
attached Feudatory States, comprises one-tenth of the total area, and 
one-eleventh of the total population of the Indian Empire. It numbers 
among its inhabitants one-fourth of the Muhammadan, one-twentieth 
of the Hindu, and eleven-twelfths of the Sikh subjects of the Queen. 
Together with Kashmir, which lies further north, it occupies the extreme 
north-western corner of the Empire, and comprises the whole of British 

244 PUNJAB, 

India north of Sind and Rajputana and west of the river Jumna. The 
Punjab is bounded on the north by Kashmir (Cashmere) and the Hill 
States of Swat and Boner; on the east by the river Jumna (Jamuna), 
the North-Western Provinces, and the Chinese Empire ; on the south 
by Sind, the river Sutlej (Satlaj), and Rajputana; and on the west by 
Afghanistan and Khelat (Baluchistan). The capital of the Punjab is 
Lahore, situated in about the centre of the Province, but the principal 
city in population and importance is Delhi, the ancient metropolis of 
the Mughal dynasty. 

The table on pp. 245 and 246 shows the Divisions and Districts of 
the Punjab, with the area and population of each in 1881, together 
with the Native States. 

Physical Aspects. — In its strict etymological sense, the Punjab, or 
region of the Five Rivers, comprises only the tract of country enclosed 
and watered by the confluent streams of the Sutlej (Satlaj), the Beas 
(Bias), the Ravi, the Chexab (Chinab), and the Jehlam (Jhelum). 
But modern territorial arrangements have included under the same 
designation three other well-demarcated tracts, namely — the Sind Sagar 
Doab, or wedge of land between the Punjab Proper and the Indus ; 
the Derajat, or narrow strip of country west of the Indus, and 
stretching up to the Sulaiman mountains ; and the cis-Sutlej Districts, 
or table-land of Sirhind, between the Punjab Proper and the Jumna 
(Jamuna), the greater part of which belongs historically and physi- 
cally to the North - Western Provinces, though now transferred for 
administrative purposes to the Lieutenant-Governor at Lahore. 

As stated above, the Punjab includes two classes of territory, namely, 
32 British Districts, and the States of 34 native chiefs, almost all 
of whom pay tribute in some form or other, and all of whom are 
subject, more or less, to control by the local government. Of the 
107,010 square miles included in British territory, 11,170 square 
miles are irrigated, 36,656 square miles are cultivated, 36,706 square 
miles more are classed as cultivable, and would repay the labour of 
the husbandman were means of irrigation available, while the remain- 
ing 33,648 square miles consist of inhospitable mountain -sides or 
uncultivable waste. 

The dominions of the 34 native chiefs vary in size and importance, 
from the principalities of Patiala and Bahawalpur, with areas of 5500 
and 17,300 square miles, and populations of 1,500,000 and 600,000 
respectively, and ruled over by chiefs subject only to the most general 
supervision, to the tiny State of Darkuti, with an area of 4 square miles 
and a total population of 590 souls, whose ruler is independent in htUe 
more than the name. They may be grouped under three main classes. 
The Hill States, lying among the Punjab Himalayas, and held by some 

\_Se7i tejice co?i fin tied on p. 247. 























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PUNJAB. 247 

Sentefice conttJiued from /. 244.] . , , r-i u 

of the most ancient Rajput families in all India, mclude Chamba, 
Mandi, Suket, and the twenty Simla States, of which last only 
four, namely Nahan, Bilaspur, Bashahr, and Nalagarh, exceed an area 
of 250 square miles, or a population of 17,500. Along the western 
half of the southern border, and separated from British territory by the 
Sutlej, lies the Muhammadan State of Bahawalpur, consistmg ot the 
left Sutlej valley and a broad strip of the Rajputana desert. Ihe 
remaining States, including the possessions of all the great bikti 
feudatories, lie wholly east of Lahore, and, with insignificant exceptions, 
occupy the centre of the eastern plains of the Province. 

Monufain Systems.-^h^ mountain regions of the Punjab naturally 
fall under four separate groups. To the north-east of the Province 
lies the Himalavan system of the Punjab Proper, with the fringing 
ran^e of the Siwdliks at its foot. In the south-eastern corner of the 
Punjab the Aravalli system sends out insignificant outliers which run 
across Gurgaon and Delhi Districts, and strike the Jumna at Delhi 
The lower portion of the western frontier is constituted by the great 
Sulaiman chain ; while the north-western corner of the Province lies 
among and within a tangled series of peaks and ranges, marking the 
point of junction of the Himalayas of Kashmir, the Safed Koh, and the 
Sulaimans, and is cut off by the Salt Range and its trans-Indus con- 
tinuation from the great plains which lie to the east and south. Ihe 
first and last of these four groups are separated by Kashmir territory, 
which, from the Himalayan State of Chamba on the east to the Jehlam 
on the west, stretches down to and includes the foot of the mountain 

ranches. , 

The Sulaimdns.-The Sulaiman mountains run almost due north 
and south along the western border of the Province for between 300 
and 400 miles. They consist of several parallel ranges of barren 
mountains, between which lie valleys that are fertile only by comparison 
The frontier of British India runs sometimes at the foot and sometimes 
along the crest of the easternmost of these ranges ; and the mountain, 
themselves, which are inhabited by independent or semi-independent 
tribes of Pathans and Baliichis, belong to the Punjab m litUe more 
than a cjeo2;raphical sense. ^ , ^ ^u^ 

T>^ Ar^vallis.-Th^ Aravallis, which run through Gurgaon and the 
south of Delhi District, consist of low ranges of 'f '8"'*^=^"' ^;; ^ 
covered with brushwood, and are interesting chiefly from a geological 
point of view, as, with the exception of the isolated peak of l^;"""^ J" 
Jhan.., they form the northernmost extremity of the peninsular rock 
system, so distinct from the later formations of the ""^'^^y^^- 

T/te Himalayan System.-1\.^ mountain system of the H.mdlajas, 
so far as it concerns the Punjab, consists of three great range. 

248 PUNJAB, 

running in a generally north-westerly direction from the head-waters of 
the Sutlej to the Indus, — the Western Himalayas or Zanskar or Bara 
Lacha range, the mid-Himalayas or Pir Panjal range, and the outer or 
sub-Himalayas. From these three great ranges spring numerous 
minor ranges as ribs from a backbone, the whole forming a confused 
system of mountain chains and valleys, the breadth of which is some 
90 miles at its eastern extremity, from Lahul to the Siwaliks of 
Hoshiarpur, and some 150 miles measured at its western extremity 
across Kashmir. 

The Western Himalayas. — The Western Himalaya or Zanskar or 
Bara Lacha range separates the valley of the Upper Indus which lies 
to its north from the mountain-basins of the five Punjab rivers. It 
runs from the sources of the Sutlej along the northern borders of 
Kanawar in Bashahr, Spiti, Lahul, Pangi (in Chamba) and the Kashmir 
valley, till pierced by the Indus at the base of the mighty Nanga 
Parbat. Thence it passes on to join the Pamir and Hindu Kiish near 
the sources of the Kuner and Gilghit rivers. It separates the Ar^^ans 
of India from the Bhotias of Tibet, and the cold, dry, treeless steppes 
of Central Asia from the luxuriant humidity of India. The average 
height is 19,000 feet, or greater than that of the Andes; the average 
height of the peaks being 20,770 feet, and that of the passes 15,700 
feet. The snow-line lies at 18,500 feet on the southern and at 19,000 
feet on the northern face. 

The Mid-Himalayas. — The mid-Himalaya or Pir Panjdl range divides 
the valleys of Spiti, Lahul, and Kashmir on the north from those of 
Kiilu, Plach, and Chamba on the south, and terminates on the Indus 
at the Hazara border in the celebrated peak of Mahaban, though the 
Swat range may perhaps be considered its trans-Indus continuation. 
Its general direction is north-west, and it is divided into three well- 
marked sections by the great rivers which pierce its chain. The 
easternmost or Bashahr range is an offshoot of the Western Himalayas, 
and extends for a distance of 60 miles from Jamnotri to the Sutlej 
below Ghatul. Beyond the Sutlej it is continued by the Lahul range, 
which runs for 160 miles to the great southward sweep of the Chenab 
in Kishtwar (Kashmir). Thence the Pir Panjal runs for about 180 
miles to the great southward sweep of the Jehlam at Muzaffarabad, and 
across Jehlam and Hazara Districts to the Indus at Darband. The 
average height of its peaks is 19,000, of its passes 15,520, and of the 
chain 17,000 feet in the Bashahr and Lahul sections. The Pir Panjal 
range is probably some 5000 feet lower. The snow-line is at 16,000 
feet on the northern, and 17,000 feet on the southern face. 

The Outer Himalayas. — The outer or sub-Himalayas stretch in a 
north-westerly direction, through Suket and Mandi and between Kangra 
and Chamba, for a distance of some 300 miles, and terminate on the 

PUNJAB. 249 

Indus at the Hazara border in the well-known peak of Gandgarh. 
Starting from the bend of the Beas (Bias) at Mandi, they are pierced 
by the Ravi, Chenab, Punch, and Jehlam rivers, which divide them 
into five distinct sections. The easternmost section is the precipitous 
range of the Dhaola Dhar or White Mountains, which, lying between 
the Beas and the Ravi, form the natural boundary between Kulu and 
Mandi and between Kangra and Chamba, and is the highest portion 
of the range, reaching an average of 15,000 feet. Its length is some 
80 miles, and it includes the hill stations of Dharmsala and Dalhousie. 
The second portion, about 55 miles in length, hes between the Ravi 
and Chenab, and shuts in Chamba and Badrawar (Kashmir) to the 
south. Its average height may be put at 12,000 feet. The central 
portion of the range is known as the Ratan Panjal ; it stretches from 
the Chenab to the southern bend of the Punch river, for a distance of 
about 80 miles, and ranges in height between 7700 and 11, coo feet. 
The fourth section, about 25 miles in length, runs from the Punch 
river to Dhangali, the ancient Ghakkar capital on the Jehlam. The 
westernmost division of the range runs for 70 miles between the Jehlam 
and the Indus, and attains a height of above 17,000 feet. The outer 
Himalayas have no perpetual snow. 

The Hills of Simla and Hazara.— A\\ those great Himalayan chains 
terminating on the Indus at or about the Hazara border are bound 
together by two considerable ranges which, springing from the western 
extremity of the Western Himalayas, run southwards down either side 
of the Kagan valley and Hazara District, the more eastern striking 
the Jehlam and following its course to merge with the Murree hills ; 
while the niore western, which separates the Himalayas from the 
Hindu Kiish, terminates on the Indus where it meets the Hazara 
border. At the opposite or eastern extremity of the system, the cis- 
Sutlej Himalayas, in which the sanitarium of Simla is situated, occupy 
a corresponding position, running in a generally south-westerly direction, 
and separating the head-waters of the Sutlej from those of the Jumna 
and Ganges. 

The Siwdliks.—i:\\Q Siwaliks are an insignificant range of low hills 
which, rising abruptly from the plains, skirt the foot of the Himalayas 
from the Ganges to the Beas. At the widest part, as they approach 
the Sutlej, they are above 10 miles broad. Between them and the 
Himalayas proper lie a series of fertile valleys known as dims ; and 
the hills themselves are clothed with forest timber of some value, save 
at their western extremity, where they degenerate into little more than 

The Salt Pange and the Peshawar Hills. — The connecting link 
between the Sulaimans on the west and the Himalayas on the north 
still remains to be described. The outer Himalayas, crossing the 

250 PUNJAB. 

Jehlam, run up the eastern boundary of Rawal Pindi District. 
There they and the mid-Himalayas meet on the banks of the Indus 
in a confused mass of mountains, among which lies Hazara District, 
and the Kagan valley stretches out, like a huge arm, to where the 
Indus pierces the Western Himalayan range at the foot of Nanga 
Parbat. The curved ranges which connect the extremities of the mid- 
Himalayas and of the Safed Koh enclose to the north the plain which 
constitutes Peshawar District; while the northern continuation of 
the Sulaimans runs up the western border of Bannu and Kohat to 
meet the Safed Koh, and throws out eastwards a series of parallel spurs 
which cover the whole of Kohat District. The circuit is completed 
by the Salt Range, which, starting from opposite the point where 
the mid-Himalayas abut upon the Jehlam, runs first along the right 
bank of the river, then westwards across Shahpur and Dera Ismail 
to the Indus, where it turns down the right bank of that river through 
Bannu District, and follows the boundary between Bannu and Dera 
Ismail till it joins the Sulaimans. Rising abruptly from the river 
and the great desert w^hich lies to the south of it as a steep rocky 
range of from 2000 to 5000 feet in height, the Salt Range of Jehlam 
and Shahpur falls away imperceptibly to the north into a great table- 
land enclosed by the range itself, the Hazara hills, and the Indus 
river, crossed in every direction by chains of low hills, and cut up by 
the streams which issue from them into innumerable ravines. It is this 
table-land which constitutes the Districts of Jehlam and Rawal Pindi. 

The River System. — The Himalayas, which stretch from Northern 
Punjab and Kashmir far away into Tibet, give birth to seven great 
rivers, which, after pursuing their courses lor, in some cases, many 
hundreds of miles among snow-clad mountain ranges, debouch on to 
the plain country, and traverse the Punjab in a southerly direc- 
tion on their way to the ocean. The hills once fairly left behind, 
their fall seldom exceeds 2 feet in the mile, and their course is in 
consequence exceedingly inconstant, varying, often considerably, from 
year to year. Thus in the process of time each stream has cut for 
itself a wide riverain lying well below the level of the surrounding 
plains, the banks of which mark on either side the extreme limits of 
the river's excursions. Within these low lands, over the whole of which 
the stream has at some time or other flowed, the river winds its way 
in a narrow and ever-shifting channel. In the winter the stream is 
comparatively small ; but as the mountain snows melt under the 
approach of the Indian summer, the waters rise and overflow the 
surrounding country, often to a distance of several miles on either 
bank. As the cold returns at the close of the rainy season, the waters 
recede, leaving \vide expanses of fertile loam or less fertile sand, moist 
for the hand of the cultivator. 

PUNJAB. 251 

The Jumna. — The Jumna and its tributary, the Tons, form the 
greater portion of the eastern boundary of the Province, along which 
they flow almost due north and south for about 220 miles. 

The Watershed. — A few miles west runs the watershed between the 
Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal, which forms the backbone of extra- 
peninsular India. West again of this line lies a peculiar area of closed 
drainage intermediate between the basins of the Jumna and Sutlej, 
into which the Markanda, Saraswati, Ghaggar, and other hill streams 
pour their waters ; while the last-named river affords the only outlet, 
and passing away westwards into Rajputana, itself gradually dwindles 
and finally disappears in the arid wastes of that tract. All to the 
west of this area, as well as the whole mountain region of the Punjab, 
belong to the Indus system. 

The iTidus. — The Indus itself enters the Province at Tarbela, on the 
Hazara-Peshawar border, cuts off the hill tract, presently to be described, 
of Peshawar and Kohat Districts from the Punjab Proper, pierces the 
Salt Range at Kalabagh, and runs almost due south along the whole 
western frontier of the Province at a distance of from 15 to 30 miles 
from, and parallel with, the Sulaimans. The only affluent of any 
importance that it receives within the Province on its right bank is the 
Kabul river, which, with its tributaries, the Swat and Bara, drains the 
Peshawar valley ; for the scanty rainfall of the Sulaimans is insufficient 
to feed anything more than hill torrents of intermittent flow. From 
the east, however, it receives the combined waters of the Jehlam, 
Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej, the five great rivers which give the 
Punjab (ypafij db, or 'five waters') its name, and which traverse its 
plains, lying in that order from west to east. 

The Sutlej.— "WiQ Sutlej, rising in Chinese Tartary, enters the 
Province in the State of Bashahr, and flowing through the territories 
of hill feudatories, debouches on the plains at Riipar in Ambala 
District. Thence it flows due west for 120 miles as far as Firoz- 
pur, where it receives the waters of the Beas, and thence south- 
west for about 270 miles, till, joined by the combined Ravi, 
Chenab, and Jehlam, it pours the united waters of the five rivers 
into the Indus opposite Mithankot, about 70 miles above the Sind 

The Chenab.— T\\Q Chenab takes at once its name and its origin 
from the twin streams of the Chandra and Bhaga, which drain the 
Himalayan valley of Lahul. Traversing Chamba and south-eastern 
Kashmir, with a generally western course, it re-enters the Punjab at the 
middle point of its northern border, just below the town of Jamu. 
Thence it runs, first to the south-west, but gradually changing to the 
south, for some 300 miles to join the Sutlej about 40 miles above the 
confluence of the later with the Indus, receiving the waters of the 

252 PUNJAB. 

Jehlam at about the midway point of its course in the plains, and those 
of the Ravi about 50 miles lower down. 

The Beas and Ravi. — Between the Sutlej and Chenab flow the smaller 
streams of the Beas and the Ravi. The former rises in the Kiilu 
Himalayas, runs westwards through Mandi and Kangra, enters the 
plains at the north-western extremity of Hoshiarpur District, and joins 
the Sutlej after a south-western course of about 70 miles. The latter 
rises in Chamba, enters the plains about 15 miles west of the Beas, and 
flows 260 miles to the south-west, to join the Chenab about 90 miles 
above the confluence of that river with the Sutlej. 

The Jehlam. — Finally, the Jehlam, rising in Kashmir, flows due south 
along the boundary between that State and Hazara District for a 
distance of 100 miles, and enters the plains at the town of Jehlam, 
whence it flows south-west for 100 miles, as far as Shahpur, and then 
70 miles farther in a southerly direction till it joins the Chenab 150 
miles above its confluence with the Sutlej. 

The Pimjab Plains. — South of the great Himalayas stretch the great 
plains which constitute by far the larger portion of the Province. If we 
except the Himalayan and Salt Range tracts, the Punjab presents, from 
the Jumna in the east to the Sulaimans in the west, one vast level, 
unbroken save by the wide eroded channels within which the great 
rivers ever shift their beds, by the insignificant spurs of the Aravalli 
mountain system in the south-eastern corner of the Province, and by 
the low hills of Chiniot and Karana in Jhang. From the watershed of 
the Jumna the slope is uniformly westwards towards the Indus basin, 
broken locally by the successive steps which part the catchment-basins 
of the Punjab rivers, and which, often almost imperceptible to the eye, 
always lie close to the right bank of the channel. From the foot of the 
hills the plain country slopes southwards till it approaches the southern 
border of the Province, when it begins to rise again towards the 
peninsular area. The lowest contour runs from Delhi west by north, 
a little south of Rohtak and Hissar, and bifurcates between Hissar and 
Sirsa, the northern branch going north-north-west along the Himalayan 
spill to the south of Lahore, while the southern branch curves to the 
south-west along the Aravalli spill to the west of Bikaner. The 
combined result of these two slopes is a fall in a south-westerly direction, 
at right angles to the mountain ranges and parallel with the general 
course of the rivers ; but this fall is exceedingly gentle, seldom exceeding 
two or three feet in the mile. 

The whole of these vast plains are of alluvial formation. Stones are 
unknown, save at the immediate foot of the hills ; micaceous river-sand 
is to be found everywhere at varying depths ; and the only mineral is 
nodular accretions of limestone (kankar) which are produced in situ. 
The soil is a singularly uniform loam ; true clay is almost unknown ; 

PUNJAB. 253 

and the quality is determined chiefly by the greater or smaller propor- 
tion of sand present. In the local hollows and drainage lines the 
constant deposit of argillaceous particles has produced a stiff tenacious 
soil, singularly adapted to rice cultivation ; while in the beds of the 
great rivers, and on the wind- fretted watersheds, pure sand is commonly 
found. The great thai which lies between the Jehlam-Chenab and the 
Indus, bordered on the south by the Ra'Jputana desert, and on 
either side by the two large rivers, consists of a series of rolling sand- 
hills formed by the wind, which run parallel to the great breakwater of 
the Salt Range, and are separated by valleys in which the original 
surface is exposed. In parts, and especially where local conditions 
raise the level of the water, the salts natural to the soil have been 
concentrated on the surface by continuous evaporation, and have covered 
the ground, often for miles together, with a saline efflorescence known 
as reh^ which is fatal to vegetable life. But where neither reh nor sand 
is present, the soil is uniformly fertile, if only the rainfall be sufficient, 
or means of irrigation be available. Throughout the greater part of the 
western plains of the Punjab, however, neither of these conditions is 
satisfied, and wide steppes of intrinsically fertile soil, locally known as 
A/r, are useful only as grazing grounds for herds of camels and cattle. 
The depth of water beneath the surface varies greatly. Throughout the 
broad riverains and immediately below the hills it ranges between 10 
and 30 feet ; but the depth increases with the distance from the rivers 
and the hills, and in many parts of the Province is as much as 150 to 
200 feet, while the water, when reached, is often so brackish as to 
be harmful to both animal and vegetable life. 

Physically, the eastern plains form an arable tract of moderate rainfall 
and almost without rivers, save along their northern and eastern edges ; 
while the western plains consist of arid pastures with scanty rainfall, 
traversed by five great rivers, of which the broad valleys alone are 
cultivable. Ethnographically, the distinction between the people of 
the two tracts is in a large measure that between the Hindu inhabitants 
of India and the Musalman peoples of the trans-Sulaiman country. 
But the difference is not merely, or even chiefly, one of religion. The 
tribal organization, the structure of society, the customs of daily life, 
and even the tenures of land, present a very marked contrast in the two 
tracts ; and perhaps the distinctions may be best summed up by saying 
that, to the east the caste, and to the west the tribe, is the social unit. 
Within the hills and in the submontane zone which skirts them, the 
same distinction is to be found. But the line which separates the 
eastern from the western type, lies much farther to the west than in the 
plains, and may be said roughly to pass through the point where the 
Salt Range leaves the Himalayas. 

The Himdlayaji Tract. — Within the great network of mountain 

254 PUNJAB. 

ranges which fringe the central system of the Himalayas are situated 
the States of Chamba, Mandi, and Suket, together with Nahan, Bashahr, 
and the eighteen smaller States which are under the charge of the 
Superintendent of Hill States at Simla, the hill station of Simla, and the 
great Kangra District, the latter including the Kiilu valley, which 
stretches up to the mid-Himalayas, and the cantons of Lahul and Spiti, 
which, situated beyond the mid-Himalayas, belong geographically to 
Ladakh and Tibet, rather than to India. This mountainous tract 
includes an area of about 19,840 square miles, much of which is wholly 
uninhabited, and a scanty population of about 1,539,000, living 
scattered about the remaining area in tiny hamlets perched on the hill- 
sides or nestling in the valleys, each surrounded by its small patches of 
terraced cultivation, irrigated from the streams which run down every 
gully, or fertilized by the abundant rainfall of the hills. 

The people chiefly consist of hill Rajputs, including Thakars, Rathis, 
and Rawats, and of Kanets, Ghiraths, Brahmans, and the Dagis or 
menials of the hills. But it is probable that only the very highest 
classes among the Brahmans and Rajputs have preserved the purity of 
their blood. It is certain that the Aryan and aboriginal stocks have 
mingled with unusual freedom ; and all between the very highest and 
the very lowest form a practically continuous series, within which 
it is difficult to draw any definite lines of demarcation. The hill people 
are, whether by origin or by long isolation from their neighbours of the 
plains, very distinct from the latter in most respects ; and they speak 
dialects peculiar to the hills, though belonging to the Hindi group, 
except in the trans-Himalayan cantons where Tibetan is spoken. They 
are almost exclusively Hindus, but curiously strict as regards some, and 
lax as regards others, of the ordinances of their religion. The nature 
of the country prevents the growth of large towns ; trade is confined to 
the litde that crosses the high passes leading into Tibet ; and the 
people are almost wholly rural, supplementing the yield of their fields 
by the produce of numerous flocks of sheep and goats, and by rude 
home manufactures with which they occupy themselves during the 
long winter evenings. They keep very much to themselves, m.igration 
being almost confined to the neighbouring mountains and low hills. 

The Submontane Tract. — Skirting the base of the hills, and including 
the low outlying range of the Siwaliks, runs the narrow submontane 
zone, with an average breadth of 25 to 30 miles measured from the 
foot of the Himalayas proper. This tract, secure in an ample rainfall 
and traversed by streams from the neighbouring hills, has an area 
of about 6680 square miles, comprises some of the most fertile and 
thickly-peopled portions of the Province, and is inhabited by a popula- 
tion of about 2,998,000, who occupy an intermediate position in 
regard of race, religion, and language between the peoples of the hills 

PUNJAB. 255 

and of the plains. iMuhammadanism being less prevalent, Hindi more 
generally spoken, and Rajputs and hill menials more numerous than 
among the latter. The Gujars form a special feature of this zone. 
The tract has only one town, Sialkot, of more than 22,000 inhabit- 
ants ; its trade and manufactures are insignificant, and its population 
is almost entirely agricultural, and in the low hills pastoral. 

The Eastern Plains. — Turning to the plain portions of the Punjab, 
we find that east of Lahore the rainfall is everywhere so far sufficient 
that cultivation is possible without irrigation in fairly favourable 
seasons. But over the greater portion of this area, the margin is so 
slight that, save where the crops are protected by artificial irrigation, 
any material reduction in the supply entails distress, if not actual 
famine. Thus, while the eastern plains, comprising only a quarter of 
the area of the Province, include half its cultivation, nearly half its 
population, and almost all its most fertile portions, they also include 
all those parts which, by very virtue of the possibility of unirrigated 
cultivation, are peculiarly liable to disastrous failure of crops. 

The eastern plains may be roughly divided into four separate 
regions. A broad strip parallel to the submontane zone partakes in a 
lower degree of its ample rainfall. It is traversed by the Upper Sudej, 
the Beas, the Ravi, the Bari Doab Canal, and many smaller streams, 
which bring down with them and deposit fertilizing loam from the lower 
hills; irrigation from wells is everywhere easy; and the tract is but 
little inferior in fertility, security of produce, and populousness to 
the submontane zone itself. Its width varies from 20 to 30 miles ; its 
area is some 8600 square miles; and its population about 4,035,000. 

The next most fertile strip is that running along the eastern border 
of the Province, parallel to the Jumna riven It enjoys a fair average 
rainfall; it includes the low riverain tract along the Jumna itself, 
where well-irrigation is easy ; the Saraswati and its tributaries inundate 
a considerable area, and much of it is watered by the Agra and 
Western Jumna Canals, so that it is for the most part well protected 
against famine. It has an average breadth of about 35 or 40 miles ; 
its area is about 4870 square miles ; and its population about 

A large part of the southern border of the eastern plains skirts the 
great Rajputana desert. The soil here is often inferior; the rainfall is 
always scanty and precarious ; while, except in the south-eastern corner, 
where alone can wells be profitably worked, irrigation is almost unknown, 
save where the Western Jumna Canal enters Hissdr, and the Sutlej 
borders Sirsa District. Its width is from 40 to 50 miles, its area about 
11,570 square miles, and its population about 1,665,000. This and 
the central portion, next to be described, together constitute the great 
area of closed drainage already mentioned, and are the parts of the 

256 PUNJAB. 

Punjab where famine is most to be dreaded. The Sirhind Canal, 
the main line of which was opened in 1882, will, however, protect a 
large part of the central, and some portion of the southern tract. 

The remaining or central portion of the eastern plains includes the 
larger part of the Sikh States. Its area is about 9980 square miles, and 
its population about 2,810,000. It occupies an intermediate position 
in respect of fertility between the two preceding tracts, the rainfall 
generally being highest and the soil best to the east, west, and north, in 
the direction of the Jumna, the Sutlej, and the hills, and lowest and 
worst in the centre and south ; while to the north-east the Ghaggar 
system of hill streams inundates a certain area, and well -irrigation is 
practised along the Sutlej and the northern border. 

The eastern plains include all the most fertile, wealthy, and 
populous portions of the Province, and may be called the granary 
of the Punjab. Within them lie the three great cities of Delhi, 
Amritsar, and Lahore, besides a very large proportion of the larger 
towns ; and the population is, by comparison w^ith that of the western 
punjab, largely urban. Trade and manufactures flourish, while, with 
the exception of the south-westward portions, where flocks and herds 
pasture in extensive jungles, the greater part of the cultivable area is 
under the plough. 

The Western Plains. — The great plains lying to the west of the 
Lahore meridian present a striking contrast with those to the east of 
that line. They form the common terminus of the two Indian mon- 
soons, which have exhausted themselves of their vapour before they 
reach their goal ; and the rainfall, heaviest in the north and east, 
and decreasing towards the west and south, is everywhere so scanty 
that cultivation without irrigation is absolutely impossible. But in 
this very circumstance they find their security against famine or 
distress from drought, for their cultivation is almost independent 
of rain, a failure of which means nothing worse than a scarcity of 
grass, in itself a sufficiently serious calamity. Rain is, of course, 
needed here as elsewhere ; but its absence means only a diminished 
yield, and not, as in the eastern plains, no yield at all ; and so little 
is sufficient if the fall comes at the right time, and absolute drought 
occurs so seldom, that the crops may be said never to fail from this 
cause. Indeed, more danger is to be anticipated from excessive flood 
than from deficient rainfall. The tract is traversed throughout its 
length by five great rivers, the Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab, Jehlam, and 
Indus ; and along either side of each of these runs, at a distance of a 
few miles, a more or less distinctly marked bank w^hich defines the 
excursions of the river within recent times as it has shifted from side 
to side in its course. These banks include between them strips of 
low-lying land which are periodically inundated by the rising floods 

PUNJAB. 257 

as the winter snows of the Himalayas melt under the summer sun 
or in which the nearness of subsoil water makes well-irrigation easy. 
All outside these narrow boundaries is a high arid plain. Beyond 
the Indus, and between the Sutlej and the Jehlam and its continua- 
tion in the Chenab, it consists of soil which, wherever water is avail- 
able, is sufficiently fertile, save where, north of the Sutlej, saline 
efflorescence clothes the surface for miles together like a recent fall 
of snow. But between the Indus and the Jehlam-Chenab, and south 
of the Sutlej, it is covered by great i)arallel lines of rolling sand, 
separated by narrow hollows, in which the original soil is exposed. 

Numerous streams, for the most part of intermittent flow, which run 
down from the Sulaiman mountains to join the Indus, and innumerable 
small inundation canals carried out from the Sutlej, the Lower Chenab, 
the Upper Jehlam, and the Lower Indus, across the zone of well-irriga- 
tion into the edges of the central steppes, render cultivation possible 
along their courses; while wells sunk in the long hollows of the thai or 
sandy desert, and the drainage of the bdr^ or stiff loam uplands, collected 
in local depressions, perform a similar office. But though some of the 
finest wheat in the world is grown on land irrigated from the wells of 
the western thal^ the proportion of the area thus brought under the 
plough is insignificant. The remainder of the tract is covered by low, 
stunted bush and salsolaceous plants, and with short grass in good 
seasons. Over this range great herds of camels, which thrive on the 
saline herbage, and of cattle, sheep, and goats. They are tended by a 
nomad population which moves with its flocks from place to place as 
the grass is consumed and the scanty supply of water afforded by the 
local hollows exhausted, or in search of that change of diet which 
camels love and the varying local floras afford. The area of the tract is 
about 60,870 square miles, or more than two-fifths of that of the whole 
Province; while its population, numbering about 4,885,000, includes 
little more than one-fifth of the people of the Punjab, and it comprises 
not one-quarter of the total cultivated area. Miiltan is the only town 
of more than 23,000 inhabitants; and the population is very markedly 
rural. There is no manufacture of importance, and the great traffic 
between India and the countries to the west only passes through the 
tract on its way to the commercial centres of Hindustan. Pastoral 
pursuits occupy a more important position than in the rest of the 

Natural Divisiojis of the Western Plains. — It is the fashion to 
describe the Punjab Proper as marked off by its rivers into six great 
dodbs^ which constitute the natural divisions of the Province. This 
description is true in a sense, but the sense in which it is true possesses 
but little significance, and its chief merit seems to be that it can easily be 
verified by reference to a map. To the east of the Lahore meridian such 


258 PUNJAB. 

rivers as there are lie close together within the submontane tract, the whole 
of the country between and the area of closed drainage beyond them is 
comparatively populous, and there are no natural boundaries of any 
great importance. But west of that meridian, or throughout the greater 
portion of the Punjab Proper, the real obstacles to intercommunication, 
the real barriers which separate the peoples one from another are, not the 
rivers, easily crossed at any time and often fordable in the cold weather, 
but the great arid steppes which lie between those rivers. The advance 
of the agricultural tribes has followed almost invariably the courses of 
the great rivers, the new-comers having crept along both banks of the 
streams and driven the nomads from either side into the intermediate 
dodbs, where they have occupied the portions nearest the river lands 
from which they had been ejected, leaving the median area of greatest 
aridity as an indefinite but very effectual line of separation. 

The Salt Range Tract. — There still remains to be described the 
north-western corner of the Punjab, situated in the angle where the 
Safed Koh from the west and the Sulaimans from the south meet the 
Himalayas from the east, and separated from the rest of the Province 
by the Salt Range and the Upper Jehlam. It includes the Peshawar 
Division and the Districts of Rawal Pindi, Jehlam, and Pannu. It 
presents in almost every respect the strongest possible contrast with the 
Punjab Proper, and, indeed, as already remarked, can hardly be said to 
belong to India, save by mere geographical position. 

The physical configuration of the Salt Range is so broken and con- 
fused, that it is impossible without going into great detail to separate it 
into parts, each of which shall be even approximately homogeneous. 
The mountainous tracts of Hazara, and the Murree and Kahiita 
tahsils of Rawal Pindi District, with their ample rainfall, and the 
less favoured District of Kohat, cover an area of 6520 square miles, 
and contain a population of about 715,000. 

The remainder of this tract has an area of about 14,500 square 
miles, and a population of about 2,209,000, Except immediately 
imder the hills, the rainfall, while quite sufficient in ordinary years, 
leaves little margin as protection against distress in unfavourable 
seasons ; while, save in Peshawar and the riverain portions of Bannu, 
irrigation is almost unknown. 

With the exception of Peshawar and Rawal Pindi, the Salt Range 
includes no town of more than 20,000 inhabitants. But the whole 
trade with Central Asia and Kabul, except the traffic of Dera Ismail 
Khan, passes through Peshawar ; and the Salt Range supplies almost 
the whole of the salt used in the Punjab. The silk and cotton fabrics 
of Peshawar are the only manufactures of importance ; and the mass of 
the population follows agricultural, and in the mountain ranges pastoral, 


Flora and Fauna. — Throughout the Punjab, except upon the hills, 
wood is scarce. The uplands arc generally covered with grass, shrubs, 
or low junL'le of mimosa. Clumps of trees, however, especially palms, 
pipals, and banyans, cluster around the village sites ; the mango grows in 
the south-east Punjab ; and in the Derajat large areas are covered with 
date trees. Government has done much to encourage arboriculture, both 
by forest conservation and by planting groves round cantonments and 
public buildings, or along roads and canals. 

The fauna of the Province includes tis^ers, leopards, hy?enas, lynxes, 
wolves, bears, jackals, and foxes; fiilgdis, antelopes, and deer; wild 
boar, porcupines, monkeys, and bats; parrots, jungle-fowl, pheasants, 
])artridges, quails, pelicans, eagles, vultures, and many other birds ; 
crocodiles, cobras, and many poisonous snakes. Camels thrive on 
the hot southern plains ; herds of buffaloes revel in the muddy pools 
and water-side meadows ; and excellent horses are bred in the north- 
western pasture lands, for the use of the chiefs and gentlemen, who 
pride themselves upon their equestrian habits. The Hissar breed of 
cattle and the sheep of the Salt Range are also famous. 

History. — No part of India possesses greater or more varied historical 
interest than the Punjab. The earliest Aryan settlers entered the 
Peninsula by this Province. Its eastern plains include the Brdhina- 
shidesa. or Land of Divine Sages — the very cradle of Hinduism. The 
story of the Mahabhdrata centres around Thaneswar in Ambala 
District, and the surrounding country known as the Kurukshetra. The 
city of Indraprastha, on the site of the modern Delhi, was founded by 
the five Pandavas, Yudisthira and his brethren, in an unknown period, 
conjectured to be as remote as the 15th century B.C. Arriving from 
the yet more ancient capital of Hastinapur on the Ganges, the fair- 
skinned colonists expelled the dark Naga aborigines, cleared the land 
of forest, and founded a great dynasty, whose conflict with their kins- 
men, the Kauravas, forms the main subject of the Hindu Iliad. The 
Salt Range and other portions of the north-western hills are rich in 
legends of the mythical Pandava age. The obscure chronology of the 
Purdnas alone sheds a glimmering ray of light upon the intervening 
period, until the time of Alexander's invasion in 327 B.C. By that date 
the Aryan race seems to have spread its ascendancy over Northern 
India, either subjugating or absorbing the aboriginal tribes. The 
Brahmans already appear as the highest caste, and their religion as the 
national creed of the people. 

The Macedonian conqueror entered India from Bactria, crossed the 
Indus near Taxila, identified by General Cunningham with the ruins 
of Shah-dheri, in Rawal Pindi District, and, after receiving the 
adhesion of Mophis or Taxiles, king of that city, proceeded with little 
resistance to the banks of the Hydaspes or Jehlam (Jhelum). Effecting 

26o PUNJAB. m 

the passage of the river at Jalalpur, in Jehlam District, he encoun- 
tered the army of Porus (Purusha) at Mono, in Gujrat, and completely 
defeated the Indian monarch, with a loss of 12, coo slain. Porus him- 
self was taken prisoner, but restored by Alexander to his entire 
kingdom. The conqueror halted for a month in the neighbourhood 
of the Hydaspes, and founded two cities, Nikaia and Bukephala ; after 
which he overran the whole Punjab, as far as the Hyphasis or Sutlej, 
on its south-western border. East of that river, in the now barren 
cis-Sutlej tract, lay a powerful and fertile kingdom, which Alexander 
was most eager to attack; but the refusal of his troops to proceed 
any farther from home compelled him to fall back once more upon 
the Hydaspes. Here he embarked on board a fleet wnth which he 
intended to sail down the Indus; and he met with no opposition, 
except at the hands of the Mallae, who occupied the modern District of 
MuLTAN. At the siege of their capital, which probably stood upon the 
same site as the modern city, Alexander received a severe wound, in 
revenge for which he put every person within the walls to the sword. 
After navigating the great river to its mouth, he despatched Nearchus 
to explore the Persian Gulf, while he himself returned by the deserts of 
Baluchistan to Susa. 

The succeeding Indo- Bactrian dynasty, founded by Alexander's 

military successors, spread its sway over a considerable portion of the 

Punjab, and coins or other remams of Hellenic origin occur among 

almost all the ruined cities throughout the Province. Shortly after 

the retirement of Alexander, however, Chandragupta, King of Magadha, 

added the whole Punjab to his dominions (303 B.C.). A century later, 

the tide of Greek conquest again set eastward, and a Bactrian kingdom 

once more spread over North-Western India. Between 264-223 B.C., 

the empire of Asoka, the great Buddhist ruler of Upper India, and 

grandson of Chandragupta, extended over the country of the Five 

Rivers ; and his rock edicts are found as far north as the Yusafzai valley 

in Peshawar. Under this monarch. Buddhism appears to have been 

the dominant religion throughout the whole Punjab, where it still 

remained, though in a somewhat decadent condition, at the period of 

Hiuen Tsiang's pilgrimage in the 7th century a.d. No record exists 

of the restoration of the earlier Hindu faith ; the ruins of the Buddhist 

temples and monasteries are often rebuilt into Brahman shrines 

and Muhammadan mosques. But the undisturbed ascendancy of 

Brahmanism, between the downfall of Buddhism and the advent of 

Islam, was of short duration in the Punjab. 

As early as the 7th century, Musalman invaders from the west are 
said to have begun to devastate the Punjab. In 68 2 a.d., according 
to Firishta, bands from Kerman, who had even then embraced the 
faith of Islam, wrested certain possessions from the Hindu princes 

PUNJAB. 261 

of Lahore. It was not till 975, however, that Sabuktigin, governor of 
Khorasan, and father of the great Mahmiid, advanced beyond the 
Indus, to plant the Muhammadan power firmly in the heart of the 
Punjab. Jaipal, Raja of Lahore, whose dominions extended from 
Kashmir (Cashmere) to Miiltan, for a while successfully opposed the 
invader. But the Raja unfortunately ventured to imprison the ambas- 
sadors whom Sabuktigin, now Sultan of Ghazni, had sent to Lahore to 
receive a promised ransom. On hearing of this insult, the Ghaznevide 
monarch, says Firishta, * like a foaming torrent hastened towards 
Hindustan,' defeated the perfidious Raja, and compelled him to retreat 
to his capital, where the vanquished prince burned himself to death in 

His successor, Anangpal, formed a strong confederacy against the 
Musalman invaders, whom he succeeded during his lifetime in holding 
at bay. In 1022, however, during the reign of a second Jaipal, 
Mahmiid of Ghazni, son of Sabuktigin, marched suddenly down from 
Kashmir, seized Lahore without opposition, and drove the Hindu 
prince to take refuge in Ajmere. Under Modud, 1045 a.d., the 
Hindus laid siege to Lahore, the Musalman capital, but after six- 
months of vain attempts, retired without success. 'Thus,' says Al 
Biriini, ' the sovereignty of India became extinct, and no descendant 
remained to light a fire upon the hearth.' 

Under the early Ghaznevide princes, the Punjab was governed by a 
viceroy at Lahore ; but Masaiid iii., having lost most of his dominions 
in Iran and Turan to the Seljak Tiirks, transferred his capital to the 
banks of the Ravi early in the T2th century. From Lahore, the seat 
of empire was removed to Delhi by Muhammad Ghori, founder of the 
second Muhammadan dynasty, circ. 1193. Throughout the period of 
Pathan rule in Upper India the Punjab Proper was governed by 
imperial deputies, though the capital of the Musalman power lay always 
either at Agra, in the North-Western Provinces, or at Delhi, within the 
limits of the modern Province. Lahore itself formed the focus of the 
Tartar as opposed to the Afghan party, and the country as a whole was 
overrun both by the hordes of Chengiz Khan {circ, 1245) and of Timiir 
(1398). The other principal historical events of this epoch comprise 
the rise of the Ghakkar power in Rawal Pindi, and the gradual coloniza- 
tion of the tract between the Sulaiman mountains and the Indus by 
tribes of Baluchi or Afghan descent. 

In 1524, the Mughal prince Babar invaded India, on the invitation 
of Daulat Khan Lodi, governor of Lahore, and succeeded in conquer- 
ing the whole Punjab, as far as Sirhind. Two years later, he again 
swept down from Kabul upon Hindustan, defeated the Afghan army in 
a decisive battle at Panipat, entered Delhi as a conqueror, and founded 
the dynasty known to Europeans as that of the 'Great Mughal.' 

262 PUNJAB, 

Under that magnificent line, the chief seats of the imperial family were 
at Lahore, Delhi, and Agra ; and the Punjab formed the stronghold of 
the Mughal party against the reactionary Pathan house of Sher Shah. 
During the most flourishing age of the Mughals, however, a power 
was slowly and unobtrusively arising in the Punjab, which was destined 
in the end to supplant the imperial sway, and to raise up a great 
independent monarchy in the valley of the Five Rivers. 

This power was the Sikhs, originally a mere religious sect, founded 
by Baba Nanak, who was born near Lahore in the latter half of the 
15th century, and who died at Dera Nanak, on the Ravi, in 1539. A 
full account of the sect will be found in Prinsep's History of the Punjab 
(2 vols., 1846), and Cunningham's History of the Sikhs (2nd ed., 1853), 
to which w^orks the reader is referred for a complete or detailed narra- 
tive. Baba Nanak was a disciple of Kabir, and preached as a new 
religion a pure form of monotheism, eagerly accepted by the peasantry 
cf his neighbourhood. Tie maintained that devotion was du3 to God, 
but that forms were immaterial, and that Hindu and Muhammadan 
worships were the same in the sight of the Deity. His tenets were 
handed down by a succession of Gurus or spiritual leaders, under whom 
the new doctrine made steady but peaceful progress. Ram Das, the 
fourth Guru, obtained from the Emperor Akbar a grant of land on the 
spot now occupied by the city of Amritsar (Umritsur), the metropolis 
of the Sikh fa th. Here he dug a holy tank, and commenced the 
erection of a temple in its midst. His son and successor, Arjun Mall, 
comoleted the temple, and lived in great wealth and magnificence, 
besides widely increasing the numbers of his sect, and thus exciting the 
jealousy of the Mughal Government. Becoming involved in a quarrel 
with the Imperial Governor of Lahore, Arjun was imprisoned in that 
city, where he died, his followers asserting that he had been cruelly put 
to death. 

'This act of tyranny,' writes Elphinstone, 'changed the Sikhs from 
inoffensive quietists into fanatical warriors. They took up arms under 
Har Govind, the son of their martyred pontiff, who inspired them with 
his own spirit of revenge and of hatred to their oppressors. Being now 
open enemies of the Government, the Sikhs were expelled from the 
neighbourhood of Lahore, which had hitlierto been their seat, and were 
constrained to take refuge in the northern mountains. Notwithstanding 
dissensions which broke out among themselves, they continued their 
animosity to the Musalmans, and confirmed their martial habits until 
the accession, in 1675, ^^ Guru Govind, the grandson of Har Govind, 
and the tenth spiritual chief from Nanak. This leader first conceived 
the idea of forming the Sikhs into a religious and military common- 
wealth, and executed his design with the systematic spirit of a 
Grecian lawgiver.' 

PUNJAB. 263 

But their numbers were inadequate to accomplish their plans of resist- 
ance and revenge. After a long struggle, Guru Govind saw his strong- 
holds taken, his mother and his children massacred, and his followers 
sUin, mutilated, or dispersed. He was himself murdered in 1708 by a 
pr^•ate enemy at Nandair in the Deccan. The severities of the Musal- 
mais only exalted the fanaticism of the Sikhs, and inspired a spirit of 
vengeance, which soon broke out into fury. Under Guru Govmd's 
priiripal disciple, Banda, who had been bred a religious ascetic, and 
who combined a most sanguinary disposition with bold and darmg 
counsels, they broke from their retreat, and overran the east of the 
Punab, committing unheard of cruelties wherever they directed their 
steps. The mosques were destroyed and the mullds killed ; but the 
rage of the Sikhs was not restrained by any considerations of religion, 
or ty any mercy for age or sex. Whole towns were massacred with 
wan-on barbarity, and even the bodies of the dead were dug up and 
thrown out to the birds and beasts of prey. The principal scene of 
these atrocities was Sirhind, which the Sikhs occupied, after defeating 
the Governor in a pitched battle ; but the same horrors marked their 
route through the country eastward of the Sutlej and Jumna, mto 
which they penetrated as far as Saharanpur. They at length received a 
check from the local authorities, and retired to the country on the 
upper course of the Sutlej, between Ludhiana and the mountams. 
This seems at that time to have been their principal seat ; and it was 
well suited to their condition, as they had a near and easy retreat 
from it when forced to leave the open country. Their retirement on 
the present occasion was of no long continuance ; and on their next 
incursions they ravaged the country as far as the neighbourhood of 
Lahore on the one side, and of Delhi itself on the other. 

The Emperor himself, Bahadur Shah, was compelled to return from 
the Deccan in order to proceed against the Sikhs in person. He 
shut them up in their hill fort at Daber, which he captured after a 
desperate siege ; the leader Banda and a few of his principal followers 
succeeding by a desperate sally in effecting their escape to the moun- 
tains. The death of Bahadur Shah in 17 12 probably prevented the 
extermination of the sect. During the dissensions and confusion which 
followed that event, the Sikhs were allowed to recruit their strength, and 
they again issued from their mountain fastnesses and ravaged the 
country. In 17 16, however, Abdul Samad Khan, Governor of Kashmir, 
was despatched against them at the head of a large army by the Emperor 
Farukh Siyyar. He completely defeated the Sikhs in several actions, 
took Banda prisoner, and sent him to Delhi, where he was barbarously 
put to death along with several other of the Sikh chieftains. An active 
persecution ensued, and for some time afterwards history narrates little 
of the new sectaries. 

264 PUNJAB, 

In 1738, Nddir Shdh's invading host swept over the Punjab hke a 
flooded river, 'furious as the ocean,' defeated the Mughal army at 
Karnal in 1739, and sacked the imperial city of Delhi. Though Nadir 
retired from India in a few months with his plunder, he had given tte 
death-blow to the weak and divided empire. The Sikhs once more 
gathered fresh courage to rebel, and though again defeated and massaced 
in large numbers, ' the religion ' gained new strength from the blood of 
the martyrs. The next great disaster of the Sikhs was in 1762, when 
Ahmad Shah Durani, the Afghan conqueror of the Marathas at Paripat 
in the preceding year, routed their forces completely, and pursued tiem 
across the Sutlej. On his homeward march he destroyed the towi of 
Amritsar, blew up the temple, filled the sacred tank with mud, and 
defiled the holy place by the slaughter of cows. But, true to their fiith, 
the Sikhs rose once more as their conquerors withdrew, and they now 
initiated a final struggle, which resulted in the secure establishment of 
their independence. 

By this time the religion had come to present very different features 
from those of Baba Nanak's peaceful theocracy. It had grown into a 
loose military organization, divided among several misls or confeder- 
acies, with a common meeting-place at the holy city of Amritsar. The 
Mughals had nominally ceded the Punjab to Ahmad Shah ; but the 
Durani Emperors never really extended their rule to the eastern portion, 
where the Sikhs established their authority not long after 1763. The 
Afghan revolution in 1809 facilitated the rise of Ranjit Singh, a Sikh 
adventurer, w^ho had obtained a grant of Lahore from Zaman Shah, the 
Durani ruler of Kabul, in 1799. Gradually the able chieftain spread his 
power over the greater part of the Punjab, and even in 1808 attacked 
the small Sikh principalities on the east or left bank of the Sutlej. {See 
Cis-SuTLEj States.) These principalities sought the protection of the 
British — now masters of the North-Western Provinces, with a pro- 
tectorate over the royal family of Delhi ; and an agreement was effected 
in 1809 by which the States obtained the powerful aid of the British 
Government, and Ranjit Singh entered into an engagement to preserve 
friendship with the British Government, and not to encroach on the left 
bank of the Sutlej, on condition of his sovereignty being recognised 
over all his conquests north of the Sutlej — a treaty which he scrupu- 
lously respected till the close of his life. 

In 1818, Ranjit Singh stormed Miiltan, and extended his dominions 
to the extreme south of the Punjab ; and in the same year he 
crossed the Indus, and conquered Peshawar, to which, shortly after, 
he added the Derajat, as well as Kashmir. He had thus succeeded 
during his own lifetime in building up a splendid power, embracing 
almost the whole of the present Punjab Province, together with 
the Native State of Kashmir. On his death in 1839, his son Kharak 

PUNJAB, 265 

Singh succeeded to the throne of Lahore, but died, not without 
suspicion of poison, in the following year. A state of anarchy ensued, 
during which the Sikhs committed depredations on British territory, 
resulting in what is known as the first Sikh war. The Sikh leaders 
having resolved on war, their army, 60,000 strong, with 150 guns, 
advanced towards the British frontier, and crossed the Sutlej m 
December 1845. The details of the campaign are sufficiently known. 
On the 1 8th December the first action was fought at Miidki, in which 
the Sikhs attacked the British troops in position, but were defeated with 
heavy loss. Three days afterwards followed ihe toughly contested 
battle of Firozshah ; on the 22nd January 1846, the Sikhs were again 
defeated at Ali'wal ; and finally, on the loth February, the campaign 
was ended by the capture of the Sikh entrenched position at Sobraon. 
The British army marched unopposed to Lahore, which was occupied 
on the 22nd February, and terms of peace were dictated. 

These terms were, briefly, the cession in full sovereignty to the 
British Government of the territory lying between the Sutlej and the 
Beas rivers, and a war indemnity of i^ millions sterling. As the Lahore 
Darbar was unable to pay the whole of this sum, or even to give satis- 
factory security for the payment of one million, the cession was arranged 
of all the hill country between the Beas and the Indus, including 
Kashmir and Hazara ; arrangements were made for the payment of the 
remaining half million of war indemnity ; for the disbandment of the 
Lahore army, and its reorganization on a reduced scale. The other 
terms included the cession of the control of both banks of the Sutlej ; 
the recognition of the independent sovereignty of Maharaja Ghulab 
Singh of Jamu ; a free passage through Sikh territory for British troops ; 
and the establishment of a British Resident at Lahore. In addition, 
at the request of the Lahore Government, it was settled that a British 
force should remain at Lahore for a time to assist in the reconstitution 
of a satisfactory administration. Simultaneously, a treaty was executed 
with Maharaja Ghulab Singh by which the English made over to him 
in sovereignty the Kashmir territory ceded by the Lahore Government, 
in consideration of a payment of three-quarters of a million sterling. 
Shortly afterwards, difficulties arose regarding the transfer of Kashmir, 
which the Sikh Governor, instigated by Lai Singh, the chief of the 
Lahore Darbar, resisted by force of arms. Lai Singh was deposed and 
exiled to British India; and in December 1846 a fresh treaty was con- 
cluded, by which the affairs of the State were to be carried on by a 
Council of Regency, under the direction and control of the British 
Resident, during the minority of the young Maharaja, Dhulip Singh. 

For a time, the work of reorganizing the shattered government of the 
country proceeded quietly and with every prospect of success. But 
besides many minor causes of discontent among the people, such as the 

266 PUNJAB. 

withdrawal of the prohibition against the killing of kine, and the restored 
liberty of the much hated and formerly persecuted Muhammadans, the 
villages were filled with the disbanded soldiery of the old Sikh army, 
who were only waiting for a signal and a leader to rise and strike another 
blow for the power they had lost. At length, in April 1848, the rebellion 
of the ex-Diwan Miilraj at Miiltan, and the murder of two British officers 
in that city, roused a general revolt throughout the Sikh kingdom. 
Multan city was invested by hastily raised frontier levies, assisted after- 
wards by British troops under General Whish ; the siege, however, had 
to be temporarily raised in September, owing to the rapid spread of 
disaffection among the Sikh troops. The two rebellious Sardars, 
Chattar Singh and Sher Singh, invoked the aid of the Amir of Kabul, 
Dost Muhammad, who responded by seizing Peshawar, and sending an 
Afghan contingent to assist the Sikhs. 

In October 1848, the British army under the command-in-chief of 
General Gough, assumed the offensive, and crossed the Sutlej. Proceed- 
ing from Firozpur across the Punjab at an angle to the Sikh line of 
march, it came up with Sher Singh at Ramnagar, and there inflicted on 
him a severe check. The Sikh army, consisting of 30,000 men and 60 
guns, made a stand at Chilianwala, where an indecisive and sanguinary 
battle was fought on the 13th January 1849. 'i'^^'O or three days after 
the action, Sher Singh was joined by his father Chattar Singh, bringing 
with him Sikh reinforcements, and a thousand Afghan horse. General 
Gough awaited the arrival of the column under General Whish (set free 
by the fall of Multan on the 28th January), and then followed up the 
Sikhs from Chilianwala to Gujrat, where the last and decisive battle 
was fought on the 22nd February, the Sikhs being totally defeated with 
the loss of 60 guns. The Afghan garrison of Peshawar were chased 
back to their hills, the Amir Dost Muhammad himself narrowly escaping 
capture. The remnants of the Sikh army and the rebel Sardars 
surrendered at Rawal Pindi on the 14th March, and henceforth the 
entire Punjab became a Province of British India. 

The formal annexation was proclaimed at Lahore on the 29th March 
1849, on which day terms were offered to, and accepted by, the young 
Maharaja Dhulip Singh, he himself receiving in return an annuity of 
^50,000 a year. The following were the terms of the cession : — ' ist. 
His Highness the Maharaja Dhulip Singh shall resign for himself, his 
heirs, and his successors, all right, title, and claim to the sovereignty of 
the Punjab, or to any sovereign power whatever. 2nd. All the property 
of the State, of whatever description and wheresoever found, shall be 
confiscated to the Honourable East India Company, in part payment 
of the debt due by the State of Lahore to the British Government, and 
of the expenses of the war. 3rd. The gem called the Koh-i-niir, which 
was taken from Shah Shuja-ul-mulk by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, shall be 

PUNJAB. 267 

surrendered by the Maharaja of Lahore to the Queen of England. 4th. 
His Highness Dhulip Singh shall receive from the Honourable East 
India Company, for the support of himself, his relatives, and the servants 
of the State, a pension of not less than four, and not exceeding five, 
lakhs of Company's rupees per annum. 5th. His Highness shall be 
treated with respect and honour. He shall retain the title of Maharaja 
Dhulip Singh, Jkihadiir, and he shall continue to receive during his life 
such portion of the above-named pension as may be allotted to himself 
personally, provided he shall remain obedient to the British Govern- 
ment, and shall reside at such place as the Governor-General of India 
may select.' His Highness has for long resided in England, where 
he has purchased estates, married, and settled down as an English 

The Punjab, after being annexed in 1849, was first governed by a 
Board of Administration. It was subsequently made a Chief Com- 
missionership, divided into Districts upon the ordinary English model. 
After the Mutiny it was erected into a Lieutenant-Governorship, the 
head-quarters of the Lieutenant-Governor being fixed at Lahore. 

The Mutiny.— Ax the time of the outbreak of the Mutiny at Delhi in 
1857, there were in the Punjab the following troops :— Hindustanis, 
35,000; Punjabi Irregulars, 13,000; Europeans, 10,000; there were 
also 9000 military police. The Europeans consisted of 12 regiments, 
of whom no less than 7 were either at Peshawar or in the hills noith of 
Ambala, leaving only 5 regiments to hold the country from the Indus 
to the Sutlej. The news of tlie massacre at Delhi reached Lahore on 
the 1 2th of May. The Chief Commissioner was absent at Rawal 
Pindi, and Mr. (now Sir R.) Montgomery was the chief civil officer 
present. There had not been wanting premonitory signs that the 
sepoys were disaffected and likely to rise ; and accordingly, on the 13th 
May, 3000 Native troops were successfully disarmed at Mian Mir. At 
the same time European troops were thrown into the forts of Govind- 
garh and Phillaur, the first important as commanding Amritsar, the 
second as containing a large arsenal from which subsequently were 
served the munitions of war for the siege of Delhi. On the 14th May 
the arsenal at Firozpur was secured ; the sepoys here mutinied on the 
following day, and escaped without punishment. On the 21st of 
the same month the 55th Native Infantry rose at Marddn and fled to 
independent territory ; many were killed in pursuit, and the remainder 
were destroyed by the hillmen. On the 7th and 8th of June the 
Native troops at Jalandhar broke and escaped to Delhi. In the first 
week of July, the sepoys at Jehlam and Sialkot mutinied ; they were 
destroyed, as were the 26th Native Infantry, who rose at Lahore on the 
30th July, and the 51st Native Infantry, who mutinied at Peshawar on 
the 28th Au2;ust. 

^^^ PUNJAB, 

Simultaneously with the vigorous suppression of open mutiny, 13,000 
Native troops were disarmed without resistance during June and July. 
While the Hindustani troops were thus disposed of, the despatch of 
remforcements to Delhi, an object of paramount importance, proceeded 
without a break. About the 17th of May it had become apparent that 
the Punjab did not sympathize with the movement in Hindustan, and 
that a good spirit prevailed in the Punjabi troops. It was therefore 
safe to augment them; and 18 new regiments were raised in the 
Province during the later months of the year. As these forces were 
being enrolled to supply the place of those who marched down to 
Delhi, the stream of reinforcements was steadily maintained. Four 
regiments from the European garrison of the Punjab formed the 
greater portion of the force that first marched upon Delhi. Next 
followed two wings of European regiments of infantry. Then a con- 
siderable force of Native troops was despatched, including the Guides, 
two regiments of Punjab cavalry, a body of Punjab horse, two 
regiments of Punjab infantry, and a body of 1200 pioneers raised from 
the Mazbi Sikhs ; 7000 men, forming the contingent of the cis-Sutlej 
chiefs of Patiala, Jind, and Nabha, accompanied the regular troops 
to the siege. An irregular force of 1000 men was also detached 
to clear the western part of the Delhi territory. Waggon trains were 
organized from Miiltan and Firozpur via Ambala to Delhi. Siege 
trains, treasure, stores, and transport animals were poured down from 
the Punjab for the besieging force. 

Finally, in August one last effort was to be made to send reinforce- 
ments, in spite of the risk run in denuding the Province of Europeans 
and loyal troops. The need for aiding the force at Delhi was, 
however, imperative; it was therefore resolved to send Brigadier- 
General John Nicholson with the moveable column and every 
European who could be spared. Two half regiments of European 
infantry, the 52nd Foot, and three regiments of Punjab infantry were 
despatched. These were followed by a siege train from Firozpur, a 
wing of the ist Baliich Regiment arrived from Sind, and a condngent 
2000 strong from the Maharaja of Kashmir. There then remained 
only 4500 Europeans (including sick) to hold the Punjab. 

The crisis had now come. If Delhi were taken speedily, all was 
well ; if Delhi were not taken without delay, there would be a struggle 
for European dominion and existence in the Punjab itself. The next 
few weeks after the departure of Nicholson's column were weeks of 
anxious suspense, in which all eyes were turned to Delhi. The first 
symptoms of the wavering faith of the people in the British power 
appeared in local outbreaks at Murree in the north, and in the wild and 
barren tracts south of Lahore, between the Ravi and Sutlej. Both 
were, however, soon put down, and the fall of Delhi on the 14th 


PUNJAB. 269 

September put an end to all further cause for apprehension. The first 
sign that the mass of the inhabitants had regained confidence was that 
the Sikhs of the Manjha, or the tract between the Ravi and the Sutlcj 
rivers, who had hitherto held aloof, came forward for enlistment in the 
new levies. 

The loyal action of the chiefs had an important bearing on keeping 
the population steady during the crisis. The Raja of Jind was actually 
the first man, European or Native, who took the field against the 
mutineers; and his contingent collected supplies in advance for the 
English troops marching upon Delhi, besides rendering excellent 
service during the siege. The Rajas of Patiala and Nabha also sent 
contingents for field service ; and with the exception of the Nawab of 
Bahawalpur, who did not stir, every chief in the Punjab, so far as he 
could, aided the English in preserving order and in suppressing 
rebellion. Rewards in the shape of grants of territory were made to 
the chiefs of Patiala, Jind, and Nabha, and a large zaminddri estate 
in Oudh was conferred upon the Raja of Kapiirthala. 

Since the Mutiny, the Punjab has made rapid progress in com- 
mercial and industrial wealth. The first year after the suppression of 
the rebellion is remarkable for the commencement of the first line of 
railway in the Punjab from Amritsar to Miiltan (February 1859), and 
for the admission of water into the Pari Doab Canal. With the 
exception of punitive military expeditions against marauding hill tribes, 
the history of the Punjab has been one of uninterrupted progress. 
Canals have spread irrigation over its thirsty fields ; railways have 
opened new means of communication for its surplus produce; and 
British superintendence, together with the security afforded by our firm 
rule, has developed its resources with astonishing rapidity. In January 
1876, the Prince of Wales paid a visit to the Punjab. The year 1877 
was marked by the Imperial Assemblage, and the gathering of all the 
Punjab feudatories at Delhi, in common with the other chiefs of India. 
During the late Afghan campaigns, the resources of the Punjab 
were fully taxed, as it formed practically the base of operations for the 
armies operating in Northern Afghanistan. In the earlier phase of 
the war, contingents from the chiefs of Patiala, Bahawalpur, Jind, 
Nabha, Kapurthala, Faridkot, and Nahan joined the British forces, 
and performed excellent service. The years during which the war 
lasted, from November 1878 to the end of 1880, were years of some 
scarcity, owing to deficient rainfall ; there was considerable sickness, 
and trade towards the west was affected by the war; but the opera- 
tions in the field called everywhere for increased labour, high profits 
were made by many sections of the community, and the simul- 
taneous construction of the railway towards Kohat and Peshawar, 
which was pushed forward with much energy, afforded ample employ- 

2 70 PUNJAB. 

ment to the needy ; and the result of all these causes was the general 
l)rosperity of the people. With the close of the war, the Province 
resumed its normal course, and has prospered without interruption. 
The most important features of this period are, in November 1882, 
the opening of the Sirhind Canal, which is destined to irrigate a vast 
extent of country ; and in June of the same year, the completion of 
direct railway communication with Peshawar. 

The territories now under the administration of the Lieutenant- 
Cxovernor of the Punjab comprise : — (i) The Punjab proper, west of the 
Beas, annexed in March 1849, on the close of the second Sikh war. 
(2) The Jalandhar Doab and the hill District of Kangra, which were 
ceded to the British Government by the treaty of Lahore concluded 
in March 1846, after the termination of the first Sikh war. (3) The 
country east of the river Sutlej, formerly designated the cis-Sutlej 
States, and including — {a) the possessions of Maharaja Dhulip Singh of 
Lahore, on the left bank of the Sutlej, which were annexed to the 
British territories in December 1845 ; {b) such of the States taken under 
the protection of the British in 1808-09 as subsequently lapsed on 
the death of their chiefs without heirs, or were confiscated and 
brought under British administration in January 1847, in consequence 
of the misconduct of their chiefs in the first Sikh war; {c) the hill Dis- 
trict of Simla, a portion of which was acquired after the Gurkha war of 
1 8 14-16, and the remainder subsequently obtained by lapse, purchase, 
or exchange for other territory. (4) The Delhi territory west of the 
river Jumna, which was transferred from the Government of the North- 
western Provinces to that of the Punjab in February 1858, and 
separated into the two Divisions of Delhi and Hissar. 

Form of Administra/ion. — On the annexation of the Punjab in March 
1849, ^ Board of Administration for its affairs was constituted, to which 
the Commissioners of the trans-Sutlej and cis-Sutlej States were also 
made subordinate. The Board w^as abolished in February 1853, and 
its powers and functions were vested in a Chief Commissioner, subordi- 
nate to whom a Judicial Commissioner and a Financial Commissioner 
were appointed. After the transfer of the Delhi territory from the 
North-Western Provinces, the Punjab and its dependencies were con- 
stituted a Lieutenant-Governorship from the ist January 1859, — Sir 
John Lawrence, who had hitherto been the Chief Commissioner, being 
appointed the first Lieutenant-Governor. The succeeding Lieutenant- 
Governors have been, Sir R. Montgomery, Sir D. M'Leod, Sir H. 
Durand, Sir H. Davies, Sir R. Egerton, and Sir C. U. Aitchison, the 
present (1886) Lieutenant-Governor. 

In 1866, a Chief Court, consisting of two judges, a barrister and a 
civilian, was substituted for the Judicial Commissioner, and was con- 
stituted the final appellate authority in criminal and civil cases, with 

PUNJAB, 271 

powers also of original criminal jurisdiction in cases where European 
British subjects are charged with serious offences, and of original civil 
jurisdiction in special cases. In 1869, a third judge, a civilian, was 
added to the Court. 

Subordinate to the Chief Court and Financial Commissioner, as the 
chief judicial and revenue authorities of the Province, are the ten 
Commissioners of Divisions, the Settlement Commissioner, the Civil 
and Sessions Judge of Peshawar, and two additional Commissioners. 
Next follows the District staff composed of thirty-two Deputy Com- 
missioners of Districts, with a varying staff of Judicial Assistants, of 
Assistant and Extra-Assistant Commissioners, tahsildars^ Jiaib tahsildars, 
and viunsifs. Each District is divided into tahsils^ which form the 
territorial unit of division for revenue and judicial purposes. 

The Punjab Government has no local legislature. Whenever it 
appears necessary, the Lieutenant-Governor proposes draft Bills for the 
consideration of the Legislative Council of the Governor-General of 
Lidia, or submits to the Governor-General in Council drafts of Regula- 
tions for the peace and better government of any Districts to which the 
provisions of Statute 33 Victoria, chapter 3, have been extended by 
the Secretary of State for India, and such Regulations, if approved by 
the Governor-General in Council and duly pubHshed, have the force 
of law. At present the Statute has been extended to the frontier Dis- 
tricts comprised in the Peshawar and Derajat Divisions, and to the 
pargand of Spiti, a remote tract among the Himalayan ranges, belonging 
to the District of Kangra. 

Populatio}i. — The first Census of the Punjab was taken in 1855, and 
disclosed a total population over the area comprising the British Pro- 
vince, as at present constituted, of 15,161,321 persons. A second 
enumeration in 1868 returned the total population at 17,609,518. The 
last Census in 1881 showed a total population of 18,850,437. On the 
whole, the increase, namely 3,689,116, or at the rate of 24-3 per cent., 
in the 26 years between 1855 and 1881, is not nearly so large as might 
have been expected in a country not long rescued from something very 
like anarchy, and brought under civilised rule. The increase between 
the first and the second enumerations amounted to i6'i per cent., 
while the rate of increase for the thirteen years ending with the Census 
of 1 88 1 was only 7'i per cent. The Census of 1868 was taken after 
seven years of exceptional prosperity, while that of 1881 followed three 
years of sickness, war, and agricultural distress. The rate of increase 
has been highest in the sparsely-peopled and thinly-cultivated tracts of 
the south-west, where the excavation of inundation canals has attracted 
emigrants from the more populated portions of the Province as well as 
from States and Provinces outside the Punjab. The population of the 
submontane Districts, too dense to be supported in comfort from the 

272 PUNJAB. 

produce of its cultivated lands, has actually decreased ; while in the 
Himalayas the statistics have undergone little or no change. The 
Native States in the Punjab were enumerated for the first time in 1881, 
and returned a total population of 3,861,683, giving a gross population 
for both British and Feudatory territory of 22,712,120 persons. 

The following are the principal Census details of the population 
of the 32 British Districts comprising the Lieutenant - Governorship 
of the Punjab in 1881. Separate statistics for each District have 
been given in the table on pp. 245, 246. Area of the Province, 
106,632 square miles; number of towns, 238 ; and of villages, 34,086; 
number of houses, 3,517,008, namely, occupied, 2,706,914, and 
unoccupied, 810,094. Number of famiHes, 4,128,440. Total popula- 
tion, 18,850,437, namely, males 10,210,053, and females 8,640,384; 
proportion of males in total population, 54-2 per cent. Average density 
of the population (excluding the little tract forming Simla District), 
177 persons per square mile, varying from 47 in Dera Ismail Khan to 
597 in Jalandhar District. The population is most dense in the 
Jumna valley, the Jalandhar Doab, the upper portion of the Bari 
Doab, as well as along the banks of the great rivers, and in the 
submontane tract. It grows sparser in the hilly north-western Dis- 
tricts, and in the Derajat ; while the central plateaux between the great 
rivers of the western plains are almost uninhabited, and the wild 
mountainous glens of Spiti and Lahul support only a few scattered 
families, at the rate of one or two persons only to the square mile. 
Average number of towns and villages, -32 per square mile; persons 
per town or village, 549, or excluding towns, 481. Average number 
of occupied houses, 25-4 per square mile; persons per occupied 
house, 6*9. 

Classified according to sex and age, the population comprises — under 
15 years of age, males 3,928,577, and females 3,314,065 ; total children, 
7,242,642, or 38-4 per cent, of the population: 15 years and upwards, 
males 6,281,476, and females 5,326,319; total adults, 11,607,795, or 
6 1 '6 per cent. 

Religio7i. — The Census of 1881 thus classifies the population of the 
32 British Districts of the Punjab, according to religion— Muham- 
madans number 10,525,150, or 55*8 per cent.; Hindus, 7,130,528, 
or 37-8 per cent.; Sikhs, 1,121,004, or 5-9 per cent.; Jains, 35,826; 
Christians, 33,420; Buddhists, 2864; Parsis, 462; and 'others' and 
unspecified, 1183. 

The Muhammadans are most numerous in the Peshawar Division, 
where they form 92*2 per cent, of the whole population; and in the 
Derajat, Rawal Pindi and Miiltan Divisions, which are largely peopled 
by tribes of Afghan or Baluchi descent. They become less numerous 
in the eastern Punjab, and form a very small element in the tract 


PUNJAB. 273 

between the Siitlej and the Jumna, amounting to only 23 per cent, in 
Delhi District, and 14 per cent, in Rohtak. In the remote Kangra 
valleys, the faith of Islam is professed by only 5 per cent, of the 

Of the Punjab Muhammadans by race, as distinguished from 
religious classification, the most numerous are the Pathans, who 
were returned at 838,233 in t88i. Shaikhs come next with 327,928; 
followed by Baliichis, 299,962; Sayyids, 225,446; Kashmiris, 178,124; 
and Mughals, 95,361. But nearly every caste, originally Hindu, now 
contains a more or less large Muhammadan element, the result of 
conversions in the earlier days of Musalman invasion. Even among 
the Brahmans, 3236 are returned as Muhammadans. But the bulk of 
converted Hindus are found in the Jat and Rajput tribes. The 
Muhammadan Jats, who form the most numerous class in the Province, 
number 1,656,673, while the Muhammadan Rajputs are returned at 
1,110,591. The remaining Muhammadan classes and tribes include 
the following : — Arain, 674,742; Awan, 532,456; Julaha, 51I5537; 
Cxiijar, 431,195; Chiihra, 388,978; Muchi, 321,650; Kumbhar, 
269,760; Tarkhan, 248,029; Teli, 225,873; Mirasi, 176,344; Nai, 
172,467; Lobar, 166,756; Machhi, 144,116; Kassab, 88,357; 
Jhinwar, 125,887; Meo, 115,399 5 Dhobi, 96,118; Fakir, 93,972; 
Khoja, 61,295; Maniar, 56,852; Dogar, 49^244 5 Barwala, 48,342; 
Mallah, 46,845 ; and Tanaoli, 41,388. The Ghakkars, supposed to 
be an aboriginal tribe, now Muhammadans, are returned as numbering 
25,788, principally in Rawal Pindi, where they compose the gentry 
of the hill population. 

The Hindu creed musters the greatest proportion of followers in the 
cis-Sutlej Divisions of Delhi and Hissar, and among the primitive 
mountaineers of Kangra, It sinks from 84 per cent, in Rohtak Dis- 
trict and 75 in Delhi, to 43 in Jalandhar, 29 in Amritsar, and 21 in 
Lahore. In the extreme north-west it yields entirely to the Muham- 
madan element, falling as low as 10 per cent, in Rawal Pindi, 7 in 
Peshawar, and 5 in Kohat. 

The Sikh faith forms the distinguishing feature of the central and 
eastern portions of the Province in its religious aspect. Though 
numerically weak, it is socially and politically of the highest import- 
ance, as the Sikhs constituted the dominant class at the period of 
annexation, and still compose the mass of the gentry in the region 
between the Five Rivers. They gather most thickly around the sacred 
city of Amritsar, in which District they amount to 24 per cent, of 
the people ; and in Jalandhar, Lahore, Ludhiana, and Firozpur, where 
they compose from 11 to 26 per cent. The number is much smaller 
in the hilly north-western Districts and the cis-Sutlej tracts, while 
the Sikhs almost disappear in the trans-Indus Divisions of the Derajat 

VOL. XI. s 

2 74 PUNJAB. 

and Peshawar, as well as in the valley of the Jumna. Even in the 
southern angle of the Punjab Proper, around Miiltan and Muzaffar- 
garh, the Sikh element forms a mere fraction in the population. The 
Sikhs are famous for their personal bravery, and their religion prompts 
them to hold life of little importance, one of their strictest sects being 
known as Akali or 'immortal.' They are very illiterate, and Ranji't 
Singh could neither read nor write. Their sacred books bear the name 
of the Granth. 

Of the total Hindu and Sikh population (including Jains), Brahmans 
number 815,459; Rajputs, 325,216; Khattris, 377,710; and Baniyas, 
316,282. The Hindu Jats, however, form the most numerous sec- 
tion of the Hindu population, as their Muhammadan brethren do 
of the Muhammadan population, and are returned in the Census 
Report at 1,907,737. The other castes (Hindu and Sikh) include — 
Chamar, 793.9^4 ; Chiihra, 550,077 ; Arora, 537,330 ; Tarkhan, 
259,976; Jhinwar, 241,890; Ghirat, 157,726; Kumbhar, 151,828; 
Saini, 139,245; Giijar, 122,101; Nai, 116,263; Ahir, 112,512; Sonar, 
105,518; Lohar, 97,813; Kanet, 74,552; Rathi, 52,733; and Mali, 


The Buddhists of the Punjab are almost entirely confined to the 
Tibetan tract of Spiti, in the Kiilu Sub-division of Kangra District, 
where they number 2860, out of a total returned at 2864. 

The Christian population, numbering 33,420, comprises — European 
British subjects, 10,761 ; other Europeans, including Americans, 
Australians, and Africans, 17,015; Eurasians, 1821; and Natives, 
3823. By sect, the Church of England numbers 18,911 adherents; 
Roman Catholic Church, 8021; Presbyterian Church of Scotland,- 
1619; Baptists, 697; Wesleyans, 361 ; Episcopal Church of Scotland, 
96; Protestants unspecified by sect, 1913; Armenian Church, 33; 
other denominations, and unspecified, 1769. 

The Punjab presents two very distinct types of social structure. In 
the eastern plains and throughout the Himalayan region the institution 
of caste obtains in its proper form, distinctions being based primarily upon 
occupation, and among the land-owning classes upon political import- 
ance, and the tribe being a mere sub-division of the caste. Occupations 
are by presumption hereditary, and different castes cannot intermarry. 
But throughout the western plains and on the Indus frontier, tribe and 
not caste is the social unit among the land-owning classes ; the latter, 
in the widest sense of the term, either having dwindled to a mere 
tradition of origin, or being a mere ethnic distinction. Here, too, the 
only restriction upon occupation is that springing from the pollution 
attaching to certain callings ; while the chief restrictions upon inter- 
marriage depend upon social position rather than upon tribe or caste. 
The cis-Indus Salt Range occupies an intermediate position between 

PUNJAB. 275 

these two types. The distinction between them is not merely due to the 
difference of religion which marks the great mass of the population in 
the east and west ; for in the eastern portion of the Province, Islam has, 
if anything, tended to tighten the bonds of caste, and the convert 
retains unimpaired the standing, name, and prejudices of his caste, 
while thoughout the Punjab the life of the people is regulated by tribal 
and social rule and custom rather than by any prescriptions of religion. 
The explanation must be sought in the fact that while the society in the 
Eastern Punjab is modelled upon the type which prevails throughout 
the greater part of India, the people of the west have already followed 
the example of the frontier nations with whom they are in contact, — 
nations whose tribal and social restrictions are far more loose than 
those of the inhabitants of India. 

The 32 British Districts of the Punjab contained, in i88r, 21 towns 
with a population exceeding 20,000, namely — (i) Delhi, the ancient 
capital of the Mughal Empire, 173,393; (2) Amritsar (Umritsur), the 
metropolis of the Sikh religion, 151,896; (3) Lahore, the modern seat 
of Government for the Province, 149,369 ; (4) Peshawar, the chief 
station on the north-western frontier, 79,982 ; (5) Multan (Mooltan), 
the principal commercial centre of the southern Punjab, 68,674 ; (6) 
Ambala (Umballa), 67,463 ; (7) Rawal Pindi, 52,975 ; (8) Jalandhar 
(JuUunder), 52,119; (9) Sialkot, 45,762; (10) Ludhiana, 44,163; 
(11) FiRozpuR (Ferozepore), 39,570; (12) Bhiwani. 33,762; (13) 
Panipat, 25,022; (14) Batala, 24,281; (15) RiwARi, 23,972; (16) 
Karnal, 23,133 ; (17) GujRANWALA, 22,884 ; (iS) Dera Ghazi Khan, 
22,309; (19) Dera Ismail Khan, 22,164; (20) Hushiarpur, 21,363; 
and (21) Jehlam, 21,107. 

The Census also returns 1 1 1 towns with a population between 
5000 and 20,000; and 106 smaller towns, either as civil stations, 
cantonments, or municipalities. The total urban population of 
these 238 towns and stations amounts to 2,431,357, or 12-9 per 
cent, of the population of British territory in the Punjab. The 
Province contained 202 municipalities in 1883-84, of which 8 are of 
the first, 20 of the second, and 174 of the third class. Total municipal 
income (1883-84), ^305,559, or an average of 2s. ii|d. per head of the 
population (2,144,379) within municipal limits. Simla, population 
13,258, the summer capital of India, stands on an isolated patch of British 
territory among the mountains of the north-eastern border ; and Marri 
(Murree), in Rawal Pindi District, population 2489, forms the great 
hill sanitarium for the western half of the Province ; while between 
them, the hill stations of Dharmsala in Kangra and Dalhousie in 
Gurdaspur, are favourite resorts during the summer months. 

Of the 34,324 towns and villages in British territory in 1881, the Census 
returns 11,937 as containing less than two hundred inhabitants; 11,879 

276 PUNJAB. 

from two to five hundred ; 6348 from five hundred to a thousand ; 2954 
from one to two thousand ; 693 from two to three thousand ; 349 
from three to five thousand; 115 from five to ten thousand; 20 from 
ten to fifteen thousand; 8 from fifteen to twenty thousand; 13 from 
twenty to fifty thousand ; while 8 contain upwards of fifty thousand 

The Punjab ' Village:— i:\iQ 'village' of the Census Report includes, 
as regards British territory, all the population living wdthin the area 
of the mauzd, or village unit of revenue administration. Throughout 
the greater part of the Province this is a perfectly natural and 
homogeneous unit, and embraces the lands owned and cultivated by 
the members of a single village community who, with their attendant 
traders, priests, and menials, live in one main homestead, though they 
occasionally occupy also one or more small hamlets situated in the 
outlying fields, where certain families or parts of families live more or 
less permanently for the convenience of being close to their work. 

But on the great pasture lands of the Miiltan Division and in the 
sandy plains of the Sind-Sagar dodb, the large and compact village 
communities of the Eastern Punjab are almost unknown. The people 
here have only lately abandoned a nomad life, and are still largely 
pastoral in their habits. Much of the land has been brought under 
cultivation, often since the introduction of our rule, by local notables 
holding grants from Government who have collected cultivators from 
diverse sources and settled them here and there in small bodies 
each in a separate homestead, or by individuals who have acquired 
property by breaking up waste or by the construction of irrigation works ; 
and the local hollows, in which alone grass and water or cultivable land 
are in many parts to be found, are occupied by small communities 
consisting each of only a few families and living at great distances from 
each other. So in the trans-Jehlam and frontier tracts, where Pathans, 
Baluchis, Ghakkars, and other dominant races have subjugated but not 
expelled a peaceful agricultural population, the latter are similarly 
scattered over the country in small detached homesteads surrounding 
the central stronghold of their conquerors; while where the tribal 
organization exists in full vitality and the land is held and cultivated by 
the dominant race, there is no intermediate step between the clan which 
occupies a considerable tract of country, and its constituent families 
of which every two or three form a separate group and inhabit a separate 

In these cases the hamlet is usually too small to be recognised as a unit; 
and the boundaries of the ' village ' embrace an area, often enormous, 
over which a scanty population is widely scattered in small communities 
having no connection with one another beyond the mere fact of their 
common inclusion in an artificial unit based upon considerations of 

PUNJAB, 277 

administrative convenience. The 'village' of the Census tables 
is in many cases largest where the unit of habitation is smallest. 
Thus, there are in Dera Ismail Khan three village areas, each including 
a population of more than 5000, but of which the inhabitants live in 
numerous scattered hamlets no one of which contains more than 350 
souls. So again, there is in Bannu a ' village ' of 2000 inhabitants which 
is split up into not less than 43 distinct hamlets, and covers an area of 
loi square miles; while the 'town' of Lawain Jehlam includes an area of 
141 square miles dotted over with innumerable tiny hamlets surrounding 
a central town, and containing a total population of over 6000 souls ; 
and in the hills even more striking cases occur. There are in the 
British Districts 32 places of more than 5000 inhabitants which have, 
by reason of the scattered nature of their population, been classed as 
villas^es and not as towns. 

Occupatio7is of the People. — The adult male population of the British 
Districts of the Punjab is returned in the Census under the following 
seven main headings, with a vast number of sub-orders too numerous 
for specification here: — Class i. Professional, including all persons 
engaged in the administration of the Province, 114,862 ; army, 62,887 ; 
learned professions, literature, art or science, 142,596 : total, 320,345. 
Class 2. Domestic and menial, including boarding and lodging house 
keepers, 4827; and attendants, domestic servants, menials, etc., 
324,135 : total, 328,962. Class 3. Commercial, including bankers, 
merchants, and traders, 76,021 ; and all carriers, messengers, porters, 
etc., 102,456: total, 178,477. Class 4. Agricultural, including all 
cultivators, fruit and market gardeners, and flower dealers, also graziers, 
3,074,183 ; and persons engaged about animals, such as horse, cattle, 
and sheep breeders and dealers, farriers, hunters, fishermen, etc., 
22,056: total, 3,096,239. Class 5. Commercial, including workers in 
art and mechanical productions. 37,833 : workers and dealers in textile 
fabrics, 684,929 ; workers and dealers in articles of food and drink, 
280,358; workers and dealers in animal substances, such as hides, 
leather, etc., 34,481; workers and dealers in vegetable substances, 
such as oil-men, carpenters, workers in mat, straw, etc., 217,458 ; workers 
and dealers in minerals, 203,420 : total. 1,458,479. Class 6. Indefinite 
and non-productive, including general labourers, 270,380; persons of 
rank and property, 12,813; and of no true occupation, 262,471 : total, 
545,664. Class 7. Occupation not specified, 353,309- 

^Agriculture.— T\\^ tillage of the Western Punjab extends along the 
foot of the boundary mountains, and stretches in long strips by the 
side of the great arterial rivers. But cultivation is more extensive in 
the central and southern portion of the Eastern Plains, which, while 
comprising only 15 per cent, of the total area of the Province, com- 
prise no less than 2 7 per cent, of its cultivated area, or more than the 

278 PUNJAB. 

whole of the Western Plains, with their rivers and canals. Excluding 
Native States, and the semi-independent possessions of the Nawab of 
Teri in Kohat, and the Nawab of Tanawal in Hazara, the total assessed 
area of the 32 British Districts in the Punjab in 1883-84 is returned 
at 64,139,592 acres, of which 23,518,686 acres are under cultivation ; 
5,867,214 acres are grazing lands ; 20,488,941 acres are cultivable, but 
still untilled; and 14,264,751 acres are absolutely barren. 

The agricultural year is divisible into the rahi or spring, and the kharif 
or autumn harvest. The former is the more important, the principal crop 
being wheat, covering an area in 1875 of 6,282,687 acres, and in 1883-84 
of 7,209,721 acres; gram, 1,604,132 acres in 1875, and 1,853,769 acres 
in 1883-84; barley, 1,818,433 ^^res in 1875, and 1,681,849 acres in 
1883-84. Oil -seeds are largely grown, occupying 594,309 ^^^^^ 
of the rabi area in 1883-84. Peas and other pulses occupy a small 
area, and tobacco and vegetables are grown on garden plots. Tea 
cultivation is followed with success chiefly in Kangra District, the area 
having extended from 5623 acres in 1875 to 9600 acres in 1883-84. The 
area occupied by the principal rabi crops has increased from 10,961,257 
acres in 1875 to 12,502,416 acres in 1883-84. Rice cultivation, which 
forms the chief staple of the kharif oxo^, has decreased of late years, 
having fallen from 802,014 acres in 1875 to 569,808 acres in 1883-84. 
Millets {jodr and bdjra) were grown on 4,613,720 acres in 1875, and 
459455850 acres in 1883-84 ; Indian corn, 1,039,594 acres in 1875, and 
1,233,718 acres in 1883-84; and pulses, 1,604,006 acres in 1875, and 
1,130,090 acres in 1883-84. Cotton cultivation increased fi om 651,150 
acres in 1875 to 802,534 acres in 1883-84. Sugar-cane was grown on 
344,993 acres in 1875, and 348,141 acres in 1883-84. Total area 
occupied by the principal kharif crops, 9,610,166 acres in 1875, and 
9,994,749 acres in 1883-84. 

The methods of agriculture still retain their primitive simplicity, 
scarcely differing from those in use during the Vedic period. Artificial 
irrigation is common, and is rapidly extending, about 25 per cent, of 
the cultivated area being irrigated either from Government canals or 
private works. The Bari Doab, the Western Jumna, and the Sutlej 
inundation canals supply water to a large area; while the Sirhind 
Canal, the main line of which was opened in November 1882, and its 
branches completed in 1883-84, has already added greatly to the fertility 
of the dry cis-Sutlej tract. The Swat River Canal was opened in 
1884-85. These canals will be more fully referred to in a subsequent 
paragraph. Manure is applied only in the vicinity of villages, and to 
the best crops, such as sugar-cane, cotton, and rice, when grown near 
wells. Rotation of crops is confined chiefly to manured soils, where, 
after a rich crop, poorer and poorer staples are sown successively until 
the manure is exhausted ; when another dressing becomes necessary, 

PUNJAB. 279 

followed by a similar cycle of crops. For example, in the cis-Sutlej 
tract, sugar-cane is succeeded by wheat, and wheat by cotton, so that 
the manure once laid down suffices for three years. 

Cultivation is steadily and quickly advancing in the Punjab. The 
area under tillage rose from 20 to 23^- millions of acres in the fifteen 
years ending 1883-84. The irrigation by Government canals rose 
during the same period from ij to considerably over i| millions of 
acres (increase more than half a million) ; irrigation from wells, water- 
courses, and other private works, from 4I to 5 J millions of acres 
(increase, say J million). Total increase in irrigation during fifteen 
years, nearly \\ million acres, or about 17 per cent. Not only did the 
general area under tillage increase, but the area under the more 
valuable crops increased in an even greater ratio. Thus (in round 
figures) the area under wheat was 5 J million acres in 1869, and 7^ 
miUions in 1883-84; oil-seeds in 1869 occupied nearly half a million 
acres, and in 1884 upwards of three-quarters of a million acres; sugar- 
cane, which in 1869 covered 325,831 acres, in 1884 had increased to 
348,141 acres; indigo rose within the same period from 32,444 to 
128,251 acres; and tea from 5521 to 9600 acres. The selling price of 
land rose from 18 years' purchase, calculated on the land revenue 
demand of 1869, to 25 J years' purchase in 1879. The average 
incidence of the land revenue per cultivated acre fell during the same 
period from 25 J pence to 23 pence. 

Rents are paid both in money and kind, and the following return of 
rent rates prevailing in 1883-84 is based, in the latter case, on an 
estimate of the money value of the landlord's share. The following 
statement shows the average rates prevailing throughout the Province 
for lands growing different descriptions of crops : — Wheat land 
(irrigated), from 7s. 4d. to 19s. lod. an acre — unirrigated, 4s. 5jd. to 
13s. id. an acre; inferior grains (irrigated), 4s. ijd. to 13s. an acre; 
rice, from 7s. 9|d. to ^i, 2s. 8d. an acre ; cotton, from 6s. to 17s. an 
acre; sugar-cane, from 19s. 8d. to ^2, 9s. lod. an acre; indigo, from 
7s. 3d. to 19s. 7d. an acre; oil-seeds (irrigated), 5s. 9id. to 14s. 6|d. 
an acre — unirrigated, 4s. to 9s. 9jd. an acre. The av^erage out-turn of 
produce throughout the Province is thus returned : — Wheat, 659 lbs. 
per acre; rice, 730 lbs. ; barley, 677 lbs.; bdjra, 345 lbs. ; jodr, 323 
lbs.; cotton, 177 lbs.; tobacco, 845 lbs.; unrefined sugar {^ur)^ 761 
lbs. ; and tea, 202 lbs. Wages and prices have both risen greatly 
through the action of railways. The average prices of food-grains ruled 
as follows on the ist of January 1884: — Wheat, 21 J sers per rupee, 
or 5s. 2d. per cwt. ; barley, 33! sers per rupee, or 3s. 4|d. per cwt. ; 
gram, 30 J sers per rupee, or 3s. 7^d. per cwt.; bdjra^ 27 J sers per 
rupee, or 4s. id. per cwt. ; jodr^ 32 J sers per rupee, or 3s. 5M. per 
cwt. ; rice, 7 J sers per rupee, or 15s. per cwt. Wages of unskilled 

28o PUNJAB. 

labour range from 3^d. to 5|d., and of skilled labour from Sd. to is. 2d. 
per diem. 

Horse and cattle breeding are carried on to a considerable extent, 
both by Government at stud depots and by private individuals. The 
Government Horse-Breeding Department maintained in 1883-84, 190 
horse and 167 donkey stallions. Horse fairs were held at ten towns 
in the Punjab in 1883-84, at which 7675 animals were exhibited, and 
prizes to the extent of ;£^ii35 ^^^^ awarded. Twelve cattle fairs were 
held in the same year, at which fees to the extent of £,S^^'^ were 
levied, in return for an expenditure of ;£"i329 on prizes and for other 
purposes. The demands made for carriage during the Afghan cam- 
paign, a succession of bad seasons, drought, and cattle disease for a 
time seriously affected the number of cattle and beasts of burthen in 
the Province ; and although a return of better seasons has occurred of 
late years, the last return of agricultural stock still shows the number of 
horses, cows, and bullocks to be below what they were in 1868. The 
figures for 1883-84 return — Cows and bullocks, 6,707,904 ; horses, 
86,228; ponies, 38,456; donkeys, 351,890; sheep and goats, 4,906,883; 
pigs, 65,955 ; and camels, 174,753. Carts numbered 100,669. 

Forests. — The Forest Department of the Punjab administers an area 
of 4694 square miles in British territory, or in Native States of which 
the forests have been leased to Government. The latter, which are 
situated principally in Chamba and Bashahr, are managed in accordance 
with agreements made with the chiefs of those States. The former are 
subject to the Forest Act (vii. of 1878), the Hazara Forest Regulation 
(11. of 1879), and in a few cases to rules for the conservancy of hill 
Districts, which were published in 1855. A further area of 13,000 
square miles, covered more or less with inferior forest growth, is managed 
by the District Deputy Commissioners, chiefly as grazing ground. 
Efforts have been made to secure the lease of a larger forest area in the 
Simla Hill States, but without success. The above area is divided into 
ten Forest Divisions, namely, Hazara, Rawal Pindi, Jehlam, Gujranwala, 
Chamba, Lahore, Beas, Bashahr, Phillaur, and Miiltan. Of the total 
forest area of 4694 square miles, 1228 square miles are ' reserved,' 311 
square miles are 'protected,' and 3155 square miles are 'unreserved.' 

The forests of the Punjab may be roughly classified as follows : — (i) 
The deodar (Cedrus Deodara) and other pine forests of the higher 
Himalayan ranges in Hazara, Chamba, Killu, and Bashahr ; (2) the 
chil (Pinus longifolia and Pinus excelsa) forests in the Siwaliks and 
other hill tracts in Kangra, Hushiarpur, Gurdaspur and Rawal Pindi 
Districts ; (3) the Changa Manga plantation and such of the shisham 
blocks in the Indus valley as have escaped the action of the river of 
recent years ; (4) the small sal (Shorea robusta) forest at Kalesar in 
Ambala District ; (5) the plain rakhs, situated principally in the bar 

PUNJAB, 281 

tracts, and producing chiefly kikar (Acacia arabica), jay^d (Prosopis 
spicigera), jal (Salvadora persica and S. oleoides), phuldi (Acacia 
modesta), karil (Capparis aphylla), ber (Zizyphus Jujuba), and dhdk 
(Butea frondosa). The working of the Forest Department in 1883-84 
resulted in gross receipts amounting to ;£9i,oi7, against an ex- 
penditure of ^65,314, inchiding a sum of ;^6ooo paid to the 
Maharaja of Kashmir, leaving a surplus or net profit amounting to 

Canals.— ^\\^ canal system of the Punjab consists of the Bari Doab, 
Western Jumna, Sirhind and Swat River Canals, all of which are 
perennial ; and a number of inundation channels, known as the upper 
Sutlej series, the lower Sutlej and Chenab series, the Indus series, the 
Muzaftargarh series, and three inundation canals in Shahpur District, 
which belong to, but are not administered by, the Irrigation Depart- 
ment. The total capital outlay, exclusive of contributions from the 
States of Patidla, Jind, and Nabha, amounted at the close of 1S83-84 
to ^5,033,284. The expenditure during the year amounted to 
^282,524. Of the total outlay, £^^1,^^^ represents the capital 
expenditure on canals in operation, and ^335»746 on canals still under 
construction. The gross revenue of the year from all sources amounted 
to ;£"428,4i6, and the working expenses to ;£i97,o33; the net revenue 
was therefore ;£'23i,383, yielding a return of 4-6 percent, on the total 
outlay, and nearly 5 per cent, on the capital of the canals open. Up to 
the close of 1883-84 the net revenue from the canals had exceeded the 
interest charges by ^2,074,560. The total area irrigated by these 
canals in 1883-84 was 1,652,068 acres. Of this only 5030 acres was 
irrigated by the Sirhind Canal, the main channel of which was only 
opened at the end of 1882. The Swat River Canal was not opened till 
1885, and has not yet been utilized for irrigation. 

Land Temcres.— The following account of the prevailing land tenures 
of the Province is quoted in a slightly condensed form, and with a few 
additions and alterations, from the Funjad Administration Report for 
1872-73, pp. 9-16:— 

According to the statistics of 1872-73, the Punjab has an area of 
65,283,050 acres, or nearly 102,005 square miles. [Area in 1883-84, 
106,772 square miles.] Returns of tenure exist for 30 Districts, being 
wanting only in the case of Kohat and Hazara ; but the Jhang return 
must be rejected, as regards area at least, as it shows the entire area of 
the District, much of which is waste land the property of Government, 
or held by private owners. There remain 29 Districts, with an area of 
90,462 square miles. In these Districts, 1301 villages, with an area of 
4446 square miles, are held by 3579 proprietors of the landlord class ; 
and 29,558 villages, with an area of 63,039 square miles, by 1,955^928 
cultivating proprietors. Taking the Province as a whole, it may be 

282 PUNJAB. 

estimated that between one-fifth and one-sixth of the area is the property 
of Government ; while upwards of four-fifths belongs to private owners. 
The greater part of the area belonging to Government is, however, little 
better than an arid prairie, and could not profitably be brought under 
cultivation without the aid of extensive works of irrigation. Some of 
the more favourably situated portions are preserved as forest or grazing 
lands, and others are held under lease from Government for purposes 
of cultivation ; but almost the entire cultivated area of the Province is 
included in the lands of private owners. 

These lands are held subject to the payment of land revenue to the 
State, or to grantees holding from the State ; and their revenue at pre- 
sent exceeds ;£"2, 365,000 per annum, of which more than ^295,000 
is received by assignees who had, on various grounds, claims to con- 
sideration from Government, In some cases, these assignments are of 
the nature of the release of the revenue of lands belonging to the 
assignees, but they have no necessary connection with proprietary right; 
and in the majority of instances the grantees are merely entitled to 
receive the revenue payable to Government, the amount of which is 
limited in the same way as if it were paid direct to Government, 

From the above figures it will be seen that the great mass of the 
landed property in the Punjab is held by small proprietors, who culti- 
vate their own land in whole or in part. The chief characteristic of the 
tenure generally is, that these proprietors are associated together in 
village communities, having to a greater or less extent joint interests, 
and under our system of cash payments, limited so as to secure a 
certain profit to the proprietors, jointly responsible for the payment of 
the revenue assessed upon the village lands. It is almost an invariable 
incident of the tenure, that if any of the proprietors wishes to sell his 
rights, or is obliged to part with them in order to satisfy demands upon 
him, the other members of the same community have a preferential 
right to purchase them at the same price as could be obtained from 

In some cases, all the proprietors have an undivided interest in all 
the land belonging to the proprietary community, — in other words, all 
the land is in common ; and what the proprietors themselves cultivate 
is held by them as tenants of the community. Their rights are regu- 
tated by their shares in the estate, both as regards the extent of the 
holdings they are entitled to cultivate and as regards the distribution of 
profits ; and if the profits from land held by non-proprietary cultivators 
are not sufficient to pay the revenue and other charges, the balance 
would ordinarily be collected from the proprietors according to the 
same shares. 

It is, however, much more common for the proprietors to have their 
own separate holdings in the estate ; and this separation may extend so 

PUNJAB. 283 

far that there is no land susceptible of separate appropriation which is 
not the separate property of an individual or fiimily. In an extreme 
case like this, the right of pre-emption and the joint responsibility for 
the revenue, in case any of the individual proprietors should fail to 
meet the demand upon him, are, in the absence of common descent, 
almost the only ties which bind the community together. The separa- 
tion, however, generally does not go so far. Often, all the cultivated 
land is held in separate ownership, while the pasture, ponds, or tanks, 
etc., remain in common. In other cases, the land cultivated by tenants 
is the common property of the community ; and it frequently happens 
that the village contains several well-known sub-divisions, each with its 
own separate land, the whole of which may be held in common by the 
proprietors of the sub-division, or the whole may be held in severalty, 
or part in separate ownership and part in common. 

Throughout the greater part of the Province, the organization of the 
proprietors of land into village communities has existed from time 
immemorial, and is the work of the people themselves, and not the 
result of measures adopted either by our own or by previous Govern- 
ments. Indeed, these communities have sometimes been strong enough 
to resist the payment of revenue to the Government of the day; and 
before our rule, nothing was more common than for them to decide 
their disputes by petty wars against each other, instead of having 
recourse to any superior authority to settle them. But in some locali- 
ties, the present communities have been constituted from motives of 
convenience in the application of our system of settlement. Thus, 
in the Simla Hills, and in the mountainous portions of Kangra 
District, the present village communities consist of numerous small 
hamlets, each with its own group of fields and separate lands, and 
which had no bond of union until they were united for administrative 
purposes at the time of the Land Revenue Settlement. In the Miiltan 
Division, again, while regular village communities were frequently found 
in the fertile lands fringing the rivers, all trace of these disappeared 
where the cultivation was dependent on scattered wells beyond the 
influence of the river. Here the well was the true unit of property ; 
but where the proprietors of several wells lived together for mutual 
protection, or their wells were sufficiently near to be conveniently 
included within one village boundary, the opportunity was taken to 
group them into village communities. 

The same course has been followed in some parts of the Derajat 
Division, where small separate properties readily admitting of union 
were found. These arrangements were made possible by the circum- 
stance that the village community system admits of any amount of 
separation of the property of the individual proprietors, and by care 
bein^ taken that in the internal distribution of the revenue demand it 

2 84 PUNJAB. 

should be duly adjusted with reference to the resources of the separate 
holdings. They also, in general, involved the making over in joint 
ownership to the proprietors of the separate holdings of waste land 
situate within the new boundary in which no private property had 
previously existed. The reason for this artificial inclusion of widely 
separated tracts is that among the semi-nomad Baluchis there is no 
intermediate step between the clan and the family. The clan hold a 
considerable tract of country, over which the families live scattered 
in tiny hamlets, each having separate property only in its cultivation 
and irrigation works. An analogous case exists along the Pathan 
frontier, and in the Salt Range, where a dominant race lives in large 
central villages, and a subject population occupy scattered hamlets 
among the fields which they cultivate. Here, again, these hamlets are 
grouped for revenue and administrative purposes by inclusion within 
purely artincial boundaries. 

In some cases, the village communities, while holding and managing 
the land as proprietors, are bound to pay a quit-rent to superior pro- 
prietors under whom they hold. The settlement is made according to 
circumstances, either with the superior proprietor, who colects the 
Government revenue as well as his quit-rent from the communities, or 
w^ith the communities in actual possession of the land, who pay the land 
revenue to Government and the quit-rent to the superior proprietor. 
In either case, the amount which the superior proprietor is entitled to 
collect is determined at settlement, as well as the amount of the land 
revenue demand. 

In the 30 Districts from w^hich returns of tenure were received in 
1872-73, only 435 villages, with an area of 514J square miles, are 
shown as held by superior proprietors collecting the Government 
revenue in addition to their own quit-rent ; but this evidently does not 
include cases where the superior proprietors are also assignees of the 
Government revenue. There are also 13,169 holdings of superior pro- 
prietors who collect only their own quit-rent and are not responsible 
for the Government revenue. The latter are in many cases persons to 
whom the quit-rent was given in commutation of more extensive pro- 
prietary rights, of which they had been dispossessed in favour of the 
present holders. 

There are sometimes also proprietors holding lands within the estates 
of village communities, but who are not members of the communities, 
and are not entitled to share in the common profit, nor liable for 
anything more than the revenue of their own lands, the village charges 
ordinarily paid by proprietors, and the quit-rent, if any, payable to 
the proprietary body of the village. The most common examples of 
this class are the holders of plots at present or formerly revenue free, in 
which the assignees were allowed to get proprietary possession in con- 

PUNJAB. 285 

sequence of having planted gardens or made other improvements, or 
because they had other claims to consideration on the part of the 
village community. In the Rawal Pindi Division, also, it was thought 
proper to record old-established tenants, who had never paid anything 
for the land they held but their proportion of the land revenue and 
village expenses, and had long paid direct to the collectors of the 
revenue — but were not descended from the original proprietary body — 
as owners of their own holdings, while not participating in the common 
rights and liabilities of the proprietary community. Except in the 
Jehlam and Rawal Pindi Districts, where a small quit-rent was imposed, 
these inferior proprietors were not required to pay anything in excess of 
their proportion of the Government revenue and other village charges. 
In Gujrat, at the time of the first regular settlement, this class held no 
less than 10 per cent, of the total cultivated area, and in Rawal Pindi it 
paid 9 per cent, of the revenue. In Rawal Pindi the persons recorded 
as proprietors of their own holdings only were in some cases the repre- 
sentatives of the original proprietary \>Qd.y,jagirddrs having established 
proprietary rights over what were formerly the common lands of the 

In Miiltan and Muzaffargarh, and perhaps in some other Districts 
in the south of the Punjab, a class of proprietors distinct from the 
owners of the land, is found under the name of chakddrs, siJlanddrs, or 
kasurkhwdrs. These are the owners of wells, or occasionally of irriga- 
tion channels, constructed at their expense in land belonging to others. 
I'hey possess hereditary and transferable rights, both in the well or 
irrigation channel and in the cultivation of the land irrigated from it, 
but may be bought out by the proprietor repaying the capital they have 
expended. They are generally entitled to arrange for the cultivation, 
paying a small fixed proportion of the produce to the proprietor, and 
being responsible for the Government revenue. Sometimes, however, 
the management of the property has been made over to the proprietor, 
who pays the Government revenue ; and the chakddr receives from him 
a fixed proportion of the produce, called hak kasiir. Or a third party 
may manage the property, paying the Government revenue and the hak 
kasur, out of which the chakddr pays the proprietor's allowance. 

In Jhang, and possibly in other Districts, a tenure known as hdthrakhai 
exists, where the old proprietor, worn down by the extortionate demands 
of the Sikh officials, has made over his land in absolute property to some 
stranger who had sufficient influence with the Government to secure 
favourable terms, on condition of the latter accepting all responsibility 
for the payment of the revenue, and allowing the original proprietor to 
continue to cultivate. In Rawal Pindi, also, there is a small class of 
well proprietors in the position of middle-men, paying cash rent to the 
owner of the land, and receiving a grain rent from the cultivator. 


In the 30 Districts from which returns are available (1872), the 
number of tenant holdings is about 1,100,000, as against 3661 landlord 
proprietors and nearly 2,000,000 cultivating proprietors. 

Tenants entered as having rights of occupancy are 378,997, 5O5685 
as holding conditionally, 1,232,467 as tenants-at-will, and 33,932 as 
holders of service grants excused from revenue or rent other than the 
customary service by the proprietors. After the necessary correction 
for Rohtak District, the tenants-at-will can scarcely be estimated at 
more than 650,000 ; and this number and the number of tenants 
entered as holding conditionally has been considerably reduced by the 
revision of tenancy entries in the Amritsar Division and in Lahore 
and Gujranwala Districts, while the number of tenants with right of 
occupancy has been correspondingly increased. Tenants with rights of 
occupancy have a heritable, but not, except in the case of a few of a 
superior class, transferable tenure. 

Commerce and Trade, etc. — The great centres of trade in the Punjab 
are Lahore, Amritsar, Miiltan, Ambala, Delhi, and Peshawar. The 
channels of external traffic fall into four great divisions. That on the 
north frontier comprises the trade with Kashmir, Ladakh, Yarkand, 
Chinese Tibet, and Central Asia generally ; the imports being valued in 
1875-76 at ;£'622,99i, and the exports at £i^\,2\2. In 1883-84 
the imports amounted to ^605,782 in value, and the exports to 
^439,230. That on the west frontier includes the trade with Kabul, 
Tirah, and Siwestan, with imports in 1875-76 valued at ;£93 7,188, 
and exports at ;£ 840,0 17. Of late years, the trans-frontier trade 
with Kabul has greatly fallen off, and in 1883-84 only amounted to— 
imports valued at ^292,858, and exports ^567,287. By both the 
northern and western trans-frontier routes, the traffic inward consists 
of charas (an intoxicating preparation of Indian hemp), dyes of various 
kinds, goat's wool, raw silk, fruits and nuts, wood, furs and feathers, 
and shawl cloth ; while indigo, grain, metals, salt, spices, tea, tobacco, 
Indian and European cotton cloth, hides and leather, form the chief 
items of return trade. An enormous and increasing trade with Europe 
takes place, Delhi being the great centre for manufactured imports, 
while the chief local marts of the grain trade, mentioned below, are 
the head-quarters of the export trade. Since the opening of the 
Rajputana-Malwa Railway to Delhi, Bombay has taken the place of 
Calcutta as the port of shipment for the export trade with Europe. 

The internal trade of the Punjab consists mainly of — (i) The 
Indus traffic with Sind and Karachi, of which Miiltan is the centre, and 
to which Fazilka and Firozpur contribute by collecting grain and wool 
from Rajputana and the eastern plains, and sending it down the Sutlej, 
or by rail to join the Indus Valley State Railway. (2) The trade with 
eastern Rajputana, of which Delhi is the great centre, and Riwari and 


PUNJAB. 287 

Bhiwdni the principal feeders, salt and wool being imported, and sugar, 
cotton, and oil-seeds exported. (3) The export of grain and cotton 
eastwards from the eastern plains, Ludhiana and Delhi being the 
principal collecting places ; and from the western plains, of which 
Lahore is the centre. (4) The salt traffic of the western Punjab, of 
which Lahore is still the head-quarters, although not to the same 
extent as it used to be before the opening of the railway direct to the 
salt mines. (5) Trade in local manufactures. 

As the Punjab is essentially an agricultural country, the exports 
consist chiefly of grain, cotton, salt, and other raw produce; while the 
imports comprise cloth, hardware, and other manufactured articles. 
The mineral wealth of the Province is almost confined to its rich 
deposits of rock-salt. {See Mayo Mines, Kalabagh, Salt Range, 
and Jehlam, Shahpur, and Kohat Districts.) The principal manu- 
facture of the Punjab is that of cotton cloth, valued in 1883-84 at 
;jf 2,200,000. The other main items include wood-work, iron, leather, 
gold and silver lace, silk, and shawls. The total number of manufac- 
tories at work in the Province in 1875-76 was returned at 501,165, 
employing 1,407,91 1 workmen, with an estimated out-turn of ^5,398,282. 
In 1882-83, the last year for which statistics are available, there were 
406 mills or large manufactories at work in the Punjab, besides 484,399 
private looms or small works, employing 919,391 native workmen, 
the estimated total value of the out-turn being ;^i3, 7 10,062. 

CommimicatioTis, etc. — The railway system of the Punjab is a continua- 
tion of that which extends from Calcutta into the North-Western Pro- 
vinces, and has now been put into direct connection with the sea at 
Karachi (Kurrachee) in Sind. The East Indian Railway sends a 
branch across the Jumna at Delhi, w^hence the Rajputana State Rail- 
way runs southward through Delhi and Gurgaon Districts into Raj- 
putana, ultimately extended to Bombay. The Sind Punjab and 
Delhi Railway (now taken over by Government and re-named the 
North-Western Railway) continues the main system through the Gan- 
getic Doab, crossing the Jumna into this Province from Saharanpur 
District, and runs via Ambala, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, and Amritsar to 
Lahore. Thence the Northern Punjab State Railway continues the 
line as far as Peshawar on the north-west frontier; while the Indus 
Valley Railway (now a branch of the North-Western Railway) unites 
Lahore and Multan with Bahawalpur, Sukkur (Sakhar), and Karachi. 
The total length of railways in the Province in 1875-76 amounted to 
663 miles, increased by 1883-84 to 11 88 miles. A large part of the 
heavy traffic is conveyed by country boats on the Five Rivers, and 
thence by the Indus to the sea, although the river trade is now to a 
large extent subsidiary to the railway. Excellent metalled roads also 
connect the main centres of trade and the District head-quarters. 

288 PUNJAB. 

In 1883-84 there were 18 17 miles of metalled and 21,949 miles of 
unmetalled roads in the Province. The navigable rivers afford 2685 
miles of water communication. Total length of telegraph lines, 2076 
miles in 1S83. The Imperial Post-Office conveyed 9,887,643 letters in 
1869, and 23,764,182 in 1883. During the 15 years 1869-83, the 
number of newspapers officially returned as published in the Punjab 
increased from 13 to 54. 

Admi7iistratio7i. — For administrative purposes, the Punjab is divided 
into 10 Divisions, namely, Delhi, Hissar, Ambala, Jalandhar, 
Amritsar, Lahore, Rawal Pindi, Multan, the Derajat, and 
Peshawar, each of which see separately. These Divisions comprise 
32 Districts. The total revenue of the Province for the year 1876-77 
amounted to ;£3,837,599. of which ^2,005,814 was contributed by the 
land-tax. The expenditure for the same year was returned at;£i,945,858. 
In 1883-84 the total revenue of the Punjab— Imperial, Provincial, 
Local— amounted to £zro^'i,S'^9^ and the expenditure to ^2,111,400, 
shown in detail in the table on opposite page. 

Jails and Police.— Y\\q Punjab contained in 1883-84, 35 Central 

and District Jails, besides 18 subsidiary prisons or lock-ups, with 

a total daily average of 12,355 prisoners, of whom 456 were females, 

or an average of i prisoner in jail to every 1445 of the population. 

The convict prison population averaged 11,469 per day. The total 

cost of the jails, excluding new buildings and repairs, amounted to 

^72,733. Average cost per convicted prisoner, ;^6, os. 6d., or 

deducting prisoner's net earnings, ^^5, is. per head. The total police 

force (excluding the semi-military frontier police) at the end of 1883 

including imperial, cantonment, railway, village, canal, and ferry 

police — consisted of 78 superior officers, 556 subordinate officers, 772 

mounted constables, and 19,141 foot constables; total of all ranks, 

20,547, giving I policeman to every 5-18 square miles of area, or 

to every 916 of the population. Total cost of police, ;^32 2,464, of 

which ;,^267,o42 was paid from Provincial revenues, and ;£55,422 

from municipal and cantonment funds or other local sources. The 

number of criminal offences returned as 'true' in 1883 was 95,446, of 

which 78,892 were brought to trial. Of 167,687 persons brought to 

trial, 98,962 were acquitted or discharged, 66,011 were convicted, 223 

were transferred to other Provinces, w^hile 2491 remained under trial at 

the end of the year. Murder forms the principal serious crime along 

the north-western frontier and in the trans-Indus tract, committed 

chiefly by the semi-civilised Pathan and Baluch clans, chiefly from 

motives of revenge or jealousy. In 1883, out of a total of 346 murders 

committed in the Province, 175 occurred in the comparatively small 

trans-Indus tract, as against 171 in the whole of the rest of the Punjab. 

Cattle-lifting is also a very prevalent crime. 

\Conti7iited 071 page 290. 



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290 PUNJAB, 

Cojitumed from page 288.] 

Military. — Thirty-eight towns, cantonments, and military stations in 
the Punjab are garrisoned by the Bengal Army, with a total force in 
March 1884 of 15,868 European and 18,083 Native troops; total, 
33,951 officers and men of all ranks, with 96 field guns. The Punjab 
Frontier Force numbers in all (March 1884) 12,491 officers and men, 
with 16 guns. Artillery numbers 757; cavalry, 2574; and infantry, 
9158. European officers number 186; Native commissioned officers, 
248; non-commissioned officers and fighting men, 10,837, besides 
camp followers. The main body of the force is cantoned along the 
frontier at Abbottabad, Mardan, Kohat, Edwardesabad, Dera Ismail 
Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan, and Rajanpur, with 46 outpost stations, of 
which 22 were held in 1884 by detachments of regular cavalry and 
infantry and the remainder by locally raised militia levies. The 
Punjab Volunteer Administrative Battalion consists of three rifle corps, 
one with its head-quarters at Lahore, a second with its head-quarters at 
Simla, and a third or railway corps stationed along the line of railway, 
with its head-quarters at Lahore. Total strength of volunteers in 
March 1884, 1583, of whom 1539 were efficients. 

Educatio7i. — The Punjab University dates only from 1882, when its 
first convocation was held at Lahore in the presence of the Viceroy. 
The institution is rapidly gaining in popularity, and in its second year 
may be said to have rivalled the Calcutta University, so far as regards 
natives of the Punjab. The principal educational institutions are the 
Lahore Government College; Oriental College; St. Stephen's College, 
Delhi ; Lahore Medical School ; St. Thomas' College, Murree ; Bishop 
Cotton School, Simla ; and the Lawrence Military i\sylum, Sanawar, 
the largest European school in the Punjab. The following are the 
educational statistics for the year ending 31st March 1884. Univer- 
sity education is provided for by 2 arts colleges, attended by 152 pupils ; 
secondary education by 26 high schools, with 928 pupils; and 211 
boys' middle schools, with 6774 pupils. Boys' primary schools 
numbered 1629, with 106,901 pupils. Technical education is provided 
by the Lahore Training College, with 57 pupils; the Mayo School of 
Art, with 62 pupils; the Medical School, with 159 pupils; 4 normal 
schools for male teachers, with 206 pupils ; and 3 industrial schools, 
with 79 pupils. Total schools for boys, 1878, with 114,755 pupils. 
For female education there are 6 middle and -^T^^i primary schools, 
attended by 10,378 girls; besides 6 normal schools with 191 pupils, 
and I industrial school with 19 pupils. Total number of institutions 
in 1883-84, 2227, of which 348 were for girls. Total number of 
pupils, 125,906, of whom 10,588 were girls. The above figures do not 
include the Lawrence Military Asylum School at Sanawar, which had 
424 boys and girls on its rolls at the annual inspection in September 


PUNJAB. 291 

1SS3. The total cost of education to the State in 1883-84 amounted 


Temperature and Clituate. — Owing to its geographical position, its 
scanty rainfall and cloudless skies, and perhaps to the wide expanse of 
untilled plains, the climate of the Punjab presents greater extremes 
of both heat and cold than any other part of India. The extreme 
heat of the summer months begins to moderate about the middle 
of September; and after the beginning of October, though the days 
are still hot, the nights are fairly cool. From that time the tem- 
perature sinks lower and lowxr, till the minimum is reached with the 
fall of the winter rains in the early part of January, when sharp frosts 
are common, and water exposed at night with due precautions is frozen 
in all parts of the Province. The temperature then rises again slowly 
but steadily till the end of ]\Iarch. With April the hot weather proper 
may be said to begin. 

For the next three months the Punjab acts as the exhaust-chamber 
of India, and creates that monsoon of which it enjoys so small a share. 
The great plains bake throughout the long summer days, the heated 
air rises, and with it the barometer, the wind rushes in from the area 
of greatest pressure to the west and south-west to supply the partial 
void, and dust-laden hot winds sweep with unbroken violence over the 
open plains, while the dancing air seems to blaze with the glare 
reflected from the ground. It is said that the fierceness of this heat 
has a beneficial effect in disintegrating and preparing for tillage the 
fallow fields, similar to that exercised by frost in more frigid climates. 

Towards the end of June the wind changes — at least in the east of 
the Province; the vapour -laden monsoon travelling up the Ganges 
Valley approaches the border ; the sky grows heavy with clouds, and 
the heat becomes stifling almost beyond endurance, till the first burst 
of the welcome rains relieves the tension. The succeeding three 
months constitute the rainy season. The heat of July is hardly less 
intense than that of June, but the air is moist, while from the middle 
of August the temperature gradually falls, and it again becomes 
possible to bel eve in the existence of winter. 

On the hills, the seasons and their changes are very similar, though 
of course the heat is much more moderate, and the cold much more 
severe. From the middle of December to the middle of January, snow- 
storms are heavy and frequent throughout the Himalayas proper; while 
even in the height of summer the thermometer seldom rises above 90" 
in the shade. 

The following are the temperatures recorded in 1883 at a station 
in the east, centre, and north-west of the Punjab i)lains, together with 
that of the hill station of Simla: — (i) Delhi— May, maximum, 1 16-6° F. ; 
minimum, 68-2°; mean, 93*4°: July, maximum, 103*6°; minimum, 

292 PUXJAB. 

76': mean. S9*5': December, maximum, 76'7\; minimum, 41 '3'; 
mean, 6o-6°. (2) Lahore — May, maximum, 112-5'; minimum, 64'6^ ; 
mean, S8"5° : July, maximum, ii4'5°; minimum, 75*9°: mean, 92'3'' : 
December, maximum, 737° : minimum. 36' ; mean, 56°. (3) Dera 
Ismail Khan — May, maximum, 113-5°; minimum, 64*8°: mean. ZZ-i"'. 
July, maximum, 110-5° : minimum, 70-8'^; mean, 92-4° : December, 
maximum. 76-7°: minimum, 34°; mean, 55-9°. (4) Simla — May, 
maximum. 87-4°; minimum, 44-6° ; mean. 68-4': July, maximum, 
76-5°: minimum, 57"9'; mean, 66-9': December, maximum, 61-9'; 
minimum, 3i'6°; mean. 45'S\ 

Rainfall. — The Punjab enjoys two well-marked seasons of rainfall 
— the monsoon, lasting from the middle of June to the end of 
September, which brings by far the greater portion of the annual 
supply, and upon which the autumn crops and spring sowings depend ; 
and the winter rains, which fall early in January', and although 
insignificant in amount, affect ver}* materially the prospects of the 
spring hardest. The rainfall is heavier in the Himalayas than in any 
other portion of the Province, the vapour-laden air from the south- 
east and south precipitating its water as it rises to top the great 
mountain barrier across its path. The highest average of the 
Province is 126^^ inches at Dharmsala. Excepting the Alpine regions, 
the rainfall is greatest in the east of the Province. In the plain 
country, the rainfall decreases rapidly as the distance frcm the hills 
increases, and markedly also, though less rapidly, proceeding from 
east to west. The submontane zone, which skirts the foot of the 
mountains, has an annual fall of from 30 to 40 inches, while in 
the strip of country- lying along the right bank of the Jumna, the 
average is between 25 and 30 inches. But in no other portion of the 
Province, except in the ponions of the Salt Range immediately under 
the hills, are these figures approached. In the eastern plains the 
annual fall may be said, roughly speaking, to decrease by about i 
inch for ever}^ 10 miles of distance from the hills, and ranges along 
their southern border between 20 inches in the east (Rohtak) and 15 
in the west (Sirsa). But directly the meridian of Lahore is crossed, 
and the great steppes of the western plains are entered, the figures 
fall to 8 or 10 inches, while in the neighbourhood of Miiltan in the 
extreme south-west of the Province, the yearly average is only from 5 
to 6 inches. The great rivers have a slight local effect in increasing 
the amount of rain precipitated in their immediate neighbourhood : and 
this influence is of more importance than appears from bare statistics, 
as the addition thus made to the total annual fall is distributed in the 
form of occasional showers which often bring timely moisture to the crops. 

Medical Asfcrfs. — The principal endemic disease of the Punjab is 
fever. Small-pcx and cholera in a more or less epidemic form are rarely 


entirely absent from some portion of the Province. The total numljer 
of births registered in 1883-84 was 734,912, giving a birth-rate of 39 
per thousand, varying from a maximum of 53-32 per thousand in 
Sialkot, to a minimum of 10-04 per thousand at Simla. The registered 
deaths in the same year numbered 475,741, or giving a death-rate of 
25 per thousand, as against an average of 31-6 per thousand for the 
previous five years. The deaths from fevers alone numbered 306,185, 
or 16-25 per thousand of the population. The Province contained in 
1883-84, 191 hospitals and dispensaries, affording medical relief to 
38,016 in-door and 1,560,240 out-door patients, at a total cost of 
^'44,261, of which Government contributed £10^0. 

Punjab Native States. — The Native States in dependence on 
the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab are 36 in number, com- 
prising an area of 35,817 square miles, and a population in 1881 of 
3,861,683 persons, as shown in the table on next page. Until recently, 
Kashmir was included among the Punjab States, but in 1877 it was 
l)laced under the direct political control of the Government of India. 

Of the above 36 States, four, namely, Patiala, Bahawalpur, Jind, 
and Nabha, are under the direct control of the Lieutenant-Governor 
of the Punjab; one — Chamba, under the Commissioner of Amritsar ; 
two, namely, Maler Kotla and Kalsia, with the twenty-two Simla Hill 
States, under the Commissioner of Ambala ; three — Kapiirthala, 
Mandi, and Suket, under the Commissioner of Jalandhar; one — 
Faridkot, under the Commissioner of Lahore; one~Pataudi, under 
the Commissioner of Delhi ; and two— Loharu and Dujana, under the 
Commissioner of Hissar. 

Relations with Governmetit.—ThQ relations of the British Govern- 
with Bahawalpur are regulated by treaty ; those with the other States 
by sa?iads or charters from the Governor-General. Patiala, Jind, and 
Maler Kotla furnish a quota of horsemen for service in British territory 
in lieu of tribute. The other States pay a money tribute, aggregatmg 
;£2 7,907 in 1883-84. The States of Patiala, Jind, and Nabha are 
ruled by members of the Phulkian family. Should the ruling line in 
any of these States become extinct in respect of direct heirs, the safiads 
provide for the selection of a collateral as successor by the chiefs of 
the other two States. A nazardna or relief is payable to the British 
Government by the collateral heir who succeeds. The Phulkian chiets, 
and also the Raja of Faridkot, are bound by sanad to execute justice, 
and to promote the welfare of their people; to prevent sati, slavery, and 
female infanticide; to co-operate with the British Government against an 
enemy, and to furnish supplies to troops ; and to grant, free of expense, 
land required for railways and imperial lines of road. On the other 
hand, the British Government has guaranteed them full and unreserved 

\Co}itimied on page 295. 



Area, Population, etc., of the Punjab Native States 
IN 1881. 

No. of 




Area in 




: No. of 

; Houses. 

No. of 



Both Sexes 


1 Females. 




Patiala, . 

iXabha, . 



Faridkot, . 
1 Maler Kotla, . 
! Kalsia, . 

Duiana, . 
! Pataudf, . 
1 Loharu, . 

Bahawalpur, . 

Total Plains, 











1 42,019 








j 37,633 




i 113.979 





1 62,787 

249, 862 


! 112,953 





1 19.587 



















1 5.022 

! 4.136 





















i 122,623 














Mandi, . 
Chamba, . 
Nahan, . 
Bilaspur, . 
Bashahr, . 
Suket, . 























49, 066 

































10.000 , 

Baghal, . 
Jabbal, . 
Bhajji, . . 
Kumharsain, . 
Mailog, . 
Baghat, . 
Kuthar, . 




























1. 791 












I, coo 










































Sangri, . 
Kunhiar, . 
Bija, . 
Mangal, . 
Darkoti, . 

Total Hills, 

Grand Total of> 
Punjab States, j 















1. 153 


































'" 60 




























Contitiued from page 293.] 

possession of their territories. They and Bahawalpur differ from the 
remaining feudatories in the fact that they possess power to inflict 
capital punishment upon their subjects. The treaties with Bahawalpur 
define the supreme position of the British Government, and bind the 
Nawab to act in accordance with the wishes of Government, while in 
turn the British Government engages to protect the State. Saiiads of 
varying import are also possessed by the minor feudatories. 

Religio7i.—0{ the chiefs, those of I^ahawalpur, Maler Kotla. Pataudi, 
Loharu, and Dujana are Muhammadans ; those of Patia!a, Jind, 
Nabha, Kapiirthala, Faridkot, and Kalsia are Sikhs ; and the rest are 
Hindus. Of the Muhammadan chiefs, the Nawab of Bahawalpur is 
head of the Daudpiitra tribe, and a descendant of Bahawal Khan, who 
acquired independence during the collapse of the Afghan Sadozai 
kingdom at the commencement of the present century. The 
Nawab of Maler Kotla is a member of an Afghan family which came 
from Kabul about the time of the rise of the Mughal Empire; his 
ancestors held offices of importance under the Delhi kings, and became 
independent as the Mughal dynasty sank into decay. The chiefs of 
Pataudi and Dujana are descended from Afghan adventurers, and the 
Nawab of Loharu from Mughal, upon whom estates were conferred by 
the British Government as a reward for services rendered to Lord Lake 
in the beginning of this century. 

Jiace. — With one exception, the Sikh chiefs belong to the Jat race. 
Chaudhri Phul, the ancestor of the houses of Paliala, Jind, and Xabha, 
died in 1652. His descendants took advantage of the breaking up 
of the Mughal Empire in the eighteenth century, and of the confusion 
that attended the successive Persian, Afghan, and Maratha invasions of 
Delhi, to establish themselves, at the head of marauding bands of Sikh 
horsemen, in the cis-Sutlej Provinces, and eventually, to rise into 
independent chiefs. The Raja of Kapiirthala belongs to the Kalal 
tribe, and his ancestor, Jassa Singh, took rank among the Sikh Sardars 
about the middle of the last century. The founder of the Faridkot 
family, a Burar Jat by tribe, rose to prominence in the service of 
Babar. Jodh Singh founded the Kalsia State about a hundred years 
ago. The remaining chiefs, whose territories lie along the lower 
Himalayan hill ranges, are principally of Rajput descent, claiming a 
very ancient lineage. 

Chiefs who are Minors. — The rulers of Patiala, Kapiirthala, Chamba, 
Suket, Pataudi, and Taroch are (1884) minors. The State of Patiala 
is administered by a Council of Regency, composed of a President, 
Sardar Sir Dewa Singh, K.C.S.I., and two members, Chaudhri Charat 
Ram and Namdar Khan. A British medical officer supervises the 
education of the Maharaja and his brother. Kapiirthala and Chamba 


are under the direct management of British officers ; in the remainder 
of the States, Native Superintendents carry on the administration with 
the assistance of relatives of the minors or of the State officials, and 
under the general control of the Commissioners of the Divisions under 
whose charge the States are respectively placed. Further information 
will be found in a separate article for each State under its respective 
alphabetical heading. 

Punnah.— State and town in Bundelkhand.— .Sf^ Panna. 

Pun-na-riep {Poon-na-riep). — Village in the Mo-nyo township of 
Tharawadi District, Pegu Division, Lower Burma. — See Pon-na-reip. 

Punniar. — Battle-field in Gwalior State, Central India. —^^^ 

Plinpun.— River of South Behar, rising in the extreme south of 
Gaya District, in lat. 24° 30' n., and long. 84° 11' e. It flows towards 
the Ganges, into Patna District, in a north-easterly course, more or less 
parallel to that of the Son, till it approaches the canal at Naubatpur, 
where it takes a bend to the east, crossing the Patna and Gaya road 
about 10 miles from Bankipur, and joining the Ganges at Fatwa. 
About 9 miles above its junction with the Ganges, the Punpiin i> 
joined by the Miirhar. Lat. 25° 28' 45" n., long. 85° 13' 30" e. The 
width of the Piinpun, which is enclosed with high steep banks, is here 
about 100 yards. 

Plir. — Town in the Native State of Udaipur, Rajputana. Situated 
about 60 miles to the north-east of Udaipur town, in the centre of the 
tract set apart as a provision for the bdbds or relations of the blood- 
royal. About a mile to the east of the town is an isolated hill of blue 
slate, in which garnets have been found. Piir is one of the oldest 
towns in Me war, and, according to tradition, bears date anterior to 

Puraiyar (or Poraydr).~i:Q\^xi in Tanjore District, Madras 
Presidency; situated in lat. 11' 1° n., and long. 79° 53' e., close to, 
and a suburb of, Tranquebar. — See Tranquebar. 

Purandhar. — Sub-division of Poona (Piina) District, Bombay 
Presidency. Area, 470 square miles, containing i town and 91 
villages. Population (1881) 75,678, namely, 37,478 males and 38,200 
females. Hindus number 73^536; Muhammadans, 1570; and 'others,' 
572. Purandhar, one of the southern Sub-divisions of Poona, with its 
head-quarters at Saswad, is a hilly tract. The ranges run north-east and 
south-west, dividing the tract into two valleys, along which flow almost 
parallel streams. The spur of the Sahyadris, which forms the watershed 
between the Bhima and the Nira, runs along the northern boundary of 
the Sub-division. Its chief peaks are those in which stand Malhargarh 
fort, and the Hindu temples of Bhuleswar and Dhavaleswar. A branch 
of the same spur fills the southern half of the Sub-division, the only 


important peak being crowned by the twin forts of Purandhar and 
AVazirgarh. Tiie general level is about 2800 feet above the sea; but 
the hill of Purandhar is nearly 1700 feet higher, on which, about 400 
feet from the summit, is Purandhar fort. The Nira, with its small feeder 
the Karha, and the Ganjauni, are the principal streams. The Karha, 
from the lowness of the banks, is of great use to landholders, who hold 
back its water by means of dams, and raise it with lifts. When the 
Nira water-works are completed, a large area of the Sub-division will 
be commanded. Besides 280 wells used for drinking purposes, about 
1677 wells are used for irrigation. The raw sugar of Purandhar is 
much prized for its quality, which is said to be due to the peculiar 
practice of keeping the cane in the ground 18 months. The cane 
is planted in May or June, and cut in November or December of 
the following year. The chief crop is bajra, which covers 48 per 
cent, of the whole area under tillage; the next is yWr, with 27-2 
per cent. Of the whole area under cultivation, 51-5 per cent, are 
under early, and 48-5 per cent, under late crops. The height above 
the sea, the unfailing water-supply, and the woody valleys, combine 
to make Purandhar one of the pleasantest and healthiest parts of the 
District. The western branch of the Southern Maratha Railway 
(now under construction) traverses the Sub-division. The thrifty, 
skilful husbandmen, the Nira Canal, and railway communication, 
have combined to draw attention to Purandhar as the most favourable 
part of the Deccan in which to try the experiment of an agricultural 
bank. The area cultivated in 1881-82 was 124,046 acres, of which 
2225 acres were twice cropped. Grain crops occupied 117,997 acres; 
pulses, 5233 acres; oil-seeds, 501 acres; fibres, 91 acres; and miscel- 
laneous crops, 2449 acres, of which 1022 were under sugar-cane. In 
1883 the Sub-division contained i civil and 2 criminal courts ; police 
circle (//mW), i; regular police, 58 men; village watch {chaukiddrs), 
233. Land revenue, ^9798. 

Purandhar. — Once a fortress, and now a sanitarium for European 
troops, in Purandhar Sub -division, Poona (Piina) District, Bombay 
Presidency. It really comprises two hill forts, Purandhar and Wazir- 
garh, and lies in lat. 18° 16' 33" n., and long 74° o' 45" e. ; 20 miles 
south-east of Poona city. The highest point of the mountain of 
Purandhar is upwards of 1700 feet above the plain below, and 4472 
feet above sea-level. Purandhar is larger, higher, and more import- 
ant than Wazirgarh. The summit of both hills is crowned with a 
masonry ruin studded here and there with bastions. Purandhar is 
varied by two elevations, on the higher of which, the loftiest point in 
the range, is a temple to Siva. The hill on which this temple stands 
is part of the upper fort of Purandhar. On the northern face of the 
hill, 300 feet below the temple and upwards of 1000 feet above the plain, 


runs a level terrace on which stands the military cantonment, flanked 
on the east by the barracks and on the west by the hospital. The 
northern edge of the terrace is defended by a low wall with several 
semicircular bastions, and a gate flanked by two towers. This is called 
the Machi or terrace fort. At the foot of the hill is a well-built rest- 
house, from which the ascent leads by a wide, easy road. From the 
middle of the cantonment, a winding road, 830 yards long, runs 
towards the upper fort, ending in a flight of rude stone steps which 
wind between a loop-holed wall of masonry and the basalt cliff on which 
the fort stands. A sharp turn leads suddenly to the Delhi Gate, flanked 
by solid bastion towers. The defences, like most of the hill forts in 
this part of the country, are of perpendicular rock, and are weakened 
rather than strengthened by curtain^s and bastions of masonry. 

The earliest known mention of Purandhar is in the reign of the first 
Bahmani king, Ala-ud-din Hassan Gangu (1347-1358), who obtained 
possession of almost the whole of Maharashtra, from the Purandhar 
range to the Kaveri (Cauvery), and fortified Purandhar in 1350. During 
the early rule of the Bijapur and Ahmadnagar kings, Purandhar was 
among the forts which were reserved by the Government, and never 
entrusted X.o jdgirddrs or estate-holders. The fort of Purandhar passed 
to Maloji, the grandfather of Sivaji, when Bahudar Nizam Shah of 
Ahmadnagar (1576-1599) granted him Poona and Supa. In 1665 it 
was invested by the forces of Aurangzeb, under the command of 
Raja Jai Singh, the famous Rajput general, assisted by the Afghan 
Diler Khan. Though the defence by Baji Prabhu, a Dashpandya of 
Mhar, who was the commandant of the fort, was obstinate, Sivaji 
appears to have been so intimidated at the prospect of the fall ot 
Purandhar that he surrendered it, together with Singhgarh, and 
entered the service of Aurangzeb. He revolted, however, and 
recaptured Purandhar in 1670. After the power of the Peshwas had 
superseded that of the descendants of Sivaji at Poona, Purandhar 
was the usual stronghold to which the Peshwas retreated when unable 
to remain in safety at their capital. In 18 18, Purandhar was invested 
by a British force under General Pritzler. On the 14th of March a 
mortar battery opened on it; and on the 15th, Wazirgarh admitted a 
British garrison. As Wazirgarh commanded Purandhar, the com- 
mandant had to accept the terms given to that garrison, and the 
British colours were hoisted at Purandhar on the i6th March t8i8. 
The fort commands a passage through the Ghats, called the Purandhar 
Ghat. Here, in 1776, was concluded a treaty between the British 
Government and the Maratha States; but its conditions were never 
fulfilled, being overruled by the subsequent treaty of Salbai in 1782 
between the Bombay Government and Raghuba, at the close of the 
first Maratha war. 



Puranigudam. — River-side village in Nowgong District, Assam, 
whose inhabitants are engaged in fishing and trade. 

Purara. — Zaminddii or petty chiefship in the south-cast of Bhandard 
District, Central Provinces, along the Bagh river; comprising 7 villages. 
Area, 37 square miles, of which 7 are cultivated. Population (1881) 
3517. The chief is a Gond, and the population consists mainly of 
Gonds and Goards. The forests contain good building timber, but are 
infested by tigers. Purara, the chief village, is situated in lat. 21° 9' n., 
long. 80° 26' E. 

Puri. — A District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of Bengal, forming 
the southern portion of the Orissa Division ; lying between 19° 27' 40" 
and 20° 16' 20" N. lat., and between 85° o' 26" and 86° 28' e. long. Area, 
2473 square miles; population (1881) 888,487 souls. Bounded on 
the north by the Government estate of Banki, and Athgarh Tributary 
State ; on the east and north-east by Cuttack District ; on the south- 
east and south by the Bay of Bengal ; and on the west by the Madras 
District of Ganjam and the State of Ranpur. The head -quarters of 
the District are at Puri Town. 

Physical Aspects. — Puri District generally may be divided into three 
tracts — west, middle, and east. The western extends from the right 
bank of the Daya river across the stone country of Dandimdl and 
Khurdha, till it rises into the hills of the Tributary States. It contains 
the only mountains found in Puri. Alow range, beginning in Dompara 
and running south-east in an irregular line towards the Chilka Lake, con- 
stitutes a watershed between this tract and the Mahanadi river. The 
most important peaks are in the Khurdha Sub-division. On the north 
of the Chilka they become bold and very varied in shape, and throw 
out spurs and promontories into the lake, forming island-studded bays, 
with fertile valleys running far inland between their ridges. The middle 
and eastern divisions consist entirely of alluvial plains, the south-western 
part of the Mahanadi delta. They are watered by a network of channels, 
through which the most southerly branch of that river, the Koydkhai, 
finds its way into the sea. The middle tract comprises the richest and 
most populous /^/'^^;m^ of the District; the eastern is less thickly 
peopled, and in the extreme east loses itself in the jungles around the 
mouths of the Devi stream. The following scheme briefly shows the 
river system of the District : — 

f Kusbhadra { "^^.J^ Kusbhadrd } Bay of Bengal. 

Koydkhai \ ( Bhargavi Bhargavi ) 

Bhdrgavi \ Niin | j^^. , Chilkd Lake. 

( Daya \ ^ ) 

All these rivers are navigable by large boats during the rainy season, 
but none is deep enough for boats of 100 viaiinds^ or say 4 tons 

3CO rURI. 

burden, throughout the year. Only one of them, the Kusbhadra, 
enters the sea. It follows a very winding course, and is of little value 
for navigation. Its bed has silted up, and its floods devastate the 
surrounding country. The three rivers most important to the people of 
Puri are the Bhargavi, the Daya, and the Niin, which all enter the 
Chilka Lake after running widely diverse courses. In the rainy season 
they come down in tremendous floods, that burst the banks and carry 
everything before them. In the dry weather they die away into long 
shallow pools in the midst of vast expanses of sand. Their banks are 
generally abrupt, and in many parts are artificially raised and protected 
by strong dykes. The total length of Government embankments in 
Puri District amounted in 1866 to 316 J miles, with 43 sluices, main- 
tained at an annual cost of ^7, i6s. per mile. 

The total cost to Government of inundations in Puri District 
amounted, for construction of embankments, etc., and remission of 
revenue alone, to ^79,963 in fifteen years, equivalent to a charge of 
10 per cent, on the total land revenue of the District. In addition to 
this large sum, it is estimated that the single flood of 1866 destroyed 
standing crops to the value of ^£"643,683 in Puri District alone, not- 
withstanding that 10,620 acres of fertile land are permanently left 
untilled for fear of inundation. The truth is, that the Mahanadi, in 
time of flood, pours double the quantity of water into the Puri rivers 
that their channels are capable of carrying to the sea. The result is, 
that the surplus overflows, in spite of embankments and protective 
works. The whole District lives in readiness for such calamities ; and 
the deaths by drowning reported to the police, during the three years 
ending in 1870, averaged only 117 per annum. These figures, how- 
ever, by no means represent the total loss of life from this cause. The 
excessive floods also render tillage precarious, and the crops uncertain ; 
so that in localities most subject to inundations, the rents are brought 
down to one-fifth of the rates obtained for the same quality of land in 
parts protected from the violence of the rivers. Of the 24 fiscal 
divisions {pargands) of the District, 12 are still so completely at the 
mercy of the rivers that more than 50 per cent, of their area was 
flooded in 1866. 

The coast-line of Puri consists of a belt of sandy ridges, varying from 
4 miles to a few hundred yards in breadth. It contains no harbours of 
any importance. Puri port is simply an unprotected roadstead, open 
from the middle of September to the middle of March. During the 
remainder of the year, the surf does not allow of the vessels frequenting 
the port (chiefly country brigs) being laden or unladen. The principal 
lakes in the District are the Sar and the Chilka. The former is a 
backwater of the river Bhargavi, and is 4 miles long by 2 broad. 

The Chilka Lake is an inland sea in the extreme south-east corner 

PURL 301 

of Orlssa, separated from the ocean by a narrow sandy ridge. On the 
west, the lake is hemmed in by lofty mountains, and on the south it is 
bounded by the hilly watershed separating Orissa from Madras. It is 
a pear-shaped expanse of water, 44 miles long, of which the northern 
half has a mean breadth of 20 miles, while the southern barely averages 
5 miles. Its smallest area is returned at 344 square miles in the dry 
weather, increasing to about 450 in the rainy season. Its mean 
depth is from 3 to 5 feet, and its bed is in some parts slightly below 
low-water mark. From December to June the lake is salt. The 
theories respecting the origin of the Chilka are given at length in the 
article under that heading. The scenery of the lake is very varied, 
and in places exceedingly picturesque. On its eastern side lie the 
islands of Parikud, which have silted up behind, and are now partially 
joined to the ridge of land shutting off the Chilka from the sea. Salt- 
making is largely carried on in this part of the District. The Puri 
rivers enter the Chilka at its northern end ; and it is in the tracts 
situated here that the greatest suffering occurs in times of general 

There are no revenue-paying forests in Puri District ; but the jungles 
yield honey, beeswax, iasar silk, the dye called gimdi, and various 
medicinal drugs. The timber-trees include sdl^ sissu, ebony, jack-wood, 
mango, pidsdl^ kurjnd, etc. Bamboos and rattan-canes abound. Game 
of every kind is plentiful ; but in the open part of the country the larger 
wild beasts have been nearly exterminated. Of fishes there is an endless 
variety, and the fisheries have been estimated to give employment to 
30,073 fishermen. 

History. — The general history of Puri is that of Orissa. The only 
two noteworthy political events that have taken place since the District 
passed into our hands, together with the rest of the Province, in 1803, 
are the rebellion of the Maharaja of Khurdha in 1804, and the rising 
oi\.\\Q pdiks or peasant militia in 1817-18. 

The Raja of Khurdha, although stripped of a considerable portion 
of his territory, had been left by the Marathas in comparative indepen- 
dence within his own kild or fort. When we entered the Province, the 
Raja passively espoused our cause, and the decision of the British Com- 
missioners to retain the /^zr<,w;/^f^ taken by the Marathas was acquiesced 
in by him. But after the European troops had returned to Madras, 
and the native force at Cuttack had been considerably reduced by the 
necessity of establishing detached outposts in different parts of the 
country, the Raja thought that a favourable opportunity had arrived for 
recovering the lost territory. As a tentative measure, he sent one of his 
servants in July 1804 to collect the rents of one of the villages, named 
Batgaon, lying within the Mughalbandi. This messenger was summarily 
ejected; and the Commissioners addressed to the Raja a strong remon- 



strance, but the warning appears to have had but little effect. In 
September of the same year (1804), the Raja was detected in an 
intrigue relative to the affairs of the Puri temple. He was therefore 
forbidden to issue orders to any person whatever residing within the 
limits of Mughalbandi territory, without the express sanction of the 

In October, exactly one month after the issue of this order, the Raja's 
|-j-QQps — if a disorderly mob oi pdiks and peons can so be called — made 
a raid on the villages in the vicinity of Pippli ; and this affair, though 
partaking more of the nature of a large dakditi or gang-robbery than 
of an organized and preconcerted military aggression, occasioned con- 
siderable alarm. The majority of our forces had returned to Madras, 
and what few troops remained behind were scattered over a large 
area. The nature of the country rendered speedy communication 
and rapid concentration impossible. Troops were sent for from 
Ganjam, and a detachment speedily marched from Cuttack. The 
rebels, driven out of Pippli, retreated to the fort at Khurdha, followed 
by our troops. In three weeks the approaches, which were stockaded 
and fortified with strong masonry barriers, were carried by storm ; but 
the Raja made good his escape southwards. A few days later he 
surrendered, and his territory was confiscated. The Raja was released 
in 1807 and allowed to reside in Puri, his estate being managed 
as a Government khds mahdl, and an allowance made for his main- 

In 181 7, \}ciQ pdiks or landed militia rose in open rebeUion against 
the oppressions suffered at the hands of the farmers, sa?'ba?'dhkd?-s, and 
other underlings, to whom was entrusted the collection of the revenue ; 
and also against the tyrannies of a venal police. They found a 
natural leader in one Jagabandhu, an officer who had inherited from 
his ancestors the post of commander of the forces of the Raja of 
Khurdha, and ranked next to the Raja himself. He had been unlaw- 
fully deprived of his estate, and reduced to beggary. For nearly two 
vears he derived his maintenance from the voluntary contributions 
of the people, and wandered about attended by a ragged band of 
followers, bearing the insignia pertaining to his former position. The 
rebels first attacked the police station and Government ofiices at 
Banpur, where they killed upwards of a hundred men, and carried off 
about ;^ 1 5 00 of treasure. The civil buildings at Khurdha were burnt 
to the ground; and another body of the insurgents advanced into 
Lembai pargand^ and murdered one of our native officials, who had 
incurred their displeasure. 

On the report of these occurrences, the authorities at Cuttack at 
once despatched a force, one detachment of which marched direct to 
Khurdha, and another to Pippli. After some severe fighting, British 

PURL 303 

authority soon re-establibhed itself everywhere. The Raja was captured 
in Puri town as he was on the point of taking flight, and was removed 
to Calcutta, and placed in confinement in Fort William, where he died 
in November 181 7. The country has been gradually restored to 
order and tranquillity ; and at the present day, Khurdha is a profitable 
Government property, and the cultivators are a contented and prosperous 
class. The present Riija of Puri was convicted in 1878 of murder, and 
sentenced to penal servitude for life. 

Puri district is of surpassing interest as containing the sacred shrine 
of Jagannath, which, with the festivals held there, is fully described in 
the article on Puri Town. 

Populatioji. — A Census, roughly taken by the police in 1854, returned 
the population of Puri District at 700,000. In 1866, after the famine, 
the houses were counted by the police, and, after allowing 5 inhabit- 
ants to each house, the population was estimated at 528,712. The 
regular Census of 1872 disclosed a total population of 769,674 persons, 
dwelling in 3175 villages and 143,920 houses. The Census of 188 1 
returned the population at 888,487, showing an increase of 118,813, o^ 
1 5 "43 per cent, in nine years. 

The general results arrived at by the Census of 1881 may be 
summarized as follows : — Area of District, 2473 square miles ; number 
of towns and villages, 5166; number of houses, 127,369. Total popula- 
tion 888,487, namely, males 446,609, and females 441,878; proportion 
of males, 50*2 per cent. Average density of population, 359 persons 
per square mile; average number of inhabitants per village, 172; 
average number of persons per house, 6'9. Classified as to sex and 
age, there are — under 15 years, males 175,545, and females 169,659; 
total children, 345,204, or 38-8 per cent, of the total population : above 
15 years, males 271,064, and females 272,219; total adults, 543,283, 
or 61*2 per cent. 

Classified according to religion, Hindus numbered 873,664, or 98-3 
per cent, of the District population; Muhammadans, 14,003, or i'6 
per cent.; Christians, 819; and Sikh, i. Among the higher classes 
of Hindus, Brahmans number 88,692; Rajputs, 3898; Karans, 
28,738 ; Khandaits, 18,742 ; and Baniyas, 14,054. Other castes 
include the following — Chasa, the principal agricultural class and 
most numerous caste in the District, 217.406; Bauri, 69,307; Goala, 
66,662; Tell, 38,916; Siidra, 29,357 ; Kent or Kewat, 28,476; Napit, 
20,094; Kandara, 16,739; Dhobi, 14,517; Tanti, 12,787; Mali, 12,059; 
Barhai, 11,680; Kumbhar, 11,448; Hari, 7617; Lobar, 6454; and 
Pan, 6124. Caste-rejecting Hindus number 7702, of whom 7273 are 
Vaishnavs. The Muhammadans are sub-divided according to sect 
into Sunnis, 13,317 ; Shias, 316 ; and unspecified, 370. The Christian 
population comprises — Europeans, 19; P^urasians, 31; and natives, 

304 PURL 

769. The bulk of the native Christians are Baptists (754), that sect 
having a mission station at Pipph', with 522 followers in 1881. 

The native population is nominally divided according to the ancient 
fourfold classification of Brahmans, Kshattriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras. 
In reality, it is divided into the Brahmans, or priests ; the Kshattriyas, 
or royal and military class ; and the Sudras, who comprise the residue 
of the population. In order, however, to maintain some show of keep- 
ing up the ancient fourfold division, several classes are admitted to 
hold a position half-way between the Sudras and the Kshattriyas. The 
most important of these are the Karans, who correspond to the 
Kayasths or writer caste of Bengal. 

The bulk of the population consist of Uriya-speaking castes, but 
many little colonies from other parts of India have settled in the 
District. There is a considerable sprinkling of Bengalis among the 
officials and landed classes. A number of Telingas have come from 
the south, and established themselves on the shores of the Chilka, and 
around the mouths of the rivers. Almost the whole boat traffic of the 
District is in their hands. The Kumtis are immigrants from the adjoin- 
ng District of Ganjam. The trading classes contain families who have 
come from Bhojpur, Bundelkhand, and other parts of North-Western 
India. A scattered Maratha population survives from the time when 
the country was in the hands of their race. They live chiefly by trade, 
or enjoy little grants of land, and form a very respectable, although not 
a numerous, class. The Musalmans, who also represent a once domi- 
nant race in Orissa, exhibit no such powers of adapting themselves to 
their altered circumstances. They are generally poor, proud, and 
discontented. They inclade representatives of Afghan families from 
beyond the confines of Northern India; but, as a rule, they are the 
descendants of the common soldiery, camp-followers, and low-caste 
Hindu converts. There are also two hill tribes, the Kandhs and the 
Savars or Sauras ; for a furthur account of whom, see Orissa Tributary 

The population of the District is entirely rural, and the only town 
containing upwards of five thousand inhabitants is Puri itself, with a 
resident population (1881) of 22,095. There are 3871 villages with less 
than two hundred inhabitants; 1098 with from two to five hundred; 
185 with from five hundred to a thousand; 11 with from one to 
two thousand; and i with upwards of twenty thousand; total, 5166. 
The chief towns in the District are — Puri, the capital, and the seat of 
the worship of Jagannath ; population (1881) 22,095 : Pippli, 25 miles 
from Puri, the centre of considerable trade in rice and cloth, and a 
station of the Baptist Mission: and Bhuvaneswar, the temple city of 
Siva, and a place of pilgrimage, containing shrines in every stage of 
Orissa art. 

PURL 305 

Buddhism, for ten centuries, was the prevaiHng rehgion of Orissa ; 
but its only existing traces are to be found in the cave dwellings and 
rock habitations of the priests and hermits, and in recently deciphered 
inscriptions. Their principal settlement was at Khandgiri, about 
half-way between Puri and Cuttack. The Snake, Elephant, and Tiger 
Caves here (for a description of the latter see Udayagiri), and a two- 
storied monastery, known as the Queen's Palace (Rani-nur), are the 
most interesting excavations. They form relics of the three distinct 
phases through which Buddhism passed. The first, or ascetic age, is 
represented by the single sandstone cells, scarcely bigger than the lair 
of a wild beast, and almost as inaccessible ; the second, or ceremonial 
age, is shown in the pillared temples for meetings of the brotherhood, 
with commodious chambers for the spiritual heads attached to them ; 
the third, or fashionable age of Buddhism, reached its climax in the 
Queen's Palace, adorned with a sculptured biography of its founder. 
Sun-worship is one of the religions into which Buddhism disintegrated; 
and the most exquisite memorial of this is the temple of Kanarak 
upon the Orissa shore, now a picturesque ruin. (For a full account of 
these temples, see Statistical Account of Be7igal^ vol. xix. pp. 72-91.) 

Material Condition of the People. — The people are poor, and appear 
even poorer than they are. They wear inferior clothes to men of the 
same class in other Districts. The well-to-do settlers from the south 
are distinguished by their earrings and necklaces of gold. A respect- 
able shopkeeper's house is built principally of wattle and mud. The 
front verandah is of brick, and the roof of thatch, firmly fixed on a 
good bamboo or wooden frame. The dwelling of a prosperous 
merchant or landholder, with an income of ;£ioo a year, consists of 
a series of houses built round two courts, which lead one into the other, 
with the road in front of the outer court, and a garden behind the 
inner one. The outer court is bordered by the chambers of the male 
members of the family, and the inner court by the women's apartments, 
the family storehouses, and the cook-room. The furniture of such a 
house would consist of a few low bedsteads, a press or two, some 
wooden stools, a few broken chairs, and perhaps a striped cotton 
carpet for the reception-room. The dwellings of the common people 
consist of sheds or thatched huts built round a court. The outer 
apartments are used by the men, and for the cattle. The inner are 
devoted to the women, to the cook-room, and the storehouse. 

The food of a well - to - do shopkeeper comprises the following 
articles :— Rice, split-peas, vegetables, fish, milk, ghi or clarified butter, 
curds, and occasionally goat's flesh. The family of a husbandman 
in good circumstances, consisting of six persons, and able to spend 
Rs. 8, or sixteen shillings, a month, would consume the following food 
per diem : — 5 sers (10 lbs.) of rice, 2 dnnds 8 pies, or fourpence ; vege- 

VOL. XI. u 

3o6 FURL 

tables or split-peas and fish, 6 pies, or three-farthings ; and oil and spice, 
6 pies^ or three-farthings. 

As regards occupation, the Census Report returns the male population 
under the following six main headings: — Class (i) Professional, includ- 
ing civil and military, 19,459; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging- 
house keepers, 4391 ; (3) commercial class, including bankers, traders, 
carriers, etc., 6156; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including 
gardeners, 146,177; {5) manufacturing and industrial class, including 
all artisans, 59,519; and (6) indefinite and non-productive class, 
comprising male children and 34,637 general labourers, 210,907. 

Agriculture. — No trustworthy figures are available for the area under 
cultivation. In 1870 it was returned at 1158 square miles, out of a 
then total area of 2504 square miles. For the purposes of the Census 
the area was taken at 2473 square m.iles, of which about 800,000 acres 
are estimated as under cultivation. Of rice crops, the following are the 
most important : — The Mali, sdrad, ddliid, and matidud. The sdrad or 
winter crop is usually transplanted, a process ensuring a much larger 
return. Pulses, jute, hemp, flax, and oil-seeds are also grown. Among 
miscellaneous crops are — tobacco, grown on low moist lands ; cotton, 
sown early in the cold weather, and reaped in May or June, on sdrad 
rice land ; sugar-cane, on high land, with abundant moisture, or with 
capabilities for irrigation ; turmeric {haldi); bdigim (Solanum melongena), 
on homestead land ; potatoes, red pepper, and pd^i or betel-leaf. 
Manure is sparingly employed; irrigation is effected from wells, tanks, 
and rivers. Rotation of crops is not very generally practised. 

The total crop of rice is estimated at about 5 millions of cwts. ; the 
cotton at about 21,000 cwts. ; and the pulses at about 25,000 cwts. It 
is estimated that about 60,000 cwts. of rice are annually exported — 
one-third by sea, and two-thirds by land and the Chilka Lake ; but 
the above figures must be received with caution. The yield per acre is 
from 16 to 36 cwts. of unhusked paddy, and from 8 to 16 cwts. of 
husked rice. The average out-turn from fair land may be put down 
at 10 cwts. of rice. 

Thirty acres forms a large holding, and 80 acres an unusually large 
one. A husbandman with 10 acres is supposed to be as well off as a 
small retail shopkeeper, or a servant earning about Rs. 8, or i6s., a 
month. The husbandman dresses worse, but he has more to eat. The 
cultivators, as a class, are deeply in debt to the landholders, who make 
advances of money and rice to their tenants. A large proportion of 
them hold at fixed rates, and represent the thdni rdyats of the Settle- 
ment papers, who hold their land under leases {kdlipattds), granted by/ 
the Settlement officers in 1836-37, and remaining in force until iH 
next Settlement in 1897. The average rates of rent in Puri Dis^ict 
vary from 6s. 3d. in the deltaic upland to 3s. 3d. in the neighbourllod 


FURL 307 

of the Chilka Lake. The average for sdrad rice land yielding only one 
crop is 5s. lod. per acre ; for the same land yielding a second crop of 
cotton, 6s. 3d. Of land suited to special crops, sugar-cane land fetches 
los. per acre ; tobacco land, 14s. ; and /<?';/ land, ^i, 5s. 

Wages are lower in Puri than in Cuttack or Balasor. The most 
common rate of wages for permanent employment is Rs. 2, or 4s., 
per month, with a suit of cold-weather and warm-weather clothing : 
altogether, this would be in money Rs. 24, or ;^2, 8s., a year; in 
clothes, Rs. 3, or 6s. ; and in occasional donations, Rs. 6, or 12s. : in 
all, Rs. T^i, or ;^3, 6s., a year. For occasional labour, the rate is from 
3d. to 4d. per diem. Skilled labour fetches about 6d. a day. In salt 
manufacture, the rate of remuneration is 2 annas, or 3d., per maund 
(82 lbs.) of the out-turn, all at the risk of the labourer. It takes four men 
to make 400 mauiids of salt in a fair season of three months ; and in 
the end it has been estimated that they will receive only Rs. 50, or ^5. 
The average price of rice (calculated from the prices between 1871 and 
1874) was— in Puri Sub-division, 29 sers per rupee, or 3s. lod. per cwt., 
and in Khurdha Sub-division, 30 sers per rupee, or 3s. gd. per cwt. 
The average price of pulses in Khurdha was 11 sers per rupee, or los. 
2d. per cwt. In 1883-84, the price of common rice was 24 J sers per 
rupee, or 4s. 7|d. per cwt. ; and of wheat iij sers per rupee, or 9s. 6d. 
per cwt. The price of ordinary coarse rice has doubled wnthin the 
last thirty years. Thus people are working at the same rate of \vages 
now, when a rupee buys only about 25 sers of rice, as prevailed 
formerly when 64 sers could be bought for the same sum. 

Natural Calamities.— T\iQ District is liable to disastrous floods 
and famines. Of the thirty-two years ending 1866, twenty-four were 
years of flood so serious as to require remissions of revenue to the 
extent of ^^41,993. If to this we add ^1393 remitted for the drought 
in 1865-66, we have a total loss of ^43,386. At the same time, 
the sum of ^35,577 had been expended by Government on embank- 
ments and other protective works. In 7 villages, on the north of the 
Chilka, one-fourth of the w^hole area is exempt from assessment on 
account of its exposure to inundation. By the flood of 1866, more than 
412,000 persons were driven suddenly out of house and home into the 
midst of a sea between 7 and 9 feet deep. The unhappy inhabitants 
of this region live in a constant state of preparation. Most of the 
hamlets have boats tied to the houses ; and for miles, the high thatched 
roofs are firmly held down by bamboo stakes, so as to afford a refuge 
in time of flood. In 1866 the destruction of human life was great; 
the cattle, too, suffered terribly. Inundations are, as a rule, more 
calamitous than droughts, for, even if the rivers fail, the Province has its 
own local annual rainfall of 55 inches in reserve. The famine of 1S66 
is estimated to have caused a mortality of not less than 35-81 per cent. 

3o8 PURL 

on a population returned in that year at 588,841. (For a further account 
of the great famine of 1866, see Orissa.) 

Mamifadures^ etc. — Apart from a Httle weaving and pottery-making, 
the only manufacture of Puri is salt, which is made by solar evapora- 
tion, principally in Parikud and the tract to the north and east of the 
Chilka Lake. The process has already been described in the article 
on Parikud. Speaking generally, a Parikud salt-field consists of a 
little canal from the Chilka ' workings,' diverging at right angles upon 
either side. Each working is composed of a row of four tanks and a 
network of shallow^ pools, and is managed by from three to five men, 
who are paid by results, and earn about Rs. 3, or 6s., a month. 
The total cost of salt made in this way is about 8d. per cwt. In 
1875-76, the total amount of salt manufactured in Puri was 67,170 
viaunds^ realizing ;^38,544. In 1882-83, 120,407 maunds of salt 
were manufactured in Puri District. The value of the sea-borne 
trade of the District in 1874-75 was ^6066; 32 vessels, with a tonnage 
of 10,553, entered Puri Port. In 1883-84, 38 vessels entered, and the 
same number cleared from Puri Port in 1883-84, of a total burthen of 
159,045 tons; value of imports, ;^2i,253; exports, ;£6'],26o. In 
January 1876, a system of traffic registration was introduced on the 
Grand Trunk Road between Calcutta and Madras, the registering 
station being at Rambha, on the Chilka Lake, just beyond the Puri 
frontier. The chief exports from Puri are pulses, rice, vegetables, 
metals, salt, drugs, cotton, and silk goods. The imports include salt, 
unrefined sugar, and spices. The two main lines of road in Puri Dis- 
trict are the Calcutta and Madras Trunk Road, and the Pilgrim Road 
from Cuttack to Puri. 

Administratio7i. — In 1877-78, the revenue of Puri District was 
returned at £^62,^12. In 1883-84, the six principal items of the 
District revenue aggregated ;£"67,773, made up as follows: — Land 
revenue, £^-1^^) excise, ^9207; stamps, ;£"6896; registration, 
^554; road cess, ^2555; and municipal rates, ;^ii92. The land- 
tax amounted to ^44,707 in 1829-30, to ;£45,973 in 1850-51, to 
;£"47,963 in 1870-71, and to ^47,369 in 1883-84. Between 1850 
and 1883-84, the number of separate estates had risen from 272 to 
458, and the number of proprietors from 910 to 7252. Average 
payment by each estate in 1883-84, ;^io3, 8s. 6d., by each individual 
proprietor, ;2^6, los. 7d. 

In 1828-29 there were only three courts, revenue and judicial, in the 
District; in 1850 there were 7; in 1883-84, 8. In 1828-29 there was 
only I covenanted officer; there are now (1884) 3. The regular and 
municipal police force in 1883 consisted of 426 men of all ranks, main- 
tained at a total cost of ;^6847. There is also a rural or village police, 
numbering 2045 in 1883, and maintained at an estimated cost both in 


money and lands of ^^25 17. The total machinery, therefore, fur 
protecting person and property consisted of 2471 officers and men, 
giving I man to every square mile of area, or to every 360 of popula- 
tion. Total estimated cost, £()2>^A, equal to an average of £z, 15s. 
8^d. per square mile of area, or 2jd. per head of population. The total 
number of persons convicted of an offence in ' cognisable ' and ' non- 
cognisable' cases in 1883, was 2 151, or i to every 4^3 of the popula- 
tion. There are 2 jails in Pun', namely the District jail at the civil 
station, and a Sub-divisional lock-up at Khurdhd. In 1883 the daily 
average number of prisoners was 98, of whom 4*50 were females. 

In 1872-73, the number of inspected schools was 112, attended by 
2802 pupils. By March 1884, as the result of Sir George Campbell's 
educational reforms, the number of schools brought under the inspec- 
tion of the Educational Department had risen to upwards of 2000, and 
the pupils to 20,000. The Census Report of 188 1 returned 14,521 
boys and 1081 girls as under instruction, besides 29,157 males and 
1460 females able to read and wTite, but not under instruction. A 
Sanskrit school has been estabhshed in Puri town. 

The District contains one municipality, namely Puri town. The 
municipal income in 1876-77 amounted to £<^i\-, and in 1883-84 to 
^1927; average incidence of taxation (1883-84), iijd. per head of 
population (24,336) within municipal limits. 

Temperature^ etc. — The average annual rainfall is 56*24 inches. The 
prevaihng diseases of the District are malarial fever in all its varieties, 
elephantiasis, dysentery, and cholera. Fairs and religious gatherings 
are the great predisposing causes of epidemics. The Puri pilgrim 
hospital and dispensary is the principal medical charity of the District ; 
branch dispensaries at Khurdha and Pippli. These hospitals and 
dispensaries afforded medical relief in 1883-84 to 559 in-door and 
12,326 out-door patients. The total number of deaths registered in 
Puri District in 1883 was 18,019, equal to a death-rate of 20*28 per 
thousand. The principal cattle diseases are guti, or cattle small-pox, 
2i\\diphdtiid, or hoof-disease, which occasionally break out in an epidemic 
form, and are extremely fatal. [For further particulars regarding Puri, 
see The Statistical Account of Be?igal, by W. W. Hunter, vol. xviii. 
pp. 17-192 (Trlibner & Co., London, 1877). Also Report of the Com- 
missioners to efiq litre into the Fa^nine in Bengal a?id Orissa in 1866; 
the Bengal Census Reports for 1872 and 188 1 ; and the several annual 
Bengal Administration and Departmental Reports from 1880 to 1884.] 

Puri.— Head-quarters Sub-division of Puri District, Bengal. Area, 
1530 square miles : villages, 3852 ; houses, 97,132. Population (1881) 
565,082, namely, males 284,748, and females 280,334. Hindus number 
557o79 ; Muhammadans, 7114 ; and Christians, 589. Average number 
of persons per square mile, 369 ; villages per square mile, 2*52 ; persons 


per village, 146 ; houses per square mile, 727 ; inmates per house, 5'8. 
This Sub-division includes the 3 police circles {thdnds) of Puri, Gop, 
and Pippli. In 1883 it contained i civil and 5 magisterial courts ; with 
a regular police force numbering 311 officers and men, and a village 
watch or rural police 1638 strong. 

Puri (commonly known dsjaganndth). — Chief town of Puri District, 
Bengal; situated on the coast, in lat. 19° 48' 17" n., and long. 85° 51' 
39" E., separated from the sea by low sandy ridges. In 1825, according 
to Stirhng, it contained 5741 houses. In 1841 the houses numbered 
6620, inhabited by 23,766 persons. The Census of 1872 disclosed a 
population of 22,695, of whom 12,077 were males and 10,618 females. 
In 1881 the population was returned at 22,095, namely, males 11,769, 
and females 10,326. Municipal income (1883-84), ^1927. The 
number of Hindus in 1881 was 21,913; of Muhammadans, t8i ; and 
'other,' I. This is the ordinary resident population, but during the 
great festivals of Jagannath the number is sometimes swollen by as 
many as a hundred thousand pilgrims. 

Puri covers an area of 1837 acres, including the whole kshetra or 
sacred precincts of the town. It is a city of lodging-houses, being 
destitute alike of manufactures or commerce on any considerable scale. 
The streets are mean and narrow, with the exception of the principal 
avenue, which leads from the temple to the country-house of Jagannath. 
The houses are built of wattle covered with clay, raised on platforms 
of hard mud, about 4 feet high, and many of them gaily painted with 
Hindu gods, or with scenes from the Sanskrit epics. The intervening 
sandhills between the town and the beach intercept the drainage, and 
aggravate the diseases to which the overcrowding of the pilgrims gives 

The sanitary measures which have been taken for the improve- 
ment of the town are of three kinds, — the first directed to lessen the 
number of pilgrims ; the second, to mitigate the dangers of the road ; 
and the third, to prevent epidemics in the town. In seasons of cholera 
or other great calamity in Orissa, it would be possible to check the 
pilgrim stream, by giving warning in the Government Gazette^ and through 
the medium of the vernacular papers. This was done in the famine 
year 1866, and native opinion supported the action of Government. 
But such interference is resorted to only under extreme circumstances. 
The second set of preventive measures can be applied with greater ease, 
and with more certain results. Thousands of pilgrims die annually 
upon the journey from exhaustion and want of food, nor does it seem 
possible to lessen the number of deaths from these causes. Within the 
last twenty years, pilgrim hospitals have been opened along the main 
lines of road, and a medical patrol has been, through the energy and 
devotion of the Civil Surgeon of Puri, estabhshed in the vicinity of the 


holy city. Great good has been effected by these means ; but a heavy 
drawback to their utility consists in the fact that the devotees will only 
enter an hospital at the last extremity, and the surgeons say that the 
great majority of pilgrim patients are beyond the reach of aid when 
they are brought in. 

Cuttack city, the capital of Orissa, formerly suffered terribly from the 
passage of the pilgrim army ; but a sanitary cordon is now maintained, 
and the result upon the public health has been marvellous. This in- 
expensive quarantine might easily be applied to other municipalities 
along the pilgrim highway. The devotees suffer no inconvenience ; for 
as soon as the change in their route is known, little hamlets of grain- 
sellers spring up outside the cordon. Indeed, the pilgrims would be 
gainers by the change, in so far as they could purchase their food free 
of octroi or other municipal charges, where such dues are enforced. 

The great difficulty has been to check the overcrowding in Puri town. 
In 1866, a Bill was introduced into the Bengal Council for the better 
regulation of the lodging-houses for pilgrims, and finally passed with 
amendments in 1868. It provides for the appointment of a health 
officer, to inspect the lodging-houses, and report on them to the 
Magistrate. Under this Act, no house may be opened without a 
licence ; and licences are granted only upon a certificate from the sur- 
geon, stating the suitability of the tenement for the purpose, and the 
number of persons which it can properly accommodate. Except in cases 
where the lodging-house keepers are persons of known respectability, 
their establishments continue under the surveillance of the health 
officer, and penalties are provided for wilful overcrowding, and similar 
breaches of the licence. Much good has resulted from the operation 
of this Act. 

The Government offices lie upon the beach, with the sandy ridge 
between them and the town. The site is salubrious ; but the dwellings 
of the English residents barely number 6 thatched cottages, much out 
of repair. The monsoon blows so fresh and cool from the sea, that in 
former days the officials from Cuttack used regularly to come to Puri 
during the hot weather. During the rains it is less healthy. 

The following description of the shrine of Jagannath at Puri is 
condensed from the present author's Orissa (vol. i. chaps. 3 and 4) : — 

For two thousand years, Orissa has been the Holy Land of the 
Hindus ; and from the moment the pilgrim passes the Baitarani river, 
on the high road 40 miles north-east of Cuttack, he treads on holy 
ground. The Province is divided into four great regions of pilgrimage. 
On crossing the stream, the devotee enters Jajpur (lit. 'City of Sacri- 
fice'), sacred to Parvati, the wife of Siva. To the south-east lie the 
matchless ruins, the relics of sun-worship in Orissa ; to the south-west, 
the temple city of Siva; and beyond this, nearly due south, is the 


region of pilgrimage beloved of Vishnu, known to every hamlet through- 
out India as the abode of Jagannath, the Lord of the World. 

As the outlying position of Orissa long saved it from concjuest, and 
from that desecration of ancient Hindu shrines and rites which marks 
the Muhammadan line of march through India, so Puri, built upon 
its extreme soudi-eastern shore, and protected on the one side by the 
surf, and on the other by swamps and inundations, is the corner of 
Orissa which has been most left to itself. On these inhospitable sands, 
Hindu religion and Hindu superstition have stood at bay for eighteen 
centuries against the world. Here is the national temple, whither the 
people flock to worship from every Province of India, Here is the 
Swarga-dwara, the Gate of Heaven, whither thousands of pilgrims 
come to die, lulled to their last sleep by the roar of the ocean. 

This great yearning after Jagannath is to some extent the result 
of centuries of companionship in suffering between the people and 
their god. In every disaster of Orissa, Jagannath has borne his 
share. In every flight of the people before an invading power, he 
has been their companion. The priests, indeed, put the claims of 
their god upon higher ground. ' In the first boundless space ' they 
say, ' dwelt the Great God, whom men call Narayan, or Parameswara, 
or Jagannath.' But without venturing beyond this world's history, 
the earliest of Orissa traditions discloses Puri as the refuge of an exiled 
creed. In the uncertain dawn of Indian history, the highly spiritual 
doctrines of Buddha obtained shelter here; and the Golden Tooth 
of the founder of the Buddhist faith remained for centuries at Puri, 
then the Jerusalem of the Buddhists, as it has been for centuries that 
of the Hindus. 

Jagannath makes his first historical appearance in the year 318 a.d,, 
when the priests fled with the sacred image and left an empty city to 
Rakta Bahu and his buccaneers (see Statistical Account of Beiigal, vol. 
xviii. p. 182). For a century and a half the idol remained buried in 
the western jungles, till a pious prince drove out the foreigners and 
brought back the deity. Three times it has been buried in the Chilka 
Lake ; and whether the invaders were pirates from the sea, or the 
devouring cavalry of Afghanistan, the first thing that the people saved 
was their god. 

The true source of Jagannath's undying hold upon the Hindu race 
consists in the fact that he is the god of the people. The poor outcast 
learns that there is a city on the far eastern shore, in which priest and 
peasant are equal in the presence of the ' Lord of the World.' In the 
courts of Jagannath, and outside the Lion Gate, 100,000 pilgrims 
every year join in the sacrament of eating the holy food, the sanctity 
of which overleaps all barriers of caste, race, and hostile faiths. 
A Puri priest will receive food from a Christian's hand. The 

rURI TOWN. 313 

worship of Ja-annath, too, aims at a Catholicism wliich embraces 
every form of Indian belief and every Indian conception of the deity. 
He is Vishnu, under whatever form and by whatever title men call 
upon his name. The fetishism of the aboriginal races, the mild flower- 
worship of the Vedas, and the lofty spiritualities of the great Indian 
reformers, have alike found refuge here. Besides thus representing 
Vishnu in all his manifestations, the priests have superadded the 
worship of the other members of the Hindu trinity in their various 
shapes; and the disciple of every Hindu sect can find his beloved 
rites, and some form of his chosen deity, within the sacred precincts. 

In the legendary origin of Jagannath (see Statistical Account oj 
Bengal, vol. xix. -pp. 43-46), we find the aboriginal people worshipping 
a blue stone in the depths of the forest. But the deity at length 
wearies of primitive jungle ofterings, and longs for the cooked food of 
the more civilised Aryans, upon whose arrival on the scene the rude 
blue stone gives place to a carved image. At the present day, 
in every hamlet of Orissa, this twofold worship co- exists. The 
common people have their shapeless stone or block, which they 
adore with simple rites in the open air; while side by side with 
it stands a temple to one of the Aryan gods, with its carved idol 
and elaborate rites. Whenever the villagers are questioned about 
their creed, the same answer is invariably given. 'The common 
people have no idea of religion, but to do right, and to worship the 
village god.' 

The first part of the legend of Jagannath shadows forth the original 
importation of Vishnu-worship by an Aryan king from the north-west, 
and its amalgamation with the aboriginal rites existing in Orissa. It is 
noteworthy, that although a Brahman figures in this as in all of the 
religious legends of the Hindus, he is not the principal person. An 
ancient text mentions Vishnu as the special god of the kingly and 
warrior caste ; and it is the king who plays the chief part in introducing 
his worship. 

The worship of Vishnu was not the first form of Aryan faith in 
these remote jungles. P'or centuries before the birth of Christ, the rock 
caves of Orissa resounded with the chants of Buddhist monks. But 
about the 4th century of our era. Buddhism gradually gave way to 
other developments of spiritual life, which took the form of Siva- 
worship. The great temple city of Siva, Bhuvaneswar, dates from the 
7th century. 

Both Sivaism and Vishnuism were attempts to bring the gods 
down to men. The former plunged boldly into the abyss of super- 
stition, and erected its empire without shame or scruple upon the 
ignorance and terrors of the people. The worship of Vishnu shrank 
from such lengths, and tried to create a system wide enough and 


strong enough for a national religion, by mixing a somewhat less 
base alloy with the fine gold of Aryan spirituality. It was a religion 
in all things graceful. Its gods are bright, friendly beings, who walk 
and converse with men. Its legends breathe an almost Grecian beauty. 
But pastoral simplicities and an exquisite ritual had no chance against 
a system like Sivaism, that pandered to the grossest superstition of the 

In the nth century, the Vishnuite doctrines were gathered into a 
great religious treatise, which forms one of the i8 Purdnas or 'Ancient 
Sayings ' devoted to Hindu mythology and legendary history. I'he 
Vish7iu Furd?ia, dating from about 1045 a.d., starts with an intolerance 
equal to that of the ancient code of Manu ; and its stately theogony 
disdains to touch the legends of the people. Its cosmography is confined 
to the Aryan world. It declares, indeed, that there is one God ; but 
this God is the God of the Brahmans, to whom he has given the earth 
as an inheritance, and in whose eyes the ancient races are as demons 
or wild beasts. Vishnuism had to preach a far different doctrine 
before it could become, as it has for ages been, the popular religion of 

From the 12th century a curious change took place. Jagannath, 
who had ever been the companion of the ruling race in Orissa, began 
to appeal to the eternal instincts of human liberty and equality. 
The movement first commenced in Southern India, where Ramanuja 
about 1 150 A.D. preached from city to city the. unity of God under 
the title of Vishnu, the Cause and the Creator of all. The preacher 
made converts from every class, but it was reserved for his successors 
formally to enunciate equality of caste before God as an article of the 
Vishnuite faith. 

In 1 1 74 A.D., King Anang Bhim Deo ascended the throne of Orissa. 
He ruled all the country from the Hiigli river on the north to the 
Godavari on the south, and from the forests of Sonpur on the west, east- 
ward to the Bay of Bengal. But in the midst of his prosperity he was 
struck down by a great calamity. He unhappily slew a Brahman ; and 
the rest of his life became one grand expiation of his guilt. Tradition 
relates that he bridged ten broad rivers, constructed ic^2 ghats or landing- 
stages, and countless other public works. Among the temples that he 
built was the shrine of Jagannath. Gold and jewels to the value of a 
million and a half measures of gold were set apart for the work, being 
estimated at half a million sterling in the money of our time. For four- 
teen years the artificers laboured, and the temple was finished, as it now 
stands, in 1198 a.d. 

At the end of the 13th century, according to some authorities — at the 
end of the 14th, according to others — the great reformation took place, 
which made Vishnu-worship a national religion in India. Ramanand 

FUR I TO nW. 315 

and Kabir (i 380-1420 a.d.) were the first reformers. The moral 
code of the latter consists in humanity, truthfulness, retirement, and 
obedience to the si)iritual guide. Kabir was followed by Chaitanya, 
the great prophet of Orissa, who was born in 1485, and miraculously 
disappeared in 1527. According to his doctrine, no caste and no race 
was beyond the pale of salvation. Chaitanya is the apostle of the 
common people, being generally adored in connection with Vishnu ; 
and of such joint temples there are at present 800 in the Province. 

The death of this reformer marks the beginning of the spiritual 
decline of Vishnu- worship. As early as 1520, a new teacher, Val- 
labha-Swami, appeared in Northern India, preaching that God was 
not to be sought in nakedness, hunger, and solitude, but amid the 
enjoyments of this world. Vishnu was adored in his pastoral incar- 
nation as Krishna, leading a glorious Arcadian life in the forest, 
and surrounded by everything that appeals to the sensuousness of 
a tropical race. His great annual ceremony is the Car Festival, 
hereafter to be described. In a religion of this sort, great abuses are 
inevitable. The most deplorable of its corruptions at the present day 
is that which has covered the temple walls with indecent sculptures, 
and filled their innermost sanctuaries with licentious rites. It is very 
difficult for a person not a Hindu to pronounce upon the real extent of 
this evil. None but a Hindu can enter any of the larger temples, and 
none but a Hindu priest really knows the truth about their inner 
mysteries. But between Vishnuism and Love -worship there is but 
a step, and this step has been formally and publicly taken by a large 
sect of Vishnuites. 

The devotion of centuries has made Jagannath a very wealthy god ; 
but it is difficult to form anything like an accurate estimate of his 
present income. During the twenty - one years ending 1831, the 
pilgrim tax yielded a net total of ;^ 139,000, or ^6619 a year, 
after deducting ^5955 a year from the gross returns for the temple 
expenses and charges. It was felt, however, that the money thus 
received was to a certain extent the price of a State sanction to 
idolatry, and in 1840 the Government abolished the tax, and made 
over the entire management of the temple to the Rajas of Khurdha. 
A moderate computation estimated the offerings to the priests at 
twice the gross sum which the British officers realized as pilgrim 
tax; and now that the tax is withdrawn and the pilgrims enter the 
city so much the richer, the oblations cannot fall much short of 
three times the amount. This would yield a yearly sum of ;£"3 7,000, 
which, added to the ;^4ooo derived from the temple lands, and to 
the revenues of the religious houses valued at ;j{^2 7,000, makes the 
total income of Jagannath not less than ^68,000 per annum. It 
may be mentioned that Ranjit Singh bequeathed the celebrated 


Koh-i-Nur diamond, now one of the Crown jewels of England, to 

The immediate attendants on the god are divided into 36 orders 
and 97 classes, at the head of whom is the Raja of Khurdha, the repre- 
sentative of the ancient royal house of Orissa, who takes upon himself 
the lowly office of sweeper to Jagannath. Decorators of the idol, 
priests of the wardrobe, cooks, dancing-girls, grooms, and artisans of 
every sort, follow. A special department keeps up the temple records, 
and affords a literary asylum to a few learned men. 

The Temple. — The sacred enclosure is nearly in the form of a square, 
652 feet long, and 630 broad. The interior is protected from profane 
eyes by a massive stone wall 20 feet high. Within rise about 120 
temples, dedicated to the various forms in which the Hindu mind 
has imagined its god. But the great pagoda is the one dedicated 
to Jagannath. Its conical tower rises like an elaborately carved 
sugar-loaf, 192 feet high, black with time, and surmounted by the 
mystic wheel and flag of Vishnu. Outside the principal entrance, 
or Lion Gate, in the square where the pilgrims chiefly throng, is an 
exquisite monolithic pillar which stood for centuries before the 
Temple of the Sun, twenty miles up the coast. The temple of 
Jagannath consists of 4 chambers, communicating with each other, 
viz. — the Hall of Offerings ; the Pillared Hall for the musicians and 
dancing-girls ; the Hall of Audience ; and, lastl}', the Sanctuary itself, 
containing rude images of Jagannath, his brother Balabhadra, and 
his sister Subhadra. Jagannath is represented witliout arms. The 
service of the temple consists partly in a daily round of oblations, 
and partly in sumptuous ceremonials at stated periods throughout 
the year. The offerings are bloodless ; but, nevertheless, within the 
sacred enclosure is a shrine to Bimala, the ' stainless ' queen of the 
All-Destroyer, who is annually adored with bloody sacrifices. Twenty- 
four festivals are held, consisting chiefly of Vishnuite commemora- 
tions, but freely admitting the ceremonials of other sects. At 
the Red Powder Festival, Vishnu and Siva enjoy equal honours ; 
in the festival of the slaughter of the deadly cobra-de-capello (Kali 
damana), the familiar of Siva and his queen, the supremacy of Vishnu 
is declared. 

But the Car Festival is the great event of the year. It takes place in 
June or July, and for weeks beforehand the whole District is in a 
ferment. The great car is 45 feet in height and 35 feet square, and 
is supported on 16 wheels of 7 feet diameter. The brother and 
sister of Jagannath have separate cars a few feet smaller. When the 
sacred images are at length brought forth and placed upon their 
chariots, thousands faU on their knees and bow their foreheads in the 
dust. The vast multitude shouts with one throat, and, surging back- 


wards and forwards, drags the wheeled edifices down the broad streets 
towards the country-house of lord Jaganndth. Music strikes up before 
and behind, drums beat, cymbals clash, the priests harangue from the 
cars, or shout a sort of fescennine medley enlivened with broad 
allusions and coarse gestures, which are received with roars of laughter 
by the crowd. 

The distance from the temple to the country-house is less than a 
mile; but the wheels sink deep into the sand, and the journey takes 
several days. After hours of severe toil and wild excitement in the 
tropical sun, a reaction necessarily follows. The zeal of the pilgrims 
flags before the garden-house is reached ; and the cars, deserted by the 
devotees, are dragged along by the professional pullers with deep-drawn 
grunts and groans. These men, 4200 in number, are peasants from the 
neighbouring fiscal divisions, who generally manage to live at free 
quarters in Puri during the festival. Once arrived at the country-house, 
the enthusiasm subsides. The pilgrims drop exhausted upon the 
burning sand of the sacred street, or block up the lanes with their 
prostrate bodies. When they have slept ofi:' their excitement, they rise 
refreshed and ready for another of the strong religious stimulants of the 
season. Lord Jagannath is left to get back to his temple as best he 
can, and but for the professional car-pullers, would inevitably be left 
at his country-house. 

In a closely-packed, eager throng of a hundred thousand men and 
women, many of them unaccustomed to exposure or labour, and all 
of them tugging and straining at the cars to the utmost under a blazing 
sun, deaths must occasionally occur. There have, doubtless, been 
instances of pilgrims throwing themselves under the wheels in a frenzy 
of religious excitement ; but such instances have always been rare, 
and are now almost unknown. At one time, several people were 
killed or injured every year, but these were almost invariably the result 
of accidental trampling. The few cases of suicide that did occur 
were for the most part those of diseased and miserable objects, who 
took this means to put themselves out of pain. The official returns 
place this beyond doubt. Nothing, indeed, could be more 0]:)posed 
to the spirit of Vishnu- worship than self-immolation. Accidental 
death within the temple renders the whole place unclean. The copious 
literature of the sect of Chaitanya makes no allusion to self-sacrifice, 
and contains no passage that could be twisted into a sanction for it. 

The temple of Jagannath, that colhivio religionum^ in which every 
creed obtained an asylum, and in which every sect can find its god, 
now closes its gates against the low -caste population. Speaking 
generally, only those are excluded who retain the flesh-eating and 
animal-life-destroying propensities of the aboriginal tribes ; wine-sellers, 
sweepers, skinners, corpse-bearers, are also shut out. 


Day and night throughout every month of the year, troops of 
devotees arrive at Pari; and for 300 miles along the great Orissa 
road, every village has its pilgrim encampment. The pilgrims to 
the shrine of Jagannath are a motley assemblage, at least five- 
sixths of whom are women. Ninety-five out of a hundred come on 
foot. Mixed with the throng are devotees of various sorts, — some 
covered with ashes ; some almost naked ; some with matted, yellow- 
stained hair; almost all with their foreheads streaked with red or 
white, a string of beads round their necks, and a stout staff in their 
hands. But the greatest spectacle is a north-country Raja, with his 
caravan of elephants, camels, led horses, and swordsmen, followed by 
all the indescribable confusion of Indian royalty. 

The vast spiritual army that thus marches its hundreds, and sometimes 
its thousands, of miles, along burning roads, across unbridged rivers, and 
through pestilent regions of jungle and swamp, is annually recruited 
with as much tact and regularity as is bestowed on any military force. 
Attached to the temple is a body of emissaries, called pilgrim guides, 
numbering about 3000 men, who wander from village to village within 
their allotted beats, preaching pilgrimage as the liberation from sin. 

A good part of the distance can now^ be accomplished by rail, but the 
northern pilgrims walk, as a rule, from 300 to 600 miles, although 
recently a steamboat service between Calcutta and Orissa is attracting 
a steadily increasing number of pilgrims. The guide tries to keep up 
the spirits of the wayfarers, and once within sight of the holy city, the 
pains and miseries of the journey are forgotten. The dirty bundles of 
rags now yield their inner treasures of spotless cotton, and the pilgrims, 
refreshed and robed in clean garments, proceed to the temple. As they 
pass the Lion Gate, a man of the sweeper caste strikes them with his 
broom to purify them of their sins, and forces them to promise, on pain 
of losing all the benefits of pilgrimage, not to disclose the events of 
the journey or the secrets of the shrine. In a few days the excitement 
subsides. At first nothing can exceed the liberality of the pilgrims 
to their spiritual guides ; but thoughts of their return journey soon 
enter their minds, and the last few days of their stay are spent in 
scheming a speedy departure, with as few more payments as possible. 
Every day the pilgrims bathe in one of the sacred lakes, and at the 
principal one 5000 bathers may be seen at once. At the great festival, 
as many as 40,000 rush together into the surf at the ' Gate of Heaven,' 
a tract extending about a quarter of a mile along the coast. 

No trustworthy statistics exist as to the number of pilgrims who visit 
Jagannath. But a native gentleman, who has spent his fife on the 
spot, has published as his opinion that the number never falls short 
of 50,000 a year, and sometimes amounts to 300,000. At the Car 
Festival, food is cooked in the temple kitchen for 90,000 devotees ; at 


another festival for 70,000. The old registers, during the period when 
the pilgrim tax was levied, notoriously fell below the truth ; yet in five 
out of the ten years between 1820 and 1829, the official return 
amounted to between one and two hundred thousand. The pilgrims 
from the south are a mere handful compared with those who come 
from Bengal and Northern India, yet it has been ascertained that 
65,000 find their way to Puri, across the Chilka Lake, in two months 
alone. As many as 9613 were actually counted by the police leaving 
Puri on a single day, and 19,209 during the last six days in June. 
The records of the missionaries in Orissa estimate the number of the 
pilgrims present at the Car Festival alone, in some years, as high as 

F'dgrim Mortality. — The predisposing causes to disease among the 
pilgrims are bad food, the unhealthiness of Purf town, and the crowding 
together in the lodging-houses. The priests impress upon the pilgrims 
the impropriety of dressing food within the holy city, and the temple 
kitchen thus secures the monopoly of cooking for the multitude. The 
food consists chiefly of boiled rice, which is considered too sacred for 
the least fragment to be thrown away. Consequently, it is consumed 
by some one or other, whatever its state of putrefaction, to the very 
last morsel. As a rule, the houses in Puri consist of tw^o or three cells 
communicating with each other, without windows or ventilation of any 
kind. The city contains upwards of six thousand houses, and a 
resident population, in 1881, of 22,095. 

' I was shown one apartment,' says Dr. Mouat, late Inspector-General 
of Jails, ' in the best pilgrim hotel of the place, in which 80 persons 
were said to have passed the night. It w^as 13 feet long, 10 feet 5 
inches broad, wnth side walls 6J feet in height, and a low pent roof 
over it. It had but one entrance, and no escape for the effete air. If 
this be the normal state of the best lodging-house in the broad main 
street of Puri, it is not difficult to imagine the condition of the worst, 
in the narrow, confined, undrained back-slums of the town.' About 
the time of the Car Festival, there can be no doubt that as many as 
90,000 people are often packed for weeks together in the 5000 
lodging-houses of Puri. At certain seasons of the year the misery is 
mitigated by sleeping out of doors, but the Car Festival unfortunately 
happens at the beginning of the rains. Cholera invariably breaks out 
during this time. 

But it is on the return journey that the wTetchedness of the pilgrims 
reaches its climax; and it is impossible to compute, with anything 
like accuracy, the numbers that then perish. After the Car Festival, 
they find every stream flooded; and even those who can pay have 
often to sit for days in the rain on the bank, before a boat will 
venture on the ungovernable torrent. Hundreds die upon the road- 


side. The missionaries along the line of march have ascertained that 
pilgrims sometimes travel 40 miles a day, until at last they drop from 
sheer fatigue. Those are most happy whom insensibility overtakes in 
some English station, for they are then taken into hospital. Personal 
inquiries among the pilgrims led to the conclusion that, up to 1870, the 
deaths in the city and by the way seldom fell below one-eighth, and 
often amounted to one-fifth, of each company ; and the Sanitary Com- 
missioner for Bengal accepts this estimate. It is impossible to reckon 
the total number of the poorer sort who travel on foot at less than 
84,000. It is equally impossible to reckon their deaths in Puri and on 
the road at less than one-seventh, or 12,000 a year. Deducting 2000 
for the ordinary death-rate, we have a net slaughter of 10,000 per 

It may well be supposed that the British Government has not looked 
unmoved on this appalling spectacle, to which nothing but a total 
prohibition of pilgrimage could put a stop. But such a prohibition 
would amount to an interdict on one of the most cherished religious 
privileges, and would be regarded by every Hindu throughout India 
as a national wrong. The subject has come up from time to time 
for official discussion; and in 1867, circular letters were sent to 
every Division of Bengal. The pilgrims' lodging-houses in Puri have 
been placed under special Acts ; a system of sanitary surveillance and 
quarantine introduced; and pilgrims' hospitals established along the 
o-reat line of road. These efforts to reduce the loss of life to a minimum 
have been described in a previous section of this article. 

Purla Kimidi. — Ancient zamuiddri and town in Ganjam District, 
Madras Presidency.— .Sf^ Parla Kimedi and Kimedi. 

Puma (the ancient Payos]mi).—^\\tr of Berar, having its source in 
the Satpura range, lat. 21° n., long. 76° 14' e. It flows through Akola 
District from east to west, almost equidistant from the ranges of hills 
which bound the valley north and south. It is not navigable by 
boats. The banks, though soft, seem to a great extent to have resisted 
erosion by the water, but there are exceptions ; some villages on the 
south bank, notably Wagoli, have had to move southwards, gradually 
losing their ground to the north. The Purna has many tributary streams, 
of which the chief are the Kata Purna, the Miirna, the Man, the Ghan, 
the Shahniir, the Chandra Bhaga, and the Wan. Towards the end of 
its course in Berar, the Purna for a space bounds the Districts of Akola 
and Buldana, and, passing beyond the latter into Khandesh, joins the 
Tapti about 20 miles below Burhanpur. In the valley of the Purna 
lie some of the richest cotton-producing tracts of Berar. 

Purnabhaba. — River of Bengal; rises in the Brahmanpukhur 
Marsh in the District of Dinajpur, and flows southwards for about 
72 miles, until it enters Maldah District. Here it takes a south- 


westerly direction, passing through the dense kdtdl or highland 
jungle occupying the eastern portion of Maldah District, and joins 
the Mahananda in lat. 24° 50' n., and long. 88° 21' e., about a mile 
below the ancient Muhammadan grain mart of Rohanpur, which was 
formerly fortified as one of the approaches to Gaur by way of the 
Mahanandd. The chief tributaries of the Purnabhaba in Dinajpur are 
the Dhepa, Narta, Sialdanga, Ghdgra, Hancha-Katdkhal, and Harbhanga, 
on the east or left bank ; and the Mina on the west or right bank. 
Its bed is sandy, and very deep in the upland tract, where the banks 
are steep ; elsewhere they are sloping or abrupt, according as the 
current sets from one side of the river to the other ; generally speaking, 
they are jungly and uncultivated. The river is navigable throughout 
its course by large boats in the rains, and by small boats during 
the dry season. During the rainy months, the basin of the 
Purnabhaba is entirely filled by the flood of waters which come down 
from the high land of the kdtdl^ rising above the river banks ; and at 
that season it may be said to expand into one vast lake, extending 
over a very wide area of adjoining low land. 

Purngarh. — Port in Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 
16° 48' X., long. 73° 20' E. Twelve miles south of Ratnagiri. Popula- 
tion (1872) 512. The river Machkundi admits only vessels of small 
size. One of the ports of the Ratnagiri Customs Division. Average 
annual value of trade for five years ending 1881-82 — imports, ^5810, 
and exports, ^4350. Fort. 

Purniah. — British District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of Bengal, 
lying between 25° 15' and 26° 35' x. lat., and between 87'' i' and 
88° 33' E. long. Area, 4956 square miles; population (according 
to the Census of 1881) 1,848,687. Purniah forms the north-eastern 
District of the Bhagalpur Division. It is bounded on the north 
by the State of Nepal and Darjiling District ; on the east by the 
Districts of Jalpaiguri, Dinajpur, and Maldah ; on the south by the 
river Ganges, which separates it from the Districts of Bhagalpur and 
the Santal Parganas ; and on the west by Bhagalpur. The administra- 
tive head-quarters are at Purxiah town, which is also the most 
populous place in the District. 

Physical Aspects. — Purniah District forms a north-western extension 
of the great deltaic plain of Bengal proper. With the exception of a 
small hill of nodular limestone {kankar) near Manihari in the south 
of the District, and a few tracts of undulating country in the north 
bordering on Nepal, the whole presents an almost dead level. 

As regards physical character, Purniah may be divided into two 
portions of nearly equal size. East of a line running from the point 
where the Panar river enters the District, to the town of Purniah, 
and then trending southward and eastward to Manihari, the soil is 



composed of a rich loam of alluvial formation, intersected by rivers and 
natural canals, by means of which nearly every part of it is accessible 
during the dry season. Large marshes also exist, which do not com- 
pletely dry up at any period of the year. In this tract, rice is the 
great staple of cultivation, except in the north, in Krishnaganj Sub- 
Division, where jute and tobacco occupy a considerable area. 

In the western half of the District the physical features of the 
country are different. The soil is here thickly overlaid with sand 
deposited by the Kusi in the course of its westward movement, and 
is but little cultivated. This tract spreads out from the vicinity of 
Purniah town, chiefly to the north and west, in the form of radiating 
stretches of land, opening out occasionally into fine grassy, prairie-like 
plains. These afford pasturage to great herds of cattle, and towards 
the south to numerous flocks of sheep. Villages are much rarer here 
than in the east of the District, and the huts comprising them are 
smaller and much less comfortable. 

The rivers of Purniah group themselves into three systems, all 
tributary to the Ganges, which forms the southern boundary of the 
District. The Kusi forms the principal feature in the hydrography of 
the District. This river takes its rise in the Nepal Himalayas, being 
formed by three principal hill torrents; and on reaching British 
territory, it is already a large river nearly a mile wide. The Kusf is 
remarkable for the rapidity of its current, and for the uncertain 
nature of its bed. It has a constant westerly movement, so that 
the present bed of the river is many miles distant from the channel 
shown on old maps. Owing to these characteristics, its navigation 
is at all times a matter of much difficulty. The channels of deep 
water are constantly changing, new ones being yearly opened up, 
and old ones choked by vast sandbanks. The Kusi is navigable 
throughout the year by boats of about 9 tons burthen as far as the 
Nepal frontier, and by boats of 25 or 30 tons in the lower portions of 
its course. Boats of any size proceeding up or down the river require 
to be preceded by a regular Kusi pilot, who goes some distance in 
advance, and selects the channel to be followed. The minor tribu- 
taries of the Kusi on its right or west bank, the Nagardhar, Mara 
Hiran, and Rajmohan, have now nearly disappeared, their courses 
being almost entirely obliterated by the westward movement of the 
main stream. The Kala Kusi, the most clearly marked of the old 
beds of the Kusi, still preserves to some extent the appearance of a 
river, but with many diverging, reuniting, and interlacing channels. 
It runs southwards from Arariya, past Purniah town, where it 
receives its principal tributar}-, the Saura, and continues its southerly 
course, often by several beds, till it falls into the Ganges nearly 
opposite Sahibganj. 


The Panar river is formed in the Matiyari police circle by the 
confluence of a number of hill streams from Nepal. It flows a 
south-easterly and southerly course, passing about ten miles east of 
Purniah town, and joining the Ganges in the extreme south-east of the 
District. It is navigable by boats of 3^- tons from a short distance 
below the Nepal frontier to the neighbourhood of Purniah town, and 
afterwards by boats of about 9 tons to the Ganges. 

The Mahananda, which rises in the lower mountains of Sikkim, 
touches on Purniah District at Phansidewa, in the extreme north-east 
corner, and forms the eastern boundary of the District for about eight 
miles, as far as Titalya, from whence it flows first westwards, then south- 
wards, and afterwards eastwards by a circuitous course, with several 
tributaries on both banks, till it passes into Maldah District, where it 
joins the Ganges. In its upper course it is unnavigable, but becomes 
navigable by boats of about 3^ tons below Kaliaganj, increasing in 
depth and volume till, shortly before entering Maldah District, it is 
navigable by boats of 35 tons burthen. Many of the tributaries of the 
Mahananda are also navigable. The principal trading villages on the 
banks of the Mahananda are — Kaliaganj, Haldibari, Kharkhari, 
Krishnaganj, Dulalganj, and Barsoi. 

Wild A7iimals. — Tigers are found in all parts of the District, but 
particularly along the banks and among the sandy islands of the Kusi, 
where they find shelter in the high grass jungle with which the country 
is covered. Another tract much frequented by tigers is the scrub jungle 
along the northern boundary of the District. A few also come from 
near Gaur, in Maldah District, and from the i-^zV forests in Dinajpur. 
Leopards are common along the Dinajpur frontier, and hyaenas in the 
north of the District. Deer are few, but antelope are plentiful on the 
open plains in the north. Wild hog and jackals are common. Game 
birds include pea-fowl, jungle-fowl, partridge, quail, plover, snipe, 
varieties of wild geese, duck, teal, and widgeon. 

History. — Purniah fell into the hands of the Muhammadan con- 
querors in the 13th century, previous to which time the southern 
portion of the District is said to have constituted a portion of the 
dominions of Lakshman Sen, the last independent Hindu king of 
Bengal. It was not, however, apparently until the 17th century that 
Purniah became the valuable prize which it was afterwards considered. 
During the intermediate centuries it was regarded as an outlying 
military Province of the IMughal Empire ; and its revenues were almost 
consumed in protecting its own lands against the incursions of the 
northern and eastern tribes. During the war between Sher Shah, the 
Afghan ruler of Bengal, and Humayiin, the Mughal Emperor of Delhi, 
Purniah supplied the latter with some rough levies ; but so little was 
known of this outlying tract from the 13th to the middle of the 17th 


century, that not even the names of its faujddrs or military governors 
appear to have been recorded. 

About the latter quarter of the 17th century, Ostwal Khan was 
appointed faujddr^ with the title of Nawab, and united with the com- 
mand of the frontier army the fiscal duties of dmil or superintendent 
of the revenues. He was succeeded by AbduUa Khan, who was vested 
with similar powers. Upon the death of Babhaniyar Khan in 1722, 
Saif Khan, the greatest of the governors of Purniah, was appointed to 
what had now become an office of great emolument and dignity. Under 
his administration, and afterwards under that of Sayyid Ahmad, son-in- 
law of All Vardi Khan, Nawab of Bengal, who died in 1756, the power 
of the Purniah governorship was consolidated. A considerable army 
was equipped, and the frontier was extended in many directions. 

Sayyid Ahmad was succeeded by Shaukat Jang, whose character is 
represented to have been as bad as that of his notorious cousin Siraj- 
ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal. Both young men, by their perverse 
conduct, gave offence to the old servants and officers of their fathers, 
and alienated the affections of the people. The chief among the dis- 
graced adherents of the Nawab, Mir Jafar Khan, a name subsequently 
well known in British history, betook himself to the court of the 
Purniah governor, and describing the weakness of his own master, urged 
Shaukat Jang to advance an army towards Murshidabad. This advice 
coincided with the natural impules of Shaukat Jang. War was declared, 
and Siraj-ud-daula, who had just returned from Calcutta after the 
tragedy of the Black Hole, proceeded into Purniah to anticipate the 
attack. A sanguinary battle was fought near Nawabganj, and lost by 
Shaukat Jang, mainly in consequence of his own gross indolence and 
incapacity. He was himself killed in the battle, after a reign of only 
nine months, and the victorious army entered Purniah two days later. 
Temporary governors were then appointed ; but the country remained 
in a state of anarchy until the last governor was superseded, in 1770, 
by an English official, with the title of Superintendent. 

The present jurisdiction of the District has been established gradually, 
after large portions have been parcelled away to create the District 
of Maldah, and, more recently, to consolidate Bhagalpur upon the 
western frontier. Purniah District is now divided into three Sub- 
divisions, viz. the head-quarters or southern Sub-division, Arariya in 
the north-west, and Krishnaganj in the north-east. 

Population. — In the beginning of this century, Dr. Buchanan- 
Hamilton estimated that the population of the District was 2,904,380; 
but this seems to be an excessive estimate, even after making allow- 
ance for the greater extent of the Purniah jurisdiction at that time. 
There are no grounds for supposing that the population has decreased. 
According to the Census of 1872, which was very carefully effected, the 


total population of Purniah District as at present constituted was 
1,714,795, giving an average of 346 persons per square mile. At the 
last enumeration in 1881, a total of 1,848,687 was disclosed, showing 
an increase in the nine years of 133,692, or 872 per cent. 

The general results arrived at by the Census of 1881 may be 
summarized as follows : — Area of District, 4956 square miles ; number 
of towns, 7, and of villages, 5680; number of houses, 311,131, of 
which 304,712 were occupied, and 6419 unoccupied. Total population, 
1,848,687, namely, males 937,080, and females 911,607; proportion of 
males, 507 per cent. Average number of persons per town or village, 
325 ; average inmates per house, 6*07 ; average density of population, 
373 persons per square mile. 

The population is most dense in the rich alluvial plain to the east ot 
the District, watered by the Mahananda and its affluents, where the 
proportion is 471 to the square mile. The east and central police 
circles also show a denser population than the average of the District. 
The number diminishes to the south and west along the banks of the 
Ganges and Kusi, in consequence of the devastating overflow of these 
rivers. Along the Kusi the population grows more and more sparse 
from north to south, until in the police circle of Damdaha it falls to 
only 212 to the square mile. 

Classified according to sex and age, the population consists of— 
under 15 years, males 377,373, and females 349,008 ; total children, 
726,381, or 39*3 per cent, of the population : 15 years and upwards, 
males 559,707, and females 562,599; total adults, 1,122,306, or 607 
per cent. 

The course of the Mahananda river marks a distinct ethnical divi- 
sion of the people. To the west there is a large Aryan element, whose 
characteristics of language and physique predominate over the more 
numerous non-Aryan people among whom they are diffused. East- 
wards, the mass of the people are aborigines, being an outlying portion 
of the Koch or Kiranti race. Whole villages of Goalas, or herdsmen, 
are found on the sandy plains formed by the Kusi, in the west of the 

Religion.— T\\^ bulk of the population are Hindus, who were returned 
in the Census Report of 1881 as numbering 1,076,539, or 58-2 percent, 
of the District population. Muhammadans numbered 771,130, or 417 
per cent. ; Christians, 327 ; Jews, 12 ; and non-Hindu Kols, 679. 

Of the higher castes of Hindus, Brahmans number 34,822 ; 
Rajputs, 48,465; Babhans, 11,842; Kayasths, 12,761; and Baniyas, 
31,290. The principal lower or Siidra castes include the following : — 
Goala or herdsmen, the most numerous caste in the District, 131,629 ; 
Kaibartta, 44,221 ; Dhanuk, 35,584; Teli, 38,136; Musahar, 31,209; 
Dosadh, 30,949; Hari, 30,883; Koeri, 26,238; Chamar, 21,968; 


Kent or Kewat, 19,798; Kumbhar, 18,732; Napit, 18,222; Tior, 
16,028; Tanti, 15,860; Mallah, 15,593; Kahar, 15,190; Kurmi, 
14,648; Barhai, 14,522; Sunri, 14,146; Tatwa, 13,621; Dhobi, 
13,620; Lobar, 11,517 ; Madak, 9905 ; Kahvar, 9822 ; Sonar, 7997; 
Bind, 7748; Mah', 7172; Dom, 6805; Kandu, 5823; Nuniya, 5754; 
Barui, 4795 ; and Gareri, 3648. Caste-rejecting Hindus number 7367, 
of whom 341 2 are returned as Vaishnavs. The Hindu aboriginal popu- 
lation is returned at 86,366, of whom 71,833 are Kochs, and 4000 
Kharwars, with a springing of Gonds, Kols, Bhuinyas, and others. 
The Muhammadan population is returned as under, according to sect 
— Sunnis, 735,889; Shias, 4422; and unspecified, 30,819. The 
Christian community consists of 94 Episcopalians and Church of 
England, 31 Roman Catholics, 12 Baptists, 98 Protestants without 
distinction of sect, while the remainder are unspecified. 

Town and Rural Populatioji, etc. — The population of the District 
is almost entirely rural, and only seven towns have a population ex- 
ceeding five thousand inhabitants, namely, Purniah, population (1881) 
15,016; Bansgaon, 6158; SiTALPUR Khas, 6oo2 ; Krishnaganj, 
6000 ; Raniganj, 5978 ; Bhatgaon, 5723 ; and Kasba, 5124. 
These seven towns contain a total population of 50,001, or only 27 per 
cent, of the District population. Three towns only are municipalities, 
namely, Purniah, Krishnaganj, and Raniganj. Total municipal income 
(1883-84), ^2205, of which ^1814 was derived from taxation; aver- 
age incidence of taxation, is. 4d. per head. Of the total of 5687 towns 
and villages, 2558 contain less than two hundred inhabitants; 2138 
from two to five hundred ; 754 from five hundred to a thousand ; 212 
from one to two thousand; 16 from two to three thousand ; 2 from 
three to five thousand ; and 7 upwards of five thousand inhabitants. 
As regards occupation, the Census Report classifies the male popula- 
tion into six main divisions, as follows : — Class (i) Professional, includ- 
ing civil and military, 6064; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging- 
house keepers, etc., 63,945 ; (3) commercial, including bankers, 
merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 42,743 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral 
class, including gardeners, 325,663; (5) manufacturing and industrial 
class, including all artisans, 46,279 ; (6) unspecified and unproductive, 
including general labourers, 452,386. 

Agriadtiire. — Rice is the most important crop in Purniah. Although 
the area under rice is less than in Bengal proper, it is considerably 
larger than in the more western parts of Behar. Next to rice, tobacco 
and jute are the most important products of the District. The best 
tobacco is grown along the high strips of country extending from the 
town of Purniah in a north and somewhat westerly direction. The soil 
farther to the east, which is richer and moister, is not so well adapted 
for the cultivation of this crop. Jute is grown over the north of the 

FURMAH. 327 

District, and indigo is raised on a considerable area to the south of 
Turniah town. Irrigation is not usually resorted to in any part of 
Turniah. The total cultivated area of the District has been estimated 
at 2,315,910 acres; the uncultivated area capable of cultivation at 
285,440 acres, and the uncultivable waste at 571,029 acres. Seventy- 
five acres would be considered a very large holding, and 8 acres or 
under, a very small one. Twenty acres may be put down as a fair- 
sized comfortable holding. Eight acres is as much as a single pair of 
ordinary bullocks can keep in cultivation. 

There are but few intermediate permanent rights between the land- 
lord and the cultivator. Estates are generally let on short leases to 
farmers, who try to make as much as they can during their term. The 
number of permanent under-tenures of all kinds is, according to the 
road cess returns, only 103 1, as against 2378 farming leases. Indebted- 
ness among the cultivators is common. A late Collector estimated 
that tenants with occupancy rights do not form more than a quarter of 
the peasantry of the District, while those holding at rents protected from 
enhancement under Act viii. of 1869 scarcely amount to one-sixteenth. 
The great mass of the cultivators are mere tenants-at-will. The rates 
of rent are generally low as compared with other Districts, ranging from 
a nominal rate of 6d. to 8s. per acre. Besides the system of rents 
founded on the nature and richness of the soil, there is another, current 
in the south-west of the District, called hdl-hasli, under which rent is 
assessed according to the crops grown on the land. 

A letter from the Collector to the Board of Revenue in 178S, 
estimates the average earnings of the labouring classes at i rupee, or 
2s., a month. In 1842, wages were from 3s. to 4s. a month. At the 
present day, agricultural labourers are paid 7s., but the labourers who 
come to the District for the season from Chutia Nagpur usually 
demand 8s. a month. Skilled labour, when employed by natives, is 
generally paid in kind. Blacksmiths can earn about 24s. a month ; 
carpenters, from 12s. to 14s. ; bricklayers, from 8s. to los. The prices 
of food have increased in the same proportion as the wages of labour. 
In 1794, the price of rice per cwt. was about is. 4d. ; in 1878, it 
was about 4s. lod. In 1883-84, the average price of common 
rice and of wheat was returned at 6s. 9d. per cwt. at the head-quarters 

Natural Calamities.— YmmTski District is very liable to floods, which 
cause much damage ; but on such occasions it is usual for the high 
lands to yield abundantly, thus tending to compensate for the crops 
destroyed by the inundation. Drought, when it occurs, is a more 
serious calamity than flood. The great famine of 1770, which was 
attended with a terrible mortality in Purniali, was occasioned by 
the failure of nearly all the crops of the year, but particularly of the 


late rice, in consequence of long-continued drought. In a report to 
the Directors of the East India Company, it was stated that ' the 
famine which has ensued, the mortality, the beggary, exceed all descrip- 
tion. Above one-third of the inhabitants have perished in the once 
plentiful Province of Purniah.' In 1788, the rainfall was again 
deficient, but no serious results followed, and there is no record of any 
other failure of the crops till 1866. Even on that occasion, the local 
pressure was caused, not so much by deficiency in the produce, as by 
the drain on the District for the troops, which had been constantly 
passing to and fro in connection with the war in Bhutan during the 
two previous years. In 1874, the crops again partially failed, but the 
necessary precautions were taken, and famine was effectually averted 
from the District. 

Manufactures, Commerce, ^/(T.— Indigo is the most important manu- 
facture in Purniah. In an average year, the out-turn of indigo is 
estimated at 5000 to 7000 ?naunds (about 225 tons) of dye; area 
of land under indigo, 60,000 to 70,000 acres. The annual expendi- 
ture by the various factories is returned at ^100,000; but there are 
no figures showing how much capital is invested in buildings, machinery, 
and land. There are 34 factories in the District, with 31 subsidiary 
works ; of which only 3 are owned and managed by natives. The 
cultivation is based more on the principle of freedom than in Lower 
Bengal or in the neighbouring Behar Districts. The cultivators sell 
their indigo at the vats, where it is measured, and a fair value given for 
the plant. 

Bidri ware, a local manufacture, is made from a mixture of 
pewter and brass, inlaid with silver; it is chiefly used for hookah- 
stands, plates, jugs, etc. Blanket-weaving is carried on by the Gareri 
or shepherd caste, almost exclusively in the south and west of the 
District. Some members of this caste have no flocks, and live entirely 
by weaving ; others have both looms and flocks, and others flocks but 
no looms. All, however, hold farms, as, owing to the frequency of 
disease, the produce of their flocks and looms is uncertain. Gunny is 
largely woven from jute in the Krishnaganj Sub-division by women of 
the lower castes, who bring the pieces for sale to the village markets, 
where they are purchased by petty traders and carried to the larger 
bazars on the banks of the Mahananda, and exported to Calcutta by 
boat. Paper manufacture is carried on in Krishnaganj town by a 
colony of Musalmans, who intermarry only among themselves, and who 
subsist solely on the profits of their special trade. 

The chief articles of trade are rice, oil-seeds, indigo, jute, tobacco, 
hides, and fish; the principal seats of commerce being Kasba, Ekamba, 
Dulalganj, Krishnaganj, Raniganj, Nawabganj, Purniah, and Saifganj, 
the latter being the chief seat of the sheep-breeding trade. Agn- 


cultural products, with dried fish and hides, form the chief staples of 
the export trade, in return for which piece-goods, spices, drugs, brass 
and iron ware are imported. A considerable trans-frontier trade, both 
export and import, is carried on with Nepal. 

Means of Communication are not so good in Purniah generally 
as in neighbouring Districts of Bengal and Behar. The tract of 
country, however, lying north of the head-quarters station is fairly 
well opened out by roads, many of which were made during the relief 
operations of 1874; and as this whole system of roads converges on 
the great Darjihng and Karagold road, it is thereby connected with 
the river Ganges, and beyond the river, by steamer, with the East 
Indian Railway at Sahibganj. Purniah District will, however, be 
shortly brought into communication directly with the railway system of 
India. A line is in course of construction from the Darbhangah branch 
of the Tirhiit State Railway, running eastwards through Purniah for 
some distance along the Nepal frontier, afterwards turning to the south 
and running past Purniah town, till it touches the Ganges near Mani- 
hari opposite Saifganj. A line is also to be constructed from Saifganj 
station on the above line, running eastwards through Dinajpur to Kuch 

Administration.— ThQ revenue of the District of Purniah, according 
to the records in the Collector's office, amounted in 1792 to ^126,049 ; 
in 1850-51 to ^157,690; and in 1870-71 to £t^19AA9- The net 
expenditure in 1792 was ;£"27,204; in 1850-51, ;,{;2 4,258 ; and m 
1870-71, pf 37,831. The increased revenue in the twenty years ending 
1870-71 is noteworthy, as since 1850 large transfers have been made 
from Purniah to Maldah and to Bhagalpur, involving a loss in land 
revenue to Purniah of ^20,000. This loss, however, was met by a 
threefold increase in excise receipts, a much larger sale of stamps, and 
the imposition of an income-tax. The additional expenditure was 
generally distributed through all departments of local administration. 

In 1883-84, the six principal items of District revenue aggregated 
;^i 7 7,930, made up as lollows :— Land revenue, ^116,259; excise, 
;£'26,303; stamps, ^23,967; registration, ^1463; road cess, ;£8i24; 
and municipal taxes, ^1814. The total cost of civil administration, 
as represented by the salaries of District officials and police, amounted 
in 1883-S4 to i;2 1,438. In 1883-84 there were 1653 estates in the 
District, owned by 5776 registered proprietors or coparceners; the 
average amount of revenue paid by each estate being ^70, 6s. 6d., 
and by each proprietor, ^20, 2s. 6d. The gradual steps by which the 
land revenue of Purniah was assessed are interesting, and have been 
given at considerable length from the original records in The Statistical 
Account of Bengal^ vol. xv. p. 389 et seq. 

Protection to person and property has steadily improved. In the 


year 1800 there were 3 magisterial courts, 2 civil and 2 revenue courts ; 
in 1883 there were 6 magisterial and 7 civil and revenue courts. 
For executive purposes, the District is divided into 3 Sub-divisions 
and 13 police circles. In 1883 there were i superior European officer, 
82 subordinate officers, and 459 constables in the regular and municipal 
or town police, maintained at a total charge of jQ^S^'S- The village 
watch consisted of 4398 rural policemen, maintained entirely by con- 
tributions from the people at a total estimated cost in money and 
lands of ;^i5,237. The whole police force of the District amounted, 
therefore, to 4940 officers and men, being at the rate of i policeman 
to every square mile of area, or i to every 374 of the population. The 
total police charges, actual and estimated, were ;£"23,8o2, showing an 
incidence of about ^4, i6s. per square mile of area, or a fraction over 
3d. per head of population. The total number of persons convicted 
of an offence, great or small, in 1883, was 1579, or i to every 11 71 
of the population. The average number of prisoners in jail during 
1883 was 132, of whom 5 were females. 

Education of all kinds, and especially primary education, has been 
widely diffused in Purniah District during the past few years. This 
progress is due to the policy of Sir George Campbell, in recognising 
the existing village schools of the country, improving them by Govern- 
ment grants, and incorporating them into the State system of public 
instruction. The number of Government and aided schools increased 
from I in 1856-57 to 12 in 1870-71, and 347 in 1874-75. The total 
number of pupils increased from 66 in 1856-57 to 288 in 1870-71, and 
to 8744 in 1874-75. In the latter year there were also 183 private 
and unaided schools, subject to Government inspection. Full details 
are not available showing the exact educational figures for 1883-84, 
but the number of Government inspected primary schools in that year 
had increased to 995, with 12,223 pupils. The District or zild school 
had 133 pupils in 1883-84. These figures are exclusive of all unin- 
spected and unaided schools. The Census Report of 1881 returns 
16,889 boys and 569 girls as under instruction in that year, besides 
28,143 males and 1059 females able to read and write, but not under 

There are 3 municipalities in the District — Purniah town, with a 
municipal income in 1883-84 of ^£1756, of which ;£"i38o was derived 
from taxation, or an incidence of taxation of is. lod. per head; 
Krishnaganj, where the municipal income was ^^325, incidence of 
taxation is. ofd. per head; and Raniganj, municipal income ^123, 
incidence of taxation 5d. per head. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Purniah District is of an inter- 
mediate character between that of Behar and Central Bengal. The 
rainfall averages 67 inches in the year, which is far above the rate 


of Tirhiit or North Bhngalpur, but not so heavy as in Dinajpur, 
Rangpur, or Bogra. Purniah is the most eastern District that 
distinctly feels the hot and dry west winds so prevalent in Behar 
and Upper India. The average monthly mean temperature for the 
year is 76-8° F., the thermometer during May rising to 105° or 107° F. 
in the shade. The most unhealthy season of the year is* towards the 
close of October, when the rains cease, and the flooded lands begin to 
dry up, filling the air with malarial exhalations from decaying vegeta- 
tion. At this season the population suffers greatly from fever. The 
District is in consequence generally considered unhealthy by the 
people of Bengal. Medical relief is afforded by charitable dispensaries 
at Purniah town, Krishnaganj, and Basantpur. [For further informa- 
tion regarding Purniah, see T/ie Statistical Account of Bengal, by W. W. 
Hunter, vol. xv. pp. 219-444 (Triibner & Co., London, 1877). Also 
Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton's ms. Statistical Account of Purniah, compiled 
about 181 1 ; the Bengal Census Reports for 1872 and 1881 ; and the 
several Bengal Administration and Departmental Reports from 1880 
to 1884.] 

Purniah. — Head-quarters Sub-division of Purniah District, Bengal. 
Area (1881), 1644 square miles; tow^ns and villages, 143°; houses, 
85,871. Population (1881) 511,945, namely, males 261,055, and 
females 250,890. Hindus number 363,121, or 70-5 per cent ; Muham- 
madans, 150,548, or 29-4 per cent.; Christians, 264; and Jews, 12. 
Average density of population, 311 persons per square mile; average 
number of villages, '87 per square mile; persons per village, 358; 
houses per square mile, 54; inmates per house, 5-9. This Sub- 
division comprises the 4 police circles of Purniah, Amiir - Kasba, 
Damdaha, and Gondwara. In 1883 it contained 5 magisterial and 4 
civil and revenue courts, with a regular police force of 334 men, and 
a village watch or rural police of 1843 chaukiddrs. 

Purniah. — Chief town, municipality, and administrative head- 
quarters of Purniah District, Bengal ; situated on the east bank of the 
Saura river, in lat. 25° 46' 15" n., and long. 87° 30' 44" e. Population 
(1872) 16,057; (1881) 15,016, namely, males 8463, and females 6553. 
Hindus number 9175; Muhammadans, 5662; and 'others,' 179. 
Municipal income (1883-84), ^1756, of which ^1380 was derived 
from taxation; average incidence of taxation, is. lod. per head. 

The old civil station of Rambagh, formerly a western suburb, now 
lies within the centre of the town. The population has decreased 
considerably in the last half-century, owing to the unhealthiness of the 
climate, consequent on the silting up of the river Kali Kusi, when it 
formed the bed of the Great Kusi. As that river worked westward, it 
gave place to a chain of marshes connected by low strips of land, which 
were flooded in the rains, and formed at that season of the year a con- 


tinuous water communication. At the time of the English occupation 
(about 1 771), this change seems to have been not yet complete; the 
main body of water had been diverted, but enough still remained in the 
Kali Kusi to keep the swamps deep, and very little of the bed was left 
dry for any considerable part of the year. About 1820 the station 
became one of the most unhealthy in Bengal ; and the old graveyard 
shows how great must have been the mortality among the European 
residents during the second quarter of this century. About 1835 the 
Government offices were removed to higher ground, 2 miles west of 
the military lines of Purniah. After this change there was an appreci- 
able improvement in the health of the officials and other residents ; 
but the town still retained its unpopularity. The native quarter is 
even now subject to outbreaks of fever, passing into severe epidemics ; 
and it is believed that in unhealthy years no less than 90 per cent, of 
the native population suffer from this disease. Purniah has a consider- 
able trade in jute. 

Purdlia. — Head-quarters Sub-division of Manbhiim District, Bengal. 
Area, 3344 square miles; towns and villages, 4366; houses, 147,305. 
Population (1881) 861,644, namely, males 427,336, and females 
434,308. Hindus number 794,359, or 92*2 per cent.; Muhammadans, 
30,769, or 3"6 per cent. ; Santals, 30,103, or 3*5 per cent. ; other non- 
Hindu aboriginal tribes, 5906, or '68 per cent. ; Christians, 482 ; Bud- 
dhists, 23 ; and Jews, 2. Average density of population, 257-7 persons 
per square mile; number of villages per square mile, i'3i; persons 
per village, 198 ; houses per square mile, 447 ; inmates per house, 5 '9. 
This Sub-division contains the 11 police circles of Puriilia, Jaipur, 
Jhalida, Baghmundi, Ichhagarh, Barabhiim, Manbazar, Raghunathpur, 
Gaurandi, Para, and Chas. 

Puriilia. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Man- 
bhiim District, Bengal. Lat. 23° 19' 38" n., long. 86° 24' 35" e. 
Population (1872) 5695; (1881) 9805, namely, Hindus, 7795; 
Muhammadans, 1248; and 'others,' 262. Municipal income (1876-77), 
;£457 ; (1883-84), ;^9i9, of which ^569 was derived from taxation; 
average incidence of taxation, is. 4^d. per head of the population (8192) 
within municipal limits. The town contains a Deputy Commissioner's 
office, court-house, jail, police station, dispensary, church, etc. ; the 
bazar supplies the District generally with cotton, salt, and other imported 

Purushottapur fyPumshottamapurain^ 'City of Purushottama,' or 
Jagatmdth). — Town in Ganjam District, Madras Presidency ; situated 
in lat. 19° 31' 15''' N., long. 84° 57' e., on the banks of the Rashikuliya 
river. The town is being gradually driven back from its present site 
by the encroachment of the river. During the last twenty years four 
streets have been obliterated. Population (1881) 3962. Chiefly notable 


for the Pillar of Tougodo (4 miles to the north), bearing an Edict of 
Asoka (dating probably about 250 B.C.), similar to those at Dhauli in 
Cuttack, and in the fort at Allahabad. Round the pillar runs a ram- 
part, or encirling mound, marking the site of a very ancient fort 
and city, which covers a total area of about 144 acres. The inscrip- 
tion is addressed to the dwellers on the Kephalinga hills. The 
letters are fast being worn away, but photographs have been taken 
which secure the sense of the writing. The mound is locally known as 
the ' Lac Fort ; ' its name being derived from the tradition that it was 
made of lac (Coccus Lacca), and impregnable, as no enemy could scale 
the smooth and slippery walls. Station of a Sub-magistrate, post- 
office, etc. 

Purwa. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Unao District, Oudh ; situated 
between 26° 8' and 26° 40' n. lat, and between 80° 37' and 81° 5' 30'' 
E. loner., and comprising the ten pargands of Purwa, Mauranwan, 
Asoha, Bhagwantnagar, Daundia Khera, Panhan, Behar, Patan, Mag- 
rayar, and Ghatampur. Bounded on the north by Rasulabad and 
Lucknow tahsils, on the east by Mohanlalganj and Maharajganj, on 
the south by Lalganj tahsil and Fatehpur District, and on the west by 
Unao tahsil. Area, 547 square miles, of which 270 are cultivated. 
Population (1881) 278,527, namely, 263,793 Hindus and i4,734 
Musalmans ; average density of population, 509 persons per square 
mile; number of villages and townships {manzds), 538. In 1883, Purwa 
talisil contained i civil and 2 magisterial courts ; number of police 
circles {thdnds\ 3 ; strength of regular police, 66 men ; village police 
(chaukiddrs), 825. 

Purwa. — Pargand of Unao District, Oudh. Bounded on the north 
by Govinda Parsandan ; on the east by Mauranwan ; on the south by 
Panhan, Patan, and Magrayar ; and on the west by Harha. Area, in 
square miles, of which 54 are cultivated. The soil is chiefly loam and 
clay ; the principal crops are wheat, barley, and sugar-cane. The 
Lon river runs through the pargand, but is dry in the hot weather. 
Population (1881) 60,335, namely, 55,746 Hindus and 4589 Musalmans. 
Government land revenue, ^7897, or an average of 2s. ihd. per acre. 
The area under the different tenures is as follows '.— Tdlukddri, 15,980 
acres; zaminddri, 39,640 acres; pattiddri, 15,411 acres. 

Purwa. — Town in Unao District, Oudh, and head-quarters of Purwa 
tahsil ^.wd. pargand ; situated 20 miles south-east of Unao town. Lat. 
26° 27' 20" N., long. 80° 48' 55" E. Population (1881) 9719, namely, 
7176 Hindus and 2543 Muhammadans. Purwa was formerly the 
head-quarters of the District ; but soon after annexation the seat of 
administration was moved to Unao. Four lines of unmetalled road 
lead from Purwa — one between Unao and Rai Bareli, a second from 
Purwa to Cawnpur, a third from Purwa to Lucknow, and a fourth 


from Purwa to Behar, Baksar, and Rdi Bareli. The town is noted for 
its shoes and leather-work. Two markets are held weekly ; and there 
are three annual fairs, the sales at which amount to about £z^oo. 
Besides the usual Sub-divisional courts, Purwa contains a police station, 
and a school attended by upwards of loo boys. 

Pus. River of Berar; rises at the village of Kata, just north of 

Basim town, in lat. 20° 9' n., long. 77° 12' e. ; and, after a course of 
64 miles, first south-east and then north-east, empties itself into the 
Penganga at Sangam (lat. 19° 51' n., long. 76° 47' e.). The valleys 
drained by the river, and by the Kata Purna, which rises close to it, 
are generally narrow and confined. The soil is good, and fairly 

Plisa. — Government estate in Darbhangah District, Bengal. Area, 
4528 acres. The records of the old Tirhut Collectorate show that the 
village w^as acquired by Government in 1796, on mukarrdri lease 
from the Maliks or head-men of Lodipur Piisa, Chandmari, and Despur, 
who bound themselves and their heirs to give up all interest in the 
lands, except the right to the first year's rental. In 1798, other waste 
lands appertaining to Bakhtiarpur were assigned to Government 
wdthout any additional rent. 

The estate was long used as a stud depot, but all stud operations 
were closed in 1872; and in 1875 a model farm was established, the 
soil being of the first quality, the situation good, and water-carriage 
and large markets wnthin easy reach. The most important experiment 
is that of investigating whether the garpd rice of Dacca can be made 
to grow in high lands in Tirhut as it does in Bengal. Another project 
is to teach the Tirhut rdyats, who take great interest in these experi- 
ments, to grow and prepare safflower-dye according to the Bengal 
method. The grounds at Pusa have been very wt.U laid out. There is 
a great deal of valuable timber scattered over the estate. The total 
receipts from the model farm in 1873-74 amounted to £s'^l- Still 
more recently, the cultivation and manufacture of tobacco have been 
undertaken at Piisa, in connection with the State model farm at Ghazipur 
in the North-Western Provinces. A professional curer of the leaf has 
been obtained from America. In 1877-78, a crop of 150,000 lbs. of 
tobacco was raised from 200 acres. Of this, 15,000 lbs. was sent to 
England, and there sold at prices ranging from 2|d. to 5|d. per lb. 
The population of Piisa village in 1881 was 376. 

Plisad.— 71f///X' of Basim District, Berar. Area, 1273 square miles ; 
containing two towns and 309 villages. Population (1867) 91,268; 
(1881) 125,051, namely, 64,080 males and 60,971 females, or 98-23 
persons per square mile. Area occupied by cultivators, 351,427 acres. 
Plindus number 116,514; Muhammadans, 7668; Jains, 847; 
Christians, 12; and Sikhs, ic. The idluk contains i civil and 2 


criminal courts; police circles {thdnds), 6; regular police, 104 men; 
village watch {chaukiddrs), 139. Total revenue, ;^2 1,751, of which 
^18,263 was derived from land. 

Plisad. — Chief town of Piisad taluk, in Basim District, Berar; 
situated in lat. 19° 54' 30" n., and long. 77° 36' 30" e., about 25 
miles south-east of Basim town, on the Piis river, from which it 
takes its name. Population (18S1) 5047, of whom 4190 are Hindus, 
679 Musalmans, and 178 Jains. Though now decayed, it is still the 
head-quarters of a tahsildar, and has been the residence of the revenue 
officials for more than 150 years. There are two old Hindu temples, 
and the ruins of some others ; also a fine tank for irrigadon, which has 
now silted up owing to a defect in the original construction. Piisad 
has a iQ.\v well-to-do shopkeepers and dealers in country produce, and 
its weekly market is well attended. Vernacular school, police station, 
post-office, and dispensary. 

Pusesavli. — Town in Satara District, Bombay Presidency ; situated 
in lat. 17° 26' N., and long. 74° 24' e., 27 miles south-east of Satara 
town. Population (1881) 2569 ; municipal revenue, ;£"95. Dispensary 
and post-office; weekly market; school with 84 pupils in 1883-84. 

Pushkar. — Town, lake, and place of pilgrimage in Ajmere-AIer- 
wara, Rajputana. Lat. 26° 30' n., long. 74° 36' e. Height, 2389 
feet. Pushkar is the only town in India which contains a temple 
dedicated to Brahma, who here performed the sacrifice known as yaj?ia, 
whereby the lake of Pushkar became so holy, that the greatest sinner 
by bathing in it earns the delights of Paradise. The town contains five 
principal temples, dedicated respectively to Brahma, Savitri, Badri 
Narayana, Varaha, and Siva Atmateswara, all of modern construction, 
as the earlier buildings suffered severely under Aurangzeb. Bathing 
ghats line the lake, and most of the princely families of Rajputana have 
houses round the margin. No living thing may be put to death within 
the limits of the town. Great fair in October and November, attended 
by about 100,000 pilgrims, who bathe in the sacred lake. Large trade 
at that time in horses, camels, bullocks, and miscellaneous merchandise. 
Permanent population about 3750, chiefly Brahmans. 

Pushpa-giri (or Subrahmanya kill). — Prominent bullock-hump- 
shaped peak of the Siibrahmanya range of mountains, a spur of 
the Western Ghats, at the north - western boundary of Coorg, in 
South Kanara District of Madras, and on the border of Hassan 
District of Mysore. Lat. 12° 40' n., long. 75° 44' e. ; 5626 feet above 
the sea. The ascent is difficult, but can be managed on foot in about 
three hours. On the lower slopes there is a dense jungle, haunted by 
wild elephants ; on the summit are many ancient stone cairns. The 
view is very extensive. An annual fair is held here in December, which 
attracts a great number of people. 


Putera.— Estate in Sagar (Saugor) District, Central Provinces.— 
See PiTiHRA. 

Puthanapuram. — Tdluk or Sub - division of Travancore State, 
Madras Presidency. Area, 400 square miles, containing 80 karas or 
villages. Population (1875) 36,816; (1881) 37,064, namely, 18,594 
males and 18,470 females, occupying 8461 houses. Density of popula- 
tion, 927 persons per square mile. Hindus number 30,709; Muham- 
madans, 2565 ; and Christians, 3790. 

Putlir. — Town in Uppinangadi tdhik, South Kanara District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 12° 45' 45" n., long. 75° 14' 10" e. Population 
(1881) 2481, inhabiting 452 houses. Hindus number 1765; Muham- 
madans, 356; Christians, 338; and 'others,' 22. Putur was formerly 
an outpost on the Coorg frontier, and troops were stationed here till 
1859. The head-quarters of the Uppinangadi tdluk, with a post-office. 
It was the scene of a rebellious outbreak in 1837. 

Putlir. — Town in Tirumangalam tdluk, Madura District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 9° 57' 30" n., long. 77° 52' 30" e. Population 
(1881) 7625, inhabiting 1230 houses. Hindus number 7490; Muham- 
madans, 125; Christians, 9; and 'others,' i. 

Pli-zun-daung. — River in Hanthawadi District, Pegu Division, 
Lower Burma; rises in the Pegu Yoma range, in about lat. 17° 8' n., 
and, after a southerly course of 53 miles, falls into the Hlaing just 
below Rangoon town. It is about 440 yards wide at its mouth ; but the 
river is now silting up, owing to the vast quantities of rice-husk dis- 
charged from the mills on its banks. The upper part of the Pii-zun- 
daung valley produces valuable timber, and the lower part large crops 
of rice. 

Pya-ma-law. — One of the mouths of the Irawadi (Irrawaddy), the 
great river of Burma. At the town of Shwe-laung, situated in lat. 
16° 44 30" N., and long. 95° 23' 30" e., it leaves the Pan-ta-naw river, 
and runs for about 6 miles to the north-north-east. Then it turns 
west and south-south-west, and, after a course of 90 miles, falls into the 
sea in about lat. 15^ 50' n., and long. 94^ 48' e., having, 15 miles above, 
given off a large branch eastward called the Pyin-tha-lu. The Pya-ma- 
law is connected with the Irawadi by numerous inter-communicating 
creeks, and is navigable throughout its whole course by river steamers ; 
its mouth is 4 miles wide. 

Pya-pun {Pya -poon). — Township in Thiin-gwa District, Irawadi 
Division, Lower Burma. Bounded east by Hanthawadi District, south 
by the Bay of Bengal, and west by Bassein. A level tract, intersected 
in its lower portions by numerous inter-communicating tidal creeks; 
subject to inundation. Chief product, rice. The township comprises 
8 revenue circles. Population (1877) 44,207 ; gross revenue, ;^26,322. 
Population (1881) 78,299; gross revenue, ;£44,i6i. 


Pya-pun {Pya-pooti). — Chief village of Pya-pun township, in Thiin- 
gwa District, Lower Burma; situated in lat. 16° 16' n., and long. 95° 
40' E. Population (1881) 2009, engaged chiefly in sea-fishing. 

Pya-pun {Fya-poon). — Tidal creek in Thiin-gwa District, Lower 
Burma, forming one of the mouths of the Irawadi. It branches 
off southwards from the To or China Bakir near Kun-ta, and has a 
depth of 12 feet at low-water almost throughout its whole length. Its 
banks are somewhat steep and muddy, and are fringed with forest. 

Pyaw-bhway. — Village in Hanthawadi District, Pegu Division, 
Lower Burma; situated in lat. 16° 40' n., and long. 96° 13' e., on both 
banks of the tidal creek Ka-ma-aung, which is spanned by several good 
bridges. Contains numerous pagodas and small zayats or rest-houses. 
Population (1877) 3766; and (1881) 2043. 

Pykara {Faikdra). — River in the Nilgiri District, Madras. — See 


Pyouk-seit {Hpyouk-tsMep). — The southern portion of Shwe-daung 
town, Prome District, Pegu Division, Lower Burma. It is 7 miles 
below Prome, on the left bank of the Irawadi. 

Pyu {Hypu). — River in Taung-gnii District, Tenasserim Division, 
Lower Burma. — See Hypu. 

Pynn-wa {Fyoon-wa). — Tidal creek at the entrance to the Bassein 
river, Irawadi Division, Lower Burma. It leaves the Thek-ge-thaing 
mouth at Auk-kyun-ywa, where its breadth is 300 yards, and rejoins it 
13 miles higher up at Pyun-w^a-